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Communication (from Latin commnicre, meaning "to

share") is the purposeful activity of information exchange
between two or more participants in order to convey or receive
the intended meanings through a shared system of signs and
semiotic rules.
The basic steps of communication are the forming of
communicative intent, message composition, message encoding,
transmission of signal, reception of signal, message decoding and
finally interpretation of the message by the recipient.
Defination of Communication :
1] Communication is simply the act of transferring information
from one place to another.
2] Two-way process of reaching mutual understanding, in which
participants not only exchange (encode-decode) information,
news, ideas and feelings but also create and share meaning. In
general, communication is a means of connecting people or
places. In business, it is a key function of management--an
organization cannot operate without communication between
levels, departments and employees
3] Communication is sending and receiving information between
two or more people. The person sending the message is referred
to as the sender, while the person receiving the information is
called the receiver. The information conveyed can include facts,
ideas, concepts, opinions, beliefs, attitudes, instructions and even
4] Communication is the process by which information is







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5] Communication is the process by which an individual (the

communicator) transmits stimuli (usuallyverbal) to modify the
behavior of other individuals (the audience). (Hovland Janis and
Kelly in 1953)
6] Communication is the process by which we understand others
and in turn endeavor to be understood bythem. It is dynamic,
constantly changing and shifting in response to the total situation
(Anderson, 1959)
7] Communication is all of the procedures by which one mind can
affect another (W. Weaver, 1949)Communication means that
information is passed from one place to another. (Miller, 1951)
Defination of Communiction Skills :
The ability to convey information to another effectively and
efficiently. Business managers with good verbal, non verbal and
written communication skills help facilitate the sharing of
information between people within a company for its commercial
Nature of communication:
The nature of communication: Communication can be
pervaded in every area of human existence. By simply crying and
moping fully newborn babies convey what is this great about their
appearance in this world. By means of creating your seem these
people probably express his or her anticipation with regard to
mothers appreciate as well as love. Communication represents
the important role inside personal existence, family members
existence, cultural existence, company existence and many
others. Development Communication with relationships, cultures,
civilizations and many others the two inside micro as well as

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communication. The nature of communication is discussed below:







Communication exchanges are actually directly linked with

every single ball of human being lifetime. It is necessary
within primary some sort of substantial human being
lifetime. Taking pleasure in restful lifetime, acquiring personto-person interactions, creating a flourishing point out and so






Communication involves two or more parties: At least,
two parties are involved in virtually any communication
exchange process. This party exactly who communicates
information is known as sender and the party exactly who is
provided with the info is known as a device. Even so in some
instances some sort of sender could send out a message for
you to many receivers.
Communication could be one-way or maybe two-way
process: Communication might take the design involving







communication, the receiver sends his feedback to the







communication means you move involving information style

sender to be able to receive only. In this particular means of
communication receiver doesnt present his or her reaction
to your sender.
Success of communication depends on a proper
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communication comes about if your receiver feels your

concept you might say your sender posts the idea. If the
receiver doesnt deliver his or her reaction to your sender,
your sender is not going to fully grasp your receivers view.









inadequate. As a result, to make your communication

prosperous the two senders and receiver got to know your
side effects of different.
Conversation in organization flows in a variety of
styles: With organization, information flows in a variety of
recommendations, for example way upward direction, down
way, horizontal way and many others.
Communication is media or channel based: Every single
person communication comes about by means of suing a
selected method. This media could be composed, common
and non-verbal or maybe a mixture of spoken and non-verbal
Types of Communication :
1] Verbal Communication
2] Non-Verbal Communication
The way something is said, rather than what is actually said, is an
important component of nonverbal communication. This includes
voice quality, intonation, pitch, stress, emotion, tone, and style of
speaking, and communicates approval, interest or the lack of it.
Research estimates that tone of the voice accounts for 38 percent
of all communications.
Other forms of nonverbal communication usually communicate
ones personality. These include: Aesthetic communication or
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creative expressions such as dancing, painting, and the like.

Appearance or the style of dressing and grooming, which
communicates ones personality. Space language such as
paintings and landscapes communicate social status and taste.
Symbols such as religious, status, or ego-building symbols.

Oral Communication - Meaning, Advantages and Limitations

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Oral communication implies communication through mouth. It includes

individuals conversing with each other, be it direct conversation or
telephonic conversation. Speeches, presentations, discussions are all
forms of oral communication. Oral communication is generally
recommended when the communication matter is of temporary kind or
where a direct interaction is required. Face to face communication
(meetings, lectures, conferences, interviews, etc.) is significant so as
to build a rapport and trust.
Advantages of Oral Communication
There is high level of understanding and transparency in oral
communication as it is interpersonal.
There is no element of rigidity in oral communication. There is
flexibility for allowing changes in the decisions previously taken.
The feedback is spontaneous in case of oral communication.
Thus, decisions can be made quickly without any delay.
Oral communication is not only time saving, but it also saves
upon money and efforts.
Oral communication is best in case of problem resolution. The
conflicts, disputes and many issues/differences can be put to an
end by talking them over.
Oral communication is an essential for teamwork and group
Oral communication promotes a receptive and encouraging
morale among organizational employes.
Oral communication can be best used to transfer private and
confidential information/matter.
Disadvantages/Limitations of Oral Communication
Relying only on oral communication may not be sufficient as
business communication is formal and very organized.
Oral communication is less authentic than written communication



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Oral communication is time-saving as far as daily interactions are
concerned, but in case of meetings, long speeches consume lot of
time and are unproductive at times.
Oral communications are not easy to maintain and thus they are
There may be misunderstandings as the information is not
complete and may lack essentials.
It requires attentiveness and great receptivity on part of the
Oral communication (such as speeches) is not frequently used as
legal records except in investigation work.

Written Communication - Meaning, Advantages

and Disadvantages
Written communication has great significance in todays
business world. It is an innovative activity of the mind.
Effective written communication is essential for preparing






Speech came before writing. But writing is more unique and

formal than speech. Effective writing involves careful choice of








formation as well as cohesive composition of sentences. Also,

writing is more valid and reliable than speech. But while
speech is spontaneous, writing causes delay and takes time as
feedback is not immediate.
Advantages of Written Communication
Written communication helps in laying down apparent principles,
policies and rules for running of an organization.
It is a permanent means of communication. Thus, it is useful where
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record maintenance is required.

It assists in proper delegation of responsibilities. While in case of









responsibilities on the grounds of speech as it can be taken back by

the speaker or he may refuse to acknowledge.
Written communication is more precise and explicit.
Effective written communication develops and enhances an
organizations image.
It provides ready records and references.
Legal defenses can depend upon written communication as it
provides valid records.
Disadvantages of Written Communication
Written communication does not save upon the costs. It costs huge









writing/typing and delivering letters.

Also, if the receivers of the written message are separated by
distance and if they need to clear their doubts, the response is not
Written communication is time-consuming as the feedback is not
immediate. The encoding and sending of message takes time.







competencies in language and vocabulary use. Poor writing skills

and quality have a negative impact on organizations reputation.
Too much paper work and e-mails burden is involved.

Importance of Communication in
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an Organization
Effective Communication is significant for managers in the
organizations so as to perform the basic functions of management,
i.e., Planning, Organizing, Leading and Controlling.
Communication helps managers to perform their jobs and
responsibilities. Communication serves as a foundation for
planning. All the essential information must be communicated to
the managers who in-turn must communicate the plans so as to
implement them. Organizing also requires effective communication
with others about their job task. Similarly leaders as managers
must communicate effectively with their subordinates so as to
achieve the team goals. Controlling is not possible without written
and oral communication.
Managers devote a great part of their time in communication. They
generally devote approximately 6 hours per day in communicating.
They spend great time on face to face or telephonic communication
with their superiors, subordinates, colleagues, customers or
suppliers. Managers also use Written Communication in form of
letters, reports or memos wherever oral communication is not
Thus, we can say that effective communication is a building
block of successful organizations. In other words,
communication acts as organizational blood.
The importance of communication in an organization can be
summarized as follows:
1. Communication promotes motivation by
clarifying the employees about the task to be done, the
manner they are performing the task, and how to improve
their performance if it is not up to the mark.
2. Communication
is a source
information to
organizational members for decision-making process as it
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helps identifying and assessing alternative course of actions.

3. Communication also plays a crucial role in altering
individuals attitudes, i.e., a well informed individual will
have better attitude than a less-informed individual.
Organizational magazines, journals, meetings and various
other forms of oral and written communication help in
moulding employees attitudes.
4. Communication also helps in socializing. In todays life the
only presence of another individual fosters communication. It
is also said that one cannot survive without communication.
5. As
in controlling process. It helps controlling organizational
members behaviour in various ways. There are various levels
of hierarchy and certain principles and guidelines that
employees must follow in an organization. They must comply
with organizational policies, perform their job role efficiently
and communicate any work problem and grievance to their
superiors. Thus, communication helps in controlling function of







managerial proficiency in delivering and receiving messages. A

manager must discover various barriers to communication, analyze
the reasons for their occurrence and take preventive steps to avoid
those barriers. Thus, the primary responsibility of a manager is to
develop and maintain an effective communication system in the



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Seven major elements of communication process are: (1) sender

(2) ideas (3) encoding (4) communication channel (5) receiver (6)
decoding and (7) feedback.

Communication may be defined as a process concerning exchange

of facts or ideas between persons holding different positions in an
organisation to achieve mutual harmony. The communication








phenomenon.Communication process as such must be considered

a continuous and dynamic inter-action, both affecting and being
affected by many variables.

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(1) Sender:

The person who intends to convey the message with the intention
of passing information and ideas to others is known as sender or
(2) Ideas:

This is the subject matter of the communication. This may be an

opinion, attitude, feelings, views, orders, or suggestions.
(3) Encoding:

Since the subject matter of communication is theoretical and

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intangible, its further passing requires use of certain symbols such

as words, actions or pictures etc. Conversion of subject matter into
these symbols is the process of encoding.
(4) Communication Channel:

The person who is interested in communicating has to choose the

channel for sending the required information, ideas etc. This
information is transmitted to the receiver through certain channels
which may be either formal or informal.
(5) Receiver:

Receiver is the person who receives the message or for whom the
message is meant for. It is the receiver who tries to understand the
message in the best possible manner in achieving the desired
(6) Decoding:

The person who receives the message or symbol from the

communicator tries to convert the same in such a way so that he
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may extract its meaning to his complete understanding.

(7) Feedback:

Feedback is the process of ensuring that the receiver has received

the message and understood in the same sense as sender meant it.

Use of Body Language in Communication:

Kinesics or study of body language must be understood by all.
Whether it is an interview or a presentation, one must be aware of
how to use body language effectively.
Read on to understand more about various non verbal components
of communication...
1. Eye

Contact: Always






audience. However, a person must ensure that he / she should

not fix his gaze at one person for more than 5 seconds. Too
much fluttering of eyes could indicate lack of confidence.
Staring at a person could be daunting and hence is not such a
good idea.
2. Hand Shake: While shaking hands especially in a professional
environment, the hand shake should be firm and not loose. An
iron handshake [very strong handshake] can indicate that a
person is trying to dominate.
3. Crossing your Arms: Crossing your arms could imply that a
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person is not open to new ideas / opinion especially in case of

giving a presentation. However, in a one-on-one interview if
the interviewer has his / her arms crossed, the candidate
could do the same.
4. Sitting Posture: Leaning on a chair is not a good idea. One
must sit upright though in a relaxed position. Sitting back in
your chair implies lack of interest or rejection.
5. Gesture: Gesture







communication which uses a part of the body with or without

verbal communication. Gestures include facial expressions,
nods [which is a sign of approval in most cultures], head
bobbling / shaking.
6. Facial Expression: The face is a best reflection of what a
person feels. More often than not it is easy to recognize if a
person is happy, sad, anxious, irritated, or excited. It is very
important that in a professional scenario a person must
control his / her facial expressions. For e.g. If a presenter gets
a feel that his presentation is not going on very well, he / she
should not show the sign of losing of hope and instead try for
a greater involvement from the participants.

Communication Barriers Communication is a process beginning with a sender who encodes

the message and passes it through some channel to the receiver
who decodes the message. Communication is fruitful if and only if
the messages sent by the sender is interpreted with same meaning
by the receiver. If any kind of disturbance blocks any step of
communication, the message will be destroyed. Due to such
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disturbances, managers in an organization face severe problems.

Thus the managers must locate such barriers and take steps to get
rid of them.
There are several barriers that affects the flow of communication in
an organization. These barriers interrupt the flow of communication
from the sender to the reciever, thus making communication
ineffective. It is essential for managers to overcome these barriers.
The main barriers of communication are summarized below.
Following are the main communication barriers:
1. Perceptual and Language Differences: Perception is
generally how each individual interprets the world around him.
All generally want to receive messages which are significant
to them. But any message which is against their values is not
accepted. A same event may be taken differently by different
individuals. For example : A person is on leave for a month
due to personal reasons (family member being critical). The
HR Manager might be in confusion whether to retain that
employee or not, the immediate manager might think of
replacement because his teams productivity is being
hampered, the family members might take him as an
emotional support.
The linguistic differences also lead to communication
breakdown. Same word may mean different to different
individuals. For example: consider a word value.
a. What is the value of this Laptop?
b. I value our relation?
c. What is the value of learning technical skills?
Communication breakdown occurs if there is wrong perception
by the receiver.
2. Information Overload: Managers are surrounded with a pool
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of information. It is essential to control this information flow

else the information is likely to be misinterpreted or forgotten
or overlooked. As a result communication is less effective.
3. Inattention: At times we just not listen, but only hear. For
example a traveler may pay attention to one NO PARKING
sign, but if such sign is put all over the city, he no longer
listens to it. Thus, repetitive messages should be ignored for
effective communication. Similarly if a superior is engrossed in
his paper work and his subordinate explains him his problem,
the superior may not get what he is saying and it leads to
disappointment of subordinate.
4. Time Pressures: Often in organization the targets have to be
achieved within a specified time period, the failure of which
has adverse consequences. In a haste to meet deadlines, the
formal channels of communication are shortened, or
messages are partially given, i.e., not completely transferred.
Thus sufficient time should be given for effective
5. Distraction/Noise: Communication is also affected a lot by
noise to distractions. Physical distractions are also there such
as, poor lightning, uncomfortable sitting, unhygienic room also
affects communication in a meeting. Similarly use of loud
speakers interferes with communication.
6. Emotions: Emotional state at a particular point of time also
communicator is angry he interprets that the information
being sent is very bad. While he takes it differently if the
communicator is happy and jovial (in that case the message is
interpreted to be good and interesting).
7. Complexity in Organizational Structure: Greater the
hierarchy in an organization (i.e. more the number of
managerial levels), more is the chances of communication
getting destroyed. Only the people at the top level can see the
overall picture while the people at low level just have
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knowledge about their own area and a little knowledge about

other areas.
8. Poor retention: Human memory cannot function beyond a
limit. One cant always retain what is being told specially if he
is not interested or not attentive. This leads to communication



There are a lot of communication barriers faced these days by all. The
message intended by the sender is not understood by the receiver in
the same terms and sense and thus communication breakdown
occurs. It is essential to deal and cope up with these communication
barriers so as to ensure smooth and effective communication.
Eliminating differences in perception: The organization should
ensure that it is recruiting right individuals on the job. Its the
responsibility of the interviewer to ensure that the interviewee has
command over the written and spoken language. There should be
proper Induction program so that the policies of the company are clear
to all the employees. There should be proper trainings conducted for
required employees (for eg: Voice and Accent training).
1. Use of Simple Language: Use of simple and clear words should
be emphasized. Use of ambiguous words and jargons should be
2. Reduction and elimination of noise levels: Noise is the main
communication barrier which must be overcome on priority basis.
It is essential to identify the source of noise and then eliminate
that source.
3. Active Listening: Listen attentively and carefully. There is a
difference between listening and hearing. Active listening
means hearing with proper understanding of the message that is
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heard. By asking questions the speaker can ensure whether

his/her message is understood or not by the receiver in the same
terms as intended by the speaker.
4. Emotional State: During communication one should make
effective use of body language. He/she should not show their
emotions while communication as the receiver might misinterpret
the message being delivered. For example, if the conveyer of the
message is in a bad mood then the receiver might think that the
information being delivered is not good.
5. Simple Organizational Structure: The organizational structure
should not be complex. The number of hierarchical levels should
be optimum. There should be a ideal span of control within the
organization. Simpler the organizational structure, more effective
will be the communication.
6. Avoid Information Overload: The managers should know how
to prioritize their work. They should not overload themselves with
the work. They should spend quality time with their subordinates
and should listen to their problems and feedbacks actively.
7. Give Constructive Feedback: Avoid giving negative feedback.
The contents of the feedback might be negative, but it should be
delivered constructively. Constructive feedback will lead to
effective communication between the superior and subordinate.
8. Proper Media Selection: The managers should properly select
the medium of communication. Simple messages should be
conveyed orally, like: face to face interaction or meetings. Use of
written means of communication should be encouraged for
delivering complex messages. For significant messages
reminders can be given by using written means of
communication such as : Memos, Notices etc.
9. Flexibility
targets: For
communication in an organization the managers should ensure
that the individuals are meeting their targets timely without
skipping the formal channels of communication. There should not
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be much pressure on employees to meet their targets.

Skills :-


An essential for good communication

Listening is a significant part of communication process.
Communication cannot take place until and unless a message is heard
and retained thoroughly and positively by the receivers/listeners.
Listening is a dynamic process. Listening means attentiveness and
interest perceptible in the posture as well as expressions.
Listening implies decoding (i.e., translating the symbols into meaning)
and interpreting the messages correctly in communication
process.Listening differs from hearing in sense that:
Hearing implies just perceiving the sounds while listening means
listening with understanding whatever you are listening. Both the body
as well as mind is involved in listening process.
Listening is an active process while hearing is a passive activity.
Hearing is an effortless activity while listening is an act requiring
conscious efforts, concentration and interest. Listening involves
both physical and psychological efforts.
Effective listening requires both deliberate efforts and a keen mind.
Effective listeners appreciate flow of new ideas and information.
Organizations that follow the principles of effective listening are
always informed timely, updated with the changes and
implementations, and are always out of crisis situation. Effective
listening promotes organizational relationships, encourages product
delivery and innovation, as well as helps organization to deal with the
diversity in employees and customers it serves.
To improve your communication skills, you must learn to listen
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effectively. Effective listening gives you an advantage and makes you

more impressive when you speak. It also boosts your performance.

Effective Listening Skills

1. Discover your interests field.
2. Grasp and understand the matter/content.
3. Remain calm. Do not loose your temper. Anger hampers and
inhibits communication. Angry people jam their minds to the
words of others.
4. Be open to accept new ideas and information.
5. Jot down and take a note of important points.
6. Work upon listening. Analyze and evaluate the speech in spare
7. Rephrase and summarize the speakers ideas.
8. Keep on asking questions. This demonstrates that how well you
understand the speakers ideas and also that you are listening.
9. Avoid distractions.
Step into the shoes of others, i.e., put yourself in the
position of the speaker and observe things from his view point.
This will help creating an atmosphere of mutual understanding
and improve the exchange of ideas in communication process.

Characteristics of Good and Effective

Good and effective listener tries to give maximum amount of thought
to the speakers ideas being communicated, leaving a minimum
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amount of time for mental exercises to go off track. A good listener:

1. Is attentive- Good listener must pay attention to the key points.
He should be alert. He should avoid any kind of distraction.
2. Do not assume- Good listener does not ignore the information
he considers is unnecessary. He should always summarize the
speakers ideas so that there is no misunderstanding of thoughts
of speakers. He avoids premature judgements about the speakers
3. Listen for feelings and facts- Good listener deliberately listens
for the feelings of the speaker. He concentrates totally on the
facts. He evaluates the facts objectively. His listening is
sympathetic, active and alert. He keenly observes the gestures,
facial expression and body language of the speaker. In short, a
good listener should be projective (i.e. one who tries to
understand the views of the speaker) and empathic (i.e. one who
concentrates not only on the surface meaning of the message but
tries to probe the feelings and emotions of the speaker).
4. Concentrate
generously- A good listener makes deliberate efforts to give a
chance to other speakers also to express their thoughts and
views. He tries to learn from every speaker. He evaluates the
speakers ideas in spare time. He focuses on the content of the
speakers message and not on the speakers personality and
5. Opportunizes- A good listener tries to take benefit from the
opportunities arising. He asks Whats in it for me?

Effective Report Writing

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What is Report Writing ?

A report can be defined as a testimonial or account of some
happening. It is purely based on observation and analysis. A report
gives an explanation of any circumstance. In todays corporate world,
reports play a crucial role. They are a strong base for planning and
control in an organization, i.e., reports give information which can be
utilized by the management team in an organization for making plans
and for solving complex issues in the organization.
A report discusses a particular problem in detail. It brings significant
and reliable information to the limelight of top management in an
organization. Hence, on the basis of such information, the
management can make strong decisions. Reports are required for
judging the performances of various departments in an organization.
An effective report can be written going through the following
steps1. Determine the objective of the report, i.e., identify the problem.
2. Collect the required material (facts) for the report.
3. Study and examine the facts gathered.
4. Plan the facts for the report.
5. Prepare an outline for the report, i.e., draft the report.
6. Edit the drafted report.
7. Distribute the draft report to the advisory team and ask for
feedback and recommendations.
The essentials of good/effective report writing are as follows1. Know your objective, i.e., be focused.
2. Analyze the niche audience, i.e., make an analysis of the target
audience, the purpose for which audience requires the report,
kind of data audience is looking for in the report, the implications
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of report reading, etc.

3. Decide the length of report.
4. Disclose correct and true information in a report.
5. Discuss all sides of the problem reasonably and impartially.
Include all relevant facts in a report.
6. Concentrate on the report structure and matter. Pre-decide the
report writing style. Use vivid structure of sentences.
7. The report should be neatly presented and should be carefully
8. Highlight and recap the main message in a report.
9. Encourage feedback on the report from the critics. The feedback,
if negative, might be useful if properly supported with reasons by
the critics. The report can be modified based on such feedback.
Use graphs, pie-charts, etc to show the numerical data
records over years.
Decide on the margins on a report. Ideally, the top and the
side margins should be the same (minimum 1 inch broad), but
the lower/bottom margins can be one and a half times as broad
as others.

Effective Presentation Skills

Presentation can be defined as a formal event characterized by teamwork and
use of audio-visual aids. The main purpose of presentation is to give information, to
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persuade the audience to act and to create goodwill. A good presentation should have a
good subject matter, should match with the objective, should best fit the audience, and
should be well organized.

Characteristics of a Good/Effective Presentation

1. The presentation ideas should be well adapted to your audience. Relate your
presentation message/idea to the interests of the audience. A detailed audience
analysis must be made before the presentation, i.e., an analysis of the needs, age,
educational background, language, and culture of the target audience. Their body
language instantly gives the speaker the required feedback.
2. A good presentation should be concise and should be focused on the topic. It
should not move off-track.
3. A good presentation should have the potential to convey the required information.
4. The fear should be transformed into positive energy during the presentation. Be
calm and relaxed while giving a presentation. Before beginning, wait and develop
an eye contact with the audience. Focus on conveying your message well and use a
positive body language.
5. To communicate the desired information, the speaker should use more of visual
aids such as transparencies, diagrams, pictures, charts, etc. Each
transparency/slide should contain limited and essential information only. No slide
should be kept on for a longer time. Try facing the audience, rather than the screen.
The speaker should not block the view. Turn on the room lights else the audience
might fall asleep and loose interest. Organize all the visuals for making a logical
and sound presentation.
6. A good presentation must be planned. The speaker must plan how to begin the
presentation, what to speak in the middle of presentation and how to end the
presentation without losing audience interests at any point of time.
7. Rehearse and practice the presentation. This will help the speaker to be more
confident and self-assured. The more the speaker rehearses the better the
presentation turns to be.
8. The speaker should encourage more questions from the audience. He should be
honest enough to answer those questions. If any biased question is put forth by the
audience, rearticulate it before answering.
9. Summarize the presentation at the end. Give final comments. Leave a positive
impact upon the audience.
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10.The speaker must have a presentable appearance while giving a presentation. The
speaker should stand with feet far apart maintaining a good balance. He must use
confident gestures. He must use short and simple words.
11.Try to gain and maintain audience interest by using positive quotes, humour, or
remarkable fact.
12.The speaker must be affirmative and optimistic before giving presentation. He
should ensure all tools and equipments to be used in presentation are working well.


The speaker must state the objectives of the presentation at beginning of the

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