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“工程數學”課程標準編著完成，適合大專院校理工科系教學和

I

II

錄

【下

 第六章 向量微積分 前言 ····················································· 6-2 ６-１ 向量分析 ············································· 6-2 ６-２ 向量函數 ··········································· 6-26 ６-３ 線上質點的運動 ······························· 6-30 ６-４ 純量場之梯度與方向導數 ··············· 6-46 ６-５ 向量場之散度與旋度 ······················· 6-56 ６-６ 線積分 ··············································· 6-63 ６-７ 格林（Green）定理 ························· 6-81 ６-８ 面積分 ··············································· 6-91 ６-９ 高斯（Gauss）發散定理 ··············· 6-100 ６-１０ 史托克斯（Stokes）定理 ··········· 6-106

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 ６-１１ 在工程上的應用 ························· 6-113 第七章 傅立葉分析 前言 ····················································· 7-2 ７-１ 傅立葉級數 ········································· 7-2 ７-２ 傅立葉餘弦和正弦級數 ··················· 7-19 ７-３ 複數形式之傅立葉級數 ··················· 7-28 ７-４ 傅立葉積分 ······································· 7-34 ７-５ 傅立葉餘弦和正弦積分 ··················· 7-37 ７-６ 傅立葉轉換 ······································· 7-43 ７-７ 傅立葉餘弦和正弦轉換 ··················· 7-60 ７-８ 在工程上的應用 ······························· 7-62 第八章 偏微分方程式 前言 ····················································· 8-2

ii

 ８-１ 典型的偏微分方程式與邊界值問題 ····························································· 8-2 ８-２ 波動方程式 ······································· 8-14 ８-３ 熱導方程式 ······································· 8-31 ８-４ 拉普拉斯方程式 ······························· 8-38 ８-５ 不同座標系統中的拉普拉斯方程式

··························································· 8-53

Fourier-Bessel 級數

············

8-71

Fourier-Legendre 級數

·······

8-82

·····················································

iii

9-2

 ９-１ 複數 ····················································· 9-3 ９-２ 複變函數之極限、連續與微分 ······· 9-12 ９-３ 基本複變函數 ··································· 9-32 ９-４ 複變函數之積分及 Cauchy 定理 ····· 9-48 ９-５ 複變級數：Taylor 級數與 Laurent 級數 ··························································· 9-76 ９-６ 零點與極點 ····································· 9-102 ９-７ 餘值定理及其應用 ························· 9-110 ９-８ 等角映射及應用 ····························· 9-131 附錄一 習題解答 第六章 ··························································· A1-1 第七章 ··························································· A1-5 第八章 ························································· A1-10 第九章 ························································· A1-13

iv

 積分公式 ······················································· A2-3 附錄三 常用三角函數公式 常用三角函數公式 ······································· A3-1

v

 前言 §６-１ 向量分析 §６-２ 向量函數 §６-３ 線上質點的運動 §６-４ 純量場之梯度與方向導數 §６-５ 向量場之散度與旋度 §６-６ 線積分 §６-７ 格林（Green）定理 §６-８ 面積分 §６-９ 高斯（Gauss）發散定理

§６-１０ 史托克斯 (Stokes) 定理

§６-１１ 在工程上的應用

6-2

§６-１ 向量分析

念和運算，有助於描述空間中的直線和平面方程式。

. 向量的基本定義

6-3

(origin)

z
V
O
y
x

i,j,k
來表示三個

f = aij+b +ck

f 可表示成

6-4

z
c
P(a,b,c)
f
k
b
O
y
j
i
a
x

f = (a,b,c) 為點 P(a,b,c)位置向量 (position vector)

222
f
=
a +b +c

（２）

(2)式又稱為向量 f 模值 (norm) 長度 (length)

【定義一】向量相等

若兩向量 f g 的大小相等且方向相同，則稱此兩向量相

6-5

【定義二】零向量

zero vector)，記為 O = (0,0,0)

【定義三】單位向量

若向量之大小為 1 時，稱為單位向量 (unit vector)

, j = (0,1,0) , k = (0,0,1) 的長度均為 1 之故。

B. 向量的代數運算與幾何性質

【定義四】向量加法
若 f
=(a ,b ,c ) g =(a ,b ,c )
111
222

+ a
,b
+ b ,c
+ c
)
1
2
1
21
2

f =(a ,b )g =(a ,b

1

1

2

2 )

，則 f + g = (a + a ,b + b ) 。因此，向量

1

21

2

6-6

y
f+g
g
f
O

x

y
f + g
g
f
O

x

【定義五】純量乘向量

f = (a,b,c)，而α 為一純量 (scalar)，則α f = (αααa,

b, c)

【定義六】向量平行

g = α f ，而α 為某一純量，則稱向量 g 和向量 f 為平行

(parallel)，以符號 f g 表示。

6-7

 若 f , g 和 h 為向量，而α 和 β 為純量，則 １. f + g = g + f (交換律)

. ( f + g) +=h

f + (g + h) (結合律)

 3 f + 0 = f 4 α( f + g) = α f +αg 5 (αβ) f = α ( β f ) 6 (α+ β) f = α f + β f

【例１】求通過點 A(0, 1, 2) 和點 B(4,1,3) 之直線 L 的方程式。

【解】：假設點 C(x, y, z) 為直線 L 上的點。

f = AC = (x, y, z) (0,−1,2)

g = BA = (0, 1,2) (4,1,3)

= (x , y +1, z 2)

= ( 4, 2, 1)

( x

, y + 1 , z 2) =−−−t( 4,

2,

x = −4t

1) ，其中 t 為某一純量。

6-8

y = −2t 1

z = −t + 2

xy +

1

z

2

=

=

4

2

1

2】

力學應用

(tension)
f 和 f 及其大小值。
1
2
45
30
f
1
f
2
10 lb
W

【解】：首先，由張力的水平和垂直分量可知，
f 和 f 可表
1
2

6-9

f
= −
f
cos45
o i+
f
sin45
o j
11
1
f
=
f
cos30
o i +
f
sin30
o j
2
2
2

（３）

（４）

量。

= (1,0)j = (0,1) 為二維直角座標系統的單位向

力的總合
+
f 與物體所受的重力 W 平
f 1
2

f
+ f
= −W = 10
j
（５）
1
2

o
oo
( −
f
c os45
o +
f
cos30 )
i + (
f
sin45
+f
sin30 ) j
1
2
12

= 10 j

o
f
cos45 +
f
1
2
o

f
sin45 +
f
1
2

cos30

sin30

o

o

=

=

0

10

（６）

0
cos30
det
10
sin 30
f
=
1
⎛−
cos 45
cos30
det
sin 45
sin 30
− 5
3
=
≈ 9 lb
1 (
2
+
6)
4

6-10

⎛−
cos 45
0
det
sin 45
10
f
=
2
⎛−
cos 45
cos30
det
sin 45
sin 30
− 5
2
=≈
1
(
2
+
6)
4

7.3 lb

C.

f

1

f

2

量的點積

=

=

6.36

i +

6.36

j

6.32i + 3.65 j

量相乘。那麼接下來該如何定義向量相乘，使其乘積為一有用 的

量呢？在本小節和下一小節中，我們將分 別介紹向量的點積

dot product）和叉積cross product）。

【定義七】向量的點積

 若 f = (a ,b ,c ) 和 g = (a 1 11 2 f i g =a a 12 +bb +cc 1 2 12

,b ,c ) ，則向量

2

2

f g 的點積為

（７）

(inner product)。向量的點積，具有下列的性質：

6-11

 1 f i g = g i f (交換律) 2 ( f + g ) iih = f h + g i h (分配律)

. α ( f i g) = (α fg)ii= f (α g) α 為純量

.

f i f =

2
f

【定理一】若向量 f g 的夾角為θ 0 θ π ，則

f i g=

f
g

cosθ

（８）

【證】：

z
B
g
g− f
C
A
θ
f
O
x

令 a=
g
， b =
f
，c =
g − f

y

6-12

2
2
c 2
=−(a
bcosθ) + (bsinθ)
2
2
= a − 2abcosθ + b
2
2
g
−=− 2
f
g
gf
cosθ +
f
2
g
f
=−gf i gf−
(
)(
)

2 （９）

= ggi
−−+f ig
gi f
2
2
=
g − 2
f i
g +
f

f i f

（１０）

fgi

=

cosθ

【定理一】

(perpendicular)，則

cosθ = 0 ，故

π

θ = 2

π
fgi
=
fg
cos(
) = 0
2

。反之，若 f ig = 0

，表示此兩向量正交。因此，下面的定理

【定理二】兩個向量 f g 正交的充要條件為 f ig = 0

6-13

【定義八】方向角和方向餘弦

若一非零向量 f 與正 x 軸，正 y 軸，和正 z 軸的夾角分

(其範圍皆在[ 0π ])，則 α β γ 稱為 f

【例 3】設有一平面包含點 P(0,3,1) 並與向量 f = (1, 0,1) 垂直。

【解】：設 Q( ,

x

y z) 為此平面上的某一點，則向量

,

 g = PQ = ( xy, −−3, z 1) 必在此平面上。

f ig = xy1+ (

x + z = 1

−⋅3) 0 + (z -1) 1 = 0

【例 4】求向量 f = (1,2,1) 的方向角。

【解】：設 α β γ 分別為 f 與正 x 軸，正 y 軸和正 z 軸之夾

f i i
=
fi
cosα

6-14

fji
= cos β
fj
f i k
= cosγ
fk
2
2
2
f
=
(−1) +
(2)
+
(1)
=
6
i
=
jk
=
= 1

f

i i = (1,2,1) (1,0,0) = (1)(1) + 20 +10 =−

f i j = −⋅1,2,1) (0,1,0) =

(

( 1) 0 + 2 ⋅+⋅1

1 0 = 2

f

i k

=

(1,2,1) (0,0,1)

=

(

∴向量 f 的方向餘弦為

f
i
cos
α ==
f
i

1

1

=
61
6

1) 0 + 2 0 +⋅=1 1

1

1

f
j
2
2
cos
β ===
f
j
6
1
6
f
⋅ k 1
1
cos
γ =
=
=
f
k
61
6
∴向量
f 的方向角為

α =

cos

1 (

1

6

)

β =

cos

1 (

2 )

γ

= cos

1 (

1

6

)

【例
5

（力學應用）

6-15

B。若 d 為位移向量，試推導此力 f 所作的(work) 之公

 式。假設 f = (1, 2,1) 牛頓，A 點的座標為 (2,1,0) 公尺，B 點 的座標為 (4,1,0) 公尺，試求其功。
f
f
θ
θ
d
A
B

【解】：∵
f
cosθ

∴施力 f 所作的功 W 等於此施力分量
f
cosθ

d

 W = f cosθ ⋅ d = f d cosθ = f i d

1) 牛頓，A 點的座標為 (2,1,0) 公尺，

 而 B 點的座標為 (4,1,0 ) 公尺，故 d = (4,1,0) − (2,1,0) = (2,0,0) 公尺

W=

f

i

d

= (1,2,1)i(2,0,0)

6-16

= 1×2 + 2×0 +1×0 = 2 焦耳

D. 向量的叉積

兩向量 f g 叉積 (cross product) 為一向量，因此叉積又

【定義九】向量的叉積
若 f =(a ,b ,c )和 g =(a ,b ,c )，則向量 f 與 g 的叉積為
111
222
i j
k
f
× g
=a
c
（１１）
1 b
11
a
c
2 b
2
2
= (b c
−−−c
b c
, a
a c
, a b
a b )
12
21
2
1
12
1
2
21

【例 6】若 f = (1,2,1) g = (5,3,0)

i
j
k
f
×
g
=1
2
1
530
21
11
12
=
i
j
+
30
50
53

= −3 i −−( 5) jk+−( 7)

= (−3,5, 7)

k

6-17

【定理三】向量 f × g 與向量 f 正交，也與向量 g 正交。

【證】：

( f × g)i f = (b c b c ) a + ( a c a c

1

2

21

1

21

12

= 0

)b

1

+ ( a b

1

2

(

f

×

g

)ig = (b c

1

= 0

2

b c ) a

21

2

+ ( a c −−a c )b + ( a

2

1

12

2

1

b

2

a b )c

21

a b )c

21

1

2

∴所以 f × g f 正交，也與 g 正交。

【定理四】若 θ (0 ≤ θ ≤ π ) 為向量 f g 的夾角，則

f
× g
= f
g

sinθ

（１２）

【證】：∵

2
22
f
×=
g
(b c
b c )
+ ( a c
a
c
)
12
21
21
12
2
2
22
2
2
=
(a 1
++
b
c
)
(a
++b
c
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
=
f
g
− (
fg
i
)
2
2
2
=
f
g
− (
fg
cosθ)

2

2
2
=
f
g
sin θ
f
× g
= fg
sinθ

+ ( a b

1

2

) (a a

12

a b )

2

1

+ b b

1

2

2

+ c c

12

)

2

6-18

f × g
f
g
θ

sinθ

。因此，如圖

=
f (
g sinθ) =
f
× g

f

g

6-19

g
g sinθ
θ
f

【例 7】

 【解】：令 f g ∴ f

= AB =−( 1,0,1) (1,2,1) =−( 2, 2,0)

 = AC =−(3, 1, 2) − (1, 2,1) = (2, − 3,1) i j k × g= − 2 −2 0 2 −31 = − 20 −2 0 −2 −2 i − j + − 3 1 2 1 2 −3

= −2 i + 2 j +10k

k

f × g 垂直於 f g 的共平面。

P(x, y, z) 為此平面上的任一點，則

h

=

AP

=

(

xyz, ,

)

(1,2,1) = (x 1, y −− 1)

2, 　 z

6-20

fg× i h =0

( 2,2,10) ( x 1,

i

y 2, z −=1)

0

2( x −+1)

2( y 2) + 10(

z

−=1)

0

xy

5z =−6

xy 56z =−

【例 8】求以 A(1,3, 2) B( 2,1, −1) C(1, 1,1) 為頂點所構成

【解】：令

f

=

AB

(

=−

2,1

, 1) (1,3, 2) =−( 3, 2,1)

 g = AC = (1, −1,1) − (1,3, −=2) (0, −4,3) 則 i jk f × g = − 3 −2 1( = − 2,9,12 ) 0 − 4 3

∴三角形面積為

1
1
f
×=
g
2
2

(

2)

22

++9

12

2

7.56