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4/20/2015

TheBasicsofCargoLashingandSecuringonShips

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TheBasicsofCargoLashingandSecuringonShips
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DECEMBER24,2012BYBIKRAMSINGH

Cargoisloadedontoashipwhensheisfloatingsteadilyinthewater,upright,orwithapracticaltrim
astern.Whentheshipsailsouttosea,itencountersexternalforceswhichresultintosixformsof
motionsactingontheship.Thesemotionsareathreatespeciallyforthoseshipswhichrequirecargo
lashingandsecuringitontheopendeck(Containerships).

JLALoadingArms
andmore
Safeandreliableloading
equipmentformarine,truck&
trainloading.

ToknowmoreaboutforcesandstabilityofshipsreadParametricrollingincontainershipsandIntact
andDamageStabilityofShips.
Ifthestorageofcargoisnotsecureenoughthenthereisnoescapefromthebehavioroftheseasand
thewindoncetheyshowtheirrage.Thisinresulttakesatollontheloadedcargo,causingdamageto
othercargointhevicinityortothevesselsstructuresandfittingsandeventhrowingthecargo
overboard.Impropercargolashingandfailuretoadheretotheproceduresrequiredforcargostowage
onshipsisdangeroustoproperty,lifeandenvironmentatsea.
Toknowmoreaboutcargocontainerlashingandstowageonships,readPlanningCargoContainer
Stowageandhowtotakecareofcargooncontainerships?

http://www.marineinsight.com/misc/marinesafety/thebasicsoflashingandcargosecuringonships/

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Toavoidgettingintosituationslikethesetheresponsiblepersonnelonboardshouldbecompetent
enoughtoplanandupholdsafecarriageofthecargoatalltimes.Thisisdonebyproperplanningof
containerlashingandsecuring.
Readmoreabouttheimportanceofcontainerlashinghere.
Letshavealookatafewcomponentsthatarevitalforunderstandingtheimportanceofpropercargo
lashing.
BasicReasonsofLossorDamagetotheCargo
1.Severeandadverseweatherconditionsandlackofappreciationofthevariousforces
implicatedVariousconditionsoftheBeaufortwindscalenottakenintoaccountasthevessel
encounterstheworstatanygivenmoment.Responsiblepersonnellookingafterthecarriageofthe
cargosometimesfailtoforeseetheshipscharacteristicsandbadweatherbehavior
2.LackofknowledgeofrelevantrulesandguidingrecommendationsFailuretofollowthe
guidelinesortheregulationsforcargolashingandsecuringmayspellcatastrophe
3.CostcontrolpressuresTheeconomydownfallleadstocostcuttingprocedureswhichinturn
meanslessqualitycargosecuringwork
4.InadequatetimeandpersonneltocompletethesecuringcargobeforedepartureDueto
excessivepaperworkandshortportturnaround,basicsofcargolashingandhandlingonshipsare
sometimesoverseen

http://www.marineinsight.com/misc/marinesafety/thebasicsoflashingandcargosecuringonships/

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5.Basicseamanshiptechniquesnotappliedadequatelyfortotalimmobilityofthecargo
Dunnagenotutilizedinaneffectivemannerorforthatmattertakinglashingmaterialsaroundsharp
edgeswhichcausesthemtopartoreveninsufficientforce,steadinessand/ornumberoflashings
6.ImproperusageofthecargosecuringgearWireloopsandeyesmadeupwrongly.Lackof
knowledgeintheuseofbulldoggrips,bottleneckscrews,wireslings/strops,etc.
7.LackofcontinuityinstrengthbetweenthevarioussecuringcomponentsShipsoverall
characteristicsandageofconstructionplayamajorroleineffectivecargowork
8.IncorrectofunbalancedstowageandinadequateweightdistributionInadequatestabilityand
controlmeasurestaken
Pointstorememberwhilesecuringcargo
1.Agoodtightstowageofcargocontainersonshipsmayavoidtheneedtototallysecureit,provided
thecargoisadequatelypackagedandtherearenoheavycomponents
2.Bulkyandheavyunitsmaystillberequiredtobesecuredevenifthespacearoundthemisfilledwith
othercargo.Particularattentionshouldbepaidtothechancesofsuchunitsslidingortripping
3.Anumberofunitscanbesecuredorlashedtogetherintooneblock
4.Permanentsecuringpointsonthecargoshouldbeused,butitmustberememberedthatthese
securingpointsareintendedforinlandtransportandmaynotnecessarilybesuitableforsecuringother
itemsonboardships
5.Independentlashingsmustonlybesecuredproperlytosuitablestrongpointsoftheshipsfittingsand
structure,preferablyontothedesignatedlashingpoints

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6.Cargolashingsmustbetautandasshortaspossibleforabetterhold
7.Ifpossiblethemultiplelashingstooneitemofcargoshouldbekeptunderequaltension.The
integrationofdifferentmaterialcomponentshavingdifferentstrengthsandelasticityshouldbe
completelyavoided
8.Cargolashingsmustbeableofbeingcheckedandtightenedwhenonapassage
9.Lashingsshouldbeenoughsoastopreventtheloadsfrommovingwhentheshiprollsthrough30
degreeswith13secondduration
10.Tighteningthecargodowntotheshipwilladdtoagreatdealinsecuringitcompletelybeforeitshifts
CommonlyusedCargoSecuringArrangementsforDryCargo
1.Lashingisageneraltermthatisusedtoonbehalfofallthesecuringarrangementsonboard:It
includesropes,wires,webbings,bandings,strappingorchains,bottlescrewsandotherpatent
tensioningdevicesmostlyusedoncontainerships
2.Tomming:Constructionofasupportofsquaresectionsoftwoodframework,whichchocksoffthe
cargoagainstshipsstructureorothercargo
3.Filling:Useofairbags,emptypallets,oldtyres,etc.tofillthevoidsandbrokenstowagebetween
itemsofcargoandbetweencargoandshipsstructures

4.Antiskid:Flatboardsareusedtoincreasefrictionalcapabilitiesofthecargoes
5.Binding:Evenoutastowwithdunnagetomakeseveralunitsintooneblock.Alsostowingbagsor
cartonsindifferentdirectionsineachlayerformsaselflockingslabwhichisatightstowforshifting
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cargoes
6.StructuralModifications:Veryheavyanduncomfortablyshapedcargomaybesecuredbywelding
theunitdirectlytotheshipsstructureorbyfabricatingasteelframeworkorothersupportorchock
whichispermanentlyattachedtotheshipsstructure
BasicsofSafeSlinging
1.Whenloadsareliftedonaslingthegeneralideaistogettheloadtobeassecuredintheairasitwas
onground
2.Theloadsmustbesatisfactorilysecuredbytheslings
(a)Loadsarecompletelycontainedbytheslings(e.g.Bagsinnets)
(b)Usefixedliftingpendantsorlugsifavailable
(c)Ropesorwireslingsmustbecompletelywrappedaroundtheloadsnoloadsshouldbeleftresting
inloosebightsoftheline
(d)Whenusingspecializedcomponents,theymustbeproperlyattachedtothecargo,andthe
manufacturersinstructionsshouldbefollowed

3.Theslingsmustbesufficientlyattachedtotheliftingappliances
4.Theloadsmustbeslungsothattheywillnotcollapseorchangeformwhentheyarelifted
5.Theloadmustnotdamagethesling,possiblycausingtheslingstopart.Usestuffingorpaddingat
susceptiblepointsorsharpedges
6.Ensurethattheloadsarenottobedamagedbythesling
7.Allliftingpartsshouldhavetheirpivotingpointsasneartotheverticalaspossibleforacleanliftbythe
crane
Thereisalottosafetyofcontainershipswhenitcomestolashing.Doyouknowanyotherimportant
pointsthatmustbeconsideredwhilelashingcargoonships?
RelatedReading
CargoHandlingEquipmentUsedonShips
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Whattodowhenshipencountersroughweather?
HowContainerShipscrewcanhelpinpreventinginjuriestoStevedores?
Measurestoensuresafetyofshipscrew,cargoandmarineenvironment

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AboutBikramSingh
BikramPalSinghisaprofessionalmarinerandblogger.Hehassailedextensivelyservingon
variousOiltankersandOffshoreVessels.CurrentlyaChiefOfficer,heenjoysreadingand
compilingnotesaboutcriticalshipboardoperationsandcrewpsychology.Whennotsailing,heloves
backpacking,isanardentadventurerandacertifieddiver.

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