## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Additional Mathemati cs Project Work

201 0

[Type the document subtitle]

[Type the abstract of the document here. The abstract is typically a short summary of the contents of the document. Type the abstract of the document here. The abstract is typically a short summary of the contents of the document.]

Table of Contents

Part 1....................................................................................................2 a).............................................................................................................................2 b)..........................................................................................................................2 Part 2...................................................................................................................3 - 4 a).............................................................................................................................3 b)..........................................................................................................................4

2

Part 1

a) Probability theory is the branch of mathematics concerned with analysis of random phenomena.

Probability theory was originally inspired by gambling problems. The earliest work on the subject was performed by Italian mathematician and physicist Girolamo Cardano (1501– 1576). In his manual Liber de Ludo Aleae, Cardano discusses many of the basic concepts of probability complete with a systematic analysis of gambling problems. Unfortunately, Cardano's work had little effect on the development of probability because his manual did not appear in print until 1663—and even then received little attention.

In 1654, another gambler named Chevalier de Méré invented a system for gambling that he was convinced would make money. He decided to bet even money that he could roll at least one twelve in 24 rolls of two dice. However, when the Chevalier began losing money, he asked his mathematician friend Blaise Pascal (1623–1662) to analyze his gambling system. Pascal discovered that the Chevalier's system would lose about 51 percent of the time.

Pascal became so interested in probability that he began studying more problems in this field. He discussed them with another famous mathematician, Pierre de Fermat (1601– 1665) and, together they laid the foundation of probability theory.

Insurance policies are made possible by empirical probability. We know the amount of accidents, and we know the amount of times something happens without error. Based on that, it can be calculated what the chance (and thus the cost) is of a certain event.

Gambling (professional) is about theoretical probability. One can assume that all the chips, cards, tables or whatever are completely fair (or even calculate the unfairness, based on the method of shuffling), so one can calculate the odds of a certain set of cards coming up, before they ever have.

2

Dangerous medical procedures can also have empirical probability playing as a factor. There is always a chance that someone dies under the knife, or that someone cures on their own. Based on those odds, a doctor could advise for or against certain procedures. Those odds are based on other patients who have gone through the same thing.

b) Empirical probability is anything where the probability has been determined by repeated attempts. Theoretical probability is anything where the probability has been calculated using predetermined variables used as a model.

For example, if we were doing a lab related to acceleration due to gravity, the theoretical value would be 9.81 m/s2 and the empirical value would be the value we calculated.

2

Part 2

a) List of all the possible outcomes when the die is tossed once = {1,2,3,4,5,6}

b) List of all the possible outcomes when two dice are tossed simultaneously:

2

2

2

2

2

Part 3

a) Table 1 shows dots on both faces when two tossed Sum of the dots on both turned-up faces (x) 2 3 4 5 Possible outcomes (1,1) (1,2),(2,1) (1,3),(2,2),(3,1) (1,4),(2,3),(3,2),(4,1) the sum of all turned-up dice are simultaneously Probability, P(x) 1/36 2/36 3/36 4/36

2

6 7 8 9 10 11 12

(1,5),(2,4),(3,3),(4,2),(5,1) (1,6),(2,5),(3,4),(4,3),(5,2),(6,1) (2,6),(3,5),(4,4),(5,3),(6,2) (3,6),(4,5),(5,4),(6,3) (4,6),(5,5),(6,4) (5,6),(6,5) (6,6)

5/36 6/36 5/36 4/36 3/36 2/36 1/36

Table 1

b) Based on Table 1 that you have completed, list all the possible outcomes of the following events and hence find their corresponding probabilities: A = {The two numbers are not the same} B = {The product of the two numbers is greater than 36} C = {Both numbers are prime or the difference between two numbers is odd} D = {The sum of the two numbers are even and both numbers are prime} Events Possible outcomes Probability, P(x) A (1,2),(1,3),(1,4),(1,5),(1,6),(2,1),(2,3),(2,4),(2,5),(2,6),(3,1), (3,2),(3,4),(3,5),(3,6),(4,1),(4,2),(4,3),(4,5),(4,6),(5,1),(5,2), (5,3),(5,4),(5,6),(6,1),(6,2),(6,3),(6,4),(6,5) B C (5,5),(5,3),(5,2),(3,5),(3,3),(3,2),(2,5),(2,3),(2,2),(6,5),(6,3), (6,2),(5,2),(5,4),(5,1),(4,3),(4,1),(3,2),(3,1),(2,1) D (5,3),(5,5),(3,3),(3,5),(2,2) 5/36 0/30 20/36 30/36

Table 2

2

Part 4

Sum of the two numbers (x) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Frequency (f)

2

2

References

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Probability_theory http://www.scienceclarified.com/Ph-Py/Probability-Theory.html http://science.jrank.org/pages/5505/Probability-Theory-Empirical-probability.html

2

- Add Math Project 2010
- ADD MATHS PROJECT WORK 1/2010
- Add Math Project 2010 2nd
- Additional Mathematics Project Work 2
- Additional Mathematics Project 4 2010
- Project Work for Additional Mathematics 2010
- Additional Mathematic Project Work 1/2010
- Add Math Project 2010 2nd
- Additional Mathematics Project 4 2010
- Additional Mathematics Project Work 2010 4
- Additional Mathematics Project 4 2010
- SPM Form 5 Add Maths Project 2010 Work 2 [FULL VERSION] www.SPM2010.tk
- Projek Add Math 2 2010
- Add Math 2010 Project Work
- additional mathematics project work 4 2010-Full version
- 33119998 Projek Add Math 2 Baru Punye
- 33065561 Additional Mathematics Repaired)
- Kuiz Kimia Kebangsaan K3M 2011
- Add Maths Assingnment Probability)
- The Latest Development in Network and Communication
- Add Math Complete task4 2010(sample)
- Add Math Project Work 2010 _2
- Add Math Project
- BHM new
- Football Predictions
- additional mathmatics project work 4 for 2010 full
- 33157590 Add Math 2010 Project Work
- Probability
- solution project work addmath 2013
- Additional Mathematics Project Work 2012

- Foxy Futurists & How to Become One
- Decline in Washington’s Family Reunifications
- 2010 World Cup Sweepstake Kit
- Trend of Narratives in the Age of Misinformation
- Answers to the Number Analogy Questions in Part II Civil Service Professional Exam Reviewer
- Crist on Value.doc
- tmpE04C.tmp
- How Expansion of Public Services Affects the Poor
- Thomas Gottone v. United States, 345 F.2d 165, 10th Cir. (1965)
- Against All Odds Goes To Hollywood!

- UT Dallas Syllabus for se3341.501.08s taught by Pankaj Choudhary (pkc022000)
- UT Dallas Syllabus for se3341.001 06f taught by Michael Baron (mbaron)
- wp1408(1)
- UT Dallas Syllabus for te3341.001.07s taught by John Fonseka (kjp)
- Quantitative Methods for Economic
- Business Statistics Level 3/Series 2 2008 (Code 3009)
- UT Dallas Syllabus for ce6352.501.08s taught by Galigekere Dattatreya (datta)
- Affidavit
- A Mathematical Theory of Communication
- Role of Social Networks in Information Diffusion
- Business Statstics/Series-3-2007(Code3009)
- tmpCB3F.tmp
- ch10-2web-Revised
- frbrich_wp03-4.pdf
- A Two-Level Autonomous Intrusion Detection Model Inspired by the Immune System
- tmp51D9.tmp
- UT Dallas Syllabus for math5320.501 05s taught by Thomas Butts (tbutts)
- tmp8659.tmp
- UT Dallas Syllabus for opre6363.501.09s taught by Holly Lutze (hsl041000)
- Raymond Merrill Jessop ruling
- UT Dallas Syllabus for ee6349.521.07u taught by Mohammad Saquib (saquib)
- Information Domination - Dynamically Coupling METOC and INTEL for Improved Guidance for Piracy Interdiction
- Study of the Barrier Probability in a Classical Risk Model for two different claim amount distributions with same Mean
- UT Dallas Syllabus for cs3341.501.11s taught by Michael Baron (mbaron)
- As 3778.2.4-2007 Measurement of Water Flow in Open Channels General - Estimation of Uncertainty of a Flow Rat
- tmp97E5
- UT Dallas Syllabus for te3341.002.07f taught by John Fonseka (kjp)
- tmpF426.tmp
- What Price the Court of St. James? Political Influences on Ambassadorial Postings of the United States of America
- Statistical Methods MCQ'S

Sign up to vote on this title

UsefulNot usefulRead Free for 30 Days

Cancel anytime.

Close Dialog## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Close Dialog## This title now requires a credit

Use one of your book credits to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

Loading