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Raisoni College of Engineering,

(An Autonomous Institute under UGC act 1956 & affiliated to
RastrasantTukadojiMaharaj Nagpur University,Nagpur)

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Six-stoke engine

Mr.Amit Yadav
(A - 25)


Prof. A.S.RAUT

A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine that uses the heat of
compression to initiate ignition to burn the fuel, which is injected into the combustion
chamber during the final stage of compression. Diesel engines have wide range of
utilization for automobiles, locomotives & marines and co-generation systems.
However, large problem is still related to undesirable emission.
The six-stroke engine is a type of internal combustion engine based on the
four-stroke engine but with additional complexity to make it more efficient and
reduce emissions. Two different types of six-stroke engine have been developed:
In the first approach, the engine captures the heat lost from the four-stroke
Otto cycle or Diesel cycle and uses it to power an additional power and exhaust stroke
of the piston in the same cylinder. Designs use either steam or air as the working fluid
for the additional power stroke. The pistons in this type of six-stroke engine go up and
down three times for each injection of fuel. There are two power strokes: one with
fuel, the other with steam or air. The currently notable designs in this class are the
Crower Six-stroke engine invented by Bruce Crower of the U.S. ; the Bajulaz engine
by the Bajulaz S.A. company of Switzerland; and the Velozeta Six-stroke engine built
by the College of Engineering, at Trivandrum in India.
The second approach to the six-stroke engine uses a second opposed piston in
each cylinder that moves at half the cyclical rate of the main piston, thus giving six
piston movements per cycle. Functionally, the second piston replaces the valve
mechanism of a conventional engine but also increases the compression ratio. The
currently notable designs in this class include two designs developed independently:
the Beare Head engine, invented by Australian Malcolm Beare, and the German
Charge pump, invented by Helmut Kottmann.


The 6 stroke ICE is an advancement over the existing 4 stroke ICE which
employs the same principle as that of the 4 stroke ICE. The 5 th stroke or the second
power stroke uses the heat evolved in the exhaust stroke (directly or indirectly) as
heat required for the sudden expansion of the secondary fuel (air or water) which
pushes the piston downward for the 2nd power stroke thereby rotating the crankshaft
for another half cycle. As heat evolved in the 4 th stroke is not wasted, the requirement
for a cooling system is eliminated.
Here fuel is injected once in every 3 complete cycles of the crankshaft which
is anytime better than a 4 stroke ICE where fuel is injected once in 2 complete cycles
of the crankshaft. It should be noted that efficiency of the 6 stroke ICE is more than
the existing 4 stroke ICE.2 major type of secondary fuels used in the 5th stroke are air
and water. Many types of 6-ICE have now been designed on these 2 fuels.
The Six Stroke is thermodynamically more efficient because the change in
volume of the power stroke is greater than the intake stroke and the compression
stroke. The main advantages of six stroke engine includes reduction in fuel
consumption by 40%, two power strokes in the six stroke cycle, dramatic reduction in
pollution, adaptability to multi fuel operation.Six stroke engines adoption by the
automobile industry would have a tremendous impact on the environment and world
According to its mechanical design, the six-stroke engine with external and
internal combustion and double flow is similar to the actual internal reciprocating
combustion engine. However, it differentiates itself entirely, due to its thermodynamic
cycle and a modified cylinder head with two supplementary chambers: Combustion,
does not occur within the cylinder but in the supplementary combustion chamber,
does not act immediately on the piston, and its duration is independent from the 180
degrees of crankshaft rotation that occurs during the expansion of the combustion


a) Crower six stroke engine
b) Beare Head Six Stroke engine
c) Bajulaz six stroke engine
a) Crower six stroke engine :
In a six-stroke engine patented in the U.S. by Bruce Crower, after the exhaust stroke,
fresh water is injected into the cylinder, and is quickly turned to superheated steam,
which causes the water to expand to 1600 times its volume and forces the piston down
for an additional stroke.
This design also claims to reduce fuel consumption by 40%.
Crower's six stroke engine features:

No cooling system required

Improves a typical engines fuel consumption

Requires a supply of distilled water to act as the medium for the second power

b) Beare Head Six Stroke engine:

This engine simply replaces the conventional Four Stroke Engines Cylinder Head.
The manufacturers Four Stroke bottom end remains unchanged. The Engine utilises
an overhead short stroke Crankshaft and Piston arrangement which opens and closes
Inlet and Exhaust Ports leading through the Upper Cylinder Liner. The Beare Head
Technology can be fitted to new production engines or retro-fitted via aftermarket

The top and bottom Crankshaft are connected via a drive chain or toothed belt. The
top Crankshaft and Piston become positive power contributors to the overall power
output, thus increasing the amount of power/torque generated by up to a possible
35%, in essence, The Engine results in having Two Pistons Operating and producing
power within each cylinder. The absence of valves, springs, retainers and guides,
mean that the Engines bottom end has been freed up from labouring and is allowed to
spin up producing more power. The additional torque and power further generated by
the Top Piston/Crank of the Cylinder Head is then channelled via the connecting drive
chain to the Bottom Crank. The net result of the Engine is Tractor type pulling torque
never before realised from a Four Stroke Internal Engine, the sort of steady
locomotive type performance gained can only be likened to Steam Locomotives or
Diesel Engines.The net result is:
- Power/torque increases of 35% (conservative).
- Simpler and less expensive manufacturing and tooling
- Reduction of cylinder head reciprocating parts
- Lower maintenance costs due to less wearing parts (cylinder head)
- Longer service intervals possible due to lower operating temperatures recorded
- Increased economy due to the ability to operate and produce full operating power of
much higher AIR to FUEL ratios.
- Reduction of exhaust emissions due to less fuel being consumed and the real
prospect of meeting EURO-4 emissions standards, doing away with the catalytic
- Possible one piece engine block and head casting, saving more manufacturing costs.

c) Bajulaz six stroke engine:

The Bajulaz six stroke engine is similar to a regular

combustion engine in design. But however there are
some modifications to the cylinder head, with two




combustion chamber and an air preheating chamber

above each cylinder. The combustion chamber
receives a charge of heated air from the cylinder and
the injection of fuel begins an isochoric burn which
has increased thermal efficiency compared to a burn
in the cylinder. The high pressure achieved is then released into the cylinder to work
the power stroke. Meanwhile a second chamber which blankets the combustion
chamber has had its air contents heated to a high degree by heat passing through the
walls from the burn. This heated and pressurized air is then used to power another
stroke of the piston in the cylinder. The advantages of the engine include reduction in
fuel consumption by at least 40%, two expansion strokes (work) in six strokes, multifuel usage capability, and a dramatic reduction in pollution.
Bajulaz Six Stroke Engine was invented in 1989 by the Bajulaz S A .
Bajulaz six stroke engine features:

Reduction in fuel consumption by at least 40%

Two expansions (work) in six strokes


Dramatic reduction in pollution

Liquefied Petroleum Gas

Costs comparable to those of a four-stroke engine.

Six-stroke engine is mainly due to the radical hybridization of two- and fourstroke technology. The six-stroke engine is supplemented with two chambers, which
allow parallel function and results a full eight-event cycle: two four-event-each
cycles, an external combustion cycle and an internal combustion cycle. In the internal
combustion there is direct contact between air and the working fluid, whereas there is
no direct contact between air and the working fluid in the external combustion
process. Those events that affect the motion of the crankshaft are called dynamic
events and those, which do not effect are called static events.

Fig 5 Prototype of Six stroke engine internal view

1. Intake valve,

2.Heating chamber valve,

3.Combustion chamber valve,

4. Exhaust valve,


6.Combustion chamber,

7. Air heating chamber,

8.Wall of combustion chamber,

9.Fuel injector and

10.Heater plug.

4.1 Analysis of events

Fig 6 Event 1: Pure air intake in the cylinder (dynamic event)

1. Intake valve.
2. Heating chamber valve
3. Combustion chamber valve.
4. Exhaust valve
5. Cylinder
6. Combustion chamber.
7. Air heating chamber.
8. Wall of combustion chamber.
9. Fuel injector.
10. Heater plug.

Fig 7 Event 2: Pure air compression in the heating chamber.

Event 3: Keeping pure air pressure in closed chamber where a maximum heat
exchange occurs with the combustion chambers walls, without direct action on the
crankshaft (static event).

Fig 8 Event 4: Expansion of the Super heat air in the cylinder work (dynamic

Fig 9 Event 5: Re-compressions of pure heated air in the combustion chamber

(dynamic event).

Events 6: fuel injection and combustion in closed combustion chamber, without direct
action on the crankshaft (static event).

Fig 10 Events 7: Combustion gases expanding in the cylinder, work (dynamic


Fig 11 Events 8: Combustion gases exhaust (dynamic event).

Fig 12 Six-stroke engine cycle diagram:


5.1 Working
The cycle of this engine consists of six strokes:
1. Intake stroke
2. First compression stroke
3. First combustion stroke
4. Second compression stroke
5. Second combustion stroke
6. Exhaust stroke

Fig 13 Concept of a Six-stroke diesel engine

3.1.1 Intake or Suction stroke
To start with the piston is at or very near to the T.D.C., the inlet valve is open
and the exhaust valve is closed. A rotation is given to the crank by the energy from a
flywheel or by a starter motor when the engine is just being started. As the piston
moves from top to bottom dead centre the rarefaction is formed inside the cylinder i.e.
the pressure in the cylinder is reduced to a value below atmospheric pressure. The
pressure difference causes the fresh air to rush in and fill the space vacated by the
piston. The admission of air continues until the inlet valve closes at B.D.C.
3.1.2 First Compression stroke
Both the valves are closed and the piston moves from bottom to top dead
centre. The air is compressed up to compression ratio that depends upon type of
engine. For diesel engines the compression ratio is 12-18 and pressure and
temperature towards the end of compression are 35-40 kgf/cm2 and 600-700 0C
3.1.3 First combustion stroke

This stroke includes combustion of first fuel (most probably diesel) and
expansion of product of combustion. The combustion of the charge commences when
the piston approaches T.D.C.
Here the fuel in the form of fine spray is injected in the combustion space. The
atomization of the fuel is accomplished by air supplied. The air entering the cylinder
with fuel is so regulated that the pressure theoretically remains constant during
burning process.
In airless injection process, the fuel in finely atomized form is injected in
combustion chamber. When fuel vapors raises to self ignition temperature, the
combustion of accumulated oil commences and there is sudden rise in pressure at
approximately constant volume. The combustion of fresh fuel injected into the
cylinder continues and this ignition is due to high temperature developed in engine
cylinder. However this latter combustion occurs at approximately constant pressure.
Due to expansion of gases piston moves downwards. The reciprocating motion
of piston is converted into rotary motion of crankshaft by connecting rod and crank.
During expansion the pressure drop is due to increase in volume of gases and
absorption of heat by cylinder walls.
3.1.4 Second compression stroke
Both the valves are closed and the piston moves from bottom to top dead
centre. The combustion products from the first compression stroke are recompressed
and utilized in the second combustion process before the exhaust stroke. In typical
diesel engine combustion the combustion products still contains some oxygen.
3.1.5 Second combustion stroke

This stroke includes combustion of second fuel having low cetane (Cetane
number of fuel is defined as percent volume of cetane (C 16H34) in a mixture of cetane
and alpha-methyl-naphthalene that produces the same delay period or ignition lag as
the fuel being tested under same operating conditions on same engine). The
combustion of the charge commences when the piston approaches to TDC.
The second fuel injected into recompressed burnt gas can be burnt in the
second combustion process. In other words combustion process of the second fuel
takes place in an internal full EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) of the first
combustion. This second combustion process was the special feature of the proposed
Six Stroke DI Diesel Engine.

3.1.6 Exhaust stroke

The exhaust valve begins to open when the power stroke is about to complete.
A pressure of 4-5 kgf/cm2 at this instant forces about 60% of burnt gases into the
exhaust manifold at high speed. Much of the noise associated with automobile engine
is due to high exhaust velocity. The remainder of burnt gases is cleared of the swept
volume when the piston moves from TDC to BDC. During this stroke pressure inside
the cylinder is slightly above the atmospheric value. Some of the burnt gases are
however left in the clearance space. The exhaust valve closes shortly after TDC.
The inlet valve opens slightly before the end of exhaust stroke and cylinder is
ready to receive the fresh air for new cycle. Since from the beginning of the intake
stroke the piston has made six strokes through the cylinder (Three up And Three

down). In the same period crank shaft has made three revolutions. Thus for six stroke
cycle engine there are two power strokes for every three revolutions of crank shaft.

5.2 Performance analysis

5.2.1 Modification over four stroke diesel engine
This six-stroke diesel engine was made from a conventional four-stroke diesel
engine with some modification. A sub-shaft was added to the engine, in order to drive
a camshaft and injection pumps. The rotation speed of the sub-shaft was reduced to
1/3 of the rotation of an output shaft. To obtain similar valve timings between a fourstroke and a six-stroke diesel engine, the cam profile of the six-stroke diesel engine
was modified. In order to separate the fuels, to control each of the injection timings
and to control each injection flow rate in the first and the second combustion
processes, the six-stroke diesel engine was equipped with two injection pumps and
two injection nozzles. The injection pumps were of the same type as is used in the
four-stroke diesel engine.

The nozzle is located near the center of a piston cavity, and has four injection holes.
For the six-stroke diesel engine, one extra nozzle was added on the cylinder head.
This extra nozzle was of the same design as that of the four-stroke engine. The
volumetric efficiency of the six-stroke engine showed no significant difference from
that of the four-stroke engine.

Fig 14 Volume Angle diagram for six stroke engine

The volumetric efficiency of the six-stroke engine showed no significant difference
from that of the four-stroke engine.

Characteristics of the six-stroke diesel engine were compared with the

conventional four-stroke diesel engine. In this paper, the engine speed (Ne) was fixed
at 2,000 rpm. Cylinder and line pressure indicators were equipped on the cylinder
head. NO concentration was measured by a chemiluminescences NO meter, and soot
emission was measured by a Bosch smoke meter.


The six stroke is thermodynamically more efficient because the change in
volume of the power stroke is greater than the intake stroke, the compression stroke
and the Six stroke engine is fundamentally superior to the four stroke because the
head is no longer parasitic but is a net contributor to and an integral part of the

power generation within exhaust stroke. The compression ration can be increased
because of the absent of hot spots and the rate of change in volume during the critical
combustion period is less than in a Four stroke. The absence of valves within the
combustion chamber allows considerable design freedom.

6.1 Main advantages of the duel fuel six-stroke engine:

6.1.1 Reduction in fuel consumption by at least 40%:

An operating efficiency of approximately 50%, hence the large reduction in

specific consumption. the Operating efficiency of current petrol engine is of the order
of 30%. The specific power of the six-stroke engine will not be less than that of a
four-stroke petrol engine, the increase in thermal efficiency compensating for the
issue due to the two additional strokes.

6.1.2 Two expansions (work) in six strokes:

Since the work cycles occur on two strokes (3600 out of 10800 ) or 8%
more than in a four-stroke engine (1800 out of 720 ), the torque is much more even.
This lead to very smooth operation at low speed without any significant effects on
consumption and the emission of pollutants, the combustion not being affected by the
engine speed. These advantages are very important in improving the performance of
car in town traffic.
6.1.3 Dramatic reduction in pollution:
Chemical, noise and thermal pollution are reduced, on the one hand, in
proportion to the reduction in specific consumption, and on the other, through the
engines own characteristics which will help to considerably lower HC, CO and NOx

emissions. Furthermore, its ability to run with fuels of vegetable origin and weakly
pollutant gases under optimum conditions, gives it qualities which will allow it to
match up to the strictest standards.

6.1.4 Multifuel:
Multifuel par excellence, it can use the most varied fuels, of any origin (fossil
or vegetable), from diesel to L.P.G. or animal grease. The difference in inflammability
or antiknock rating does not present any problem in combustion. Its light, standard
petrol engine construction, and the low compression ration of the combustion
chamber; do not exclude the use of diesel fuel. Methanol-petrol mixture is also

The performance of the dual fuel six-stroke engine was investigated. In this dual
fuel engine, diesel fuel was supplied into the first combustion process and methanol
was supplied into the second combustion process where the burned gas in the first
combustion process was re-compressed. The results are summarized as follows.

1. Indicated specific fuel consumption (ISFC.) of the six-stroke engine

proposed here is slightly lower than that of the four-stroke engine (about 9%

For the dual fuel six-stroke engine, the timing retard and an increase of heat
allocation ratio in the second combustion stroke resulted in a decrease of the
maximum temperatures in the combustion processes. It caused the reduction
of NO emission.


For the dual fuel six-stroke engine, soot was practically eliminated by a
small amount of methanol in the second combustion process.


From the comparison of the performance between the dual fuel six-stroke
and the four-stroke engine, it was concluded that indicated specific heat
consumption of the dual fuel six-stroke engine was improved with 15% as
compared with the four-stroke engine.. Furthermore, soot emission was very
low in the dual fuel six-stroke engine.


As the fuel in one cycle was divided into two combustion processes and the
EGR effect appeared in the second combustion process, the decreased

cylinder temperature reduced NO concentration in the exhaust

gas.Therefore, a six stroke DI diesel engine has significant possibilities to

improve combustion process because of its more controllable factors relative
to a conventional four-stroke engine. Considering these results, it was
confirmed that the dual fuel six-stroke engine was superior to the four-stroke

1. Internal Combustion Engines A book by Mathur & Sharma.
2. Internal Combustion Engines, V Ganesan.
3. Website:
4. Downloaded pdf ,word and ppt documents from internet.