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You are on page 1of 12

Assessment:

Due:

Marks:

Value:

Semester 2, 2016

Assignment 2

12 September 2016

400

40%

1.1

Introduction

Measurements have been made of a cantilever beams deflection (stored in the file ass2q1in.csv).

You must determine what type of loading has been applied and the magnitude of the load. There

are four possibilities to test:

1. Point load (with units of force) on the end, Eq. (1) and Fig. 1(a)

2. Moment (with units of force multiplied by length) at the end, Eq. (2) and Fig. 1(b)

3. Uniformly-distributed load (UDL) (with units of force per unit length), Eq. (3) and

Fig. 1(c)

4. Uniformly-varying load (UVL) (with units of force per unit length), Eq. (4) and Fig. 1(d).

The formulae for the deflections are:

vP

vM

vUDL

vUVL

P x2

(3L x)

6EI

M x2

=

2EI

wx2

=

x2 + 6L2 4Lx

24EI

w0 x 2

=

10L3 10L2 x + 5Lx2 x3

120LEI

=

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

E = 3.0366 102 GPa

I = 9.8503 108 mm4

L = 9.0 m .

1.2

Requirements

1. Rearrange Eqs. (1)(4) by hand to obtain a formula for the load (i.e. P , M , w or w0 ).

2. Take the first, median1 and last data points and substitute them into the formulae obtained

from Requirement 1. Calculate the average value for each of the loads.

3. Using the average values determined in Requirement 2, determine which of Eqs. (1)(4)

is the best curve-fit when considering the first, median and last data points. Verify your

result using Excel2 .

1

If there are an odd number of data values, the median is the middle value; if there are an even number of

data values, there are two median values: those either side of the arithmetic middle.

2

Yes, I really did say you should perform some calculations in Excel!

y

Semester 2, 2016

y

P

(a)

(b)

y

w

w0

(c)

(d)

Figure 1: Cantilever beam loadings. The grey box on the left represents the solid wall on which

the beam is mounted. (a) Point load with force P ; (b) moment of magnitude M ; (c) UDL with

magnitude w; (d) UVL with force per unit length a magnitude of w0 at the wall and magnitude

0 at the free end.

You must also produce MATLAB code which:

4. Performs curve-fits of all the data.

5. Determines what type of loading has been applied based on which curve-fit is the best.

6. Demonstrates that the chosen curve-fit is the best both graphically and numerically.

7. Displays a message in the Command Window stating which type of curve-fit was chosen,

stating the parameters of the curve-fit and the result of the numerical test of the curve-fit.

8. Estimates the magnitude of the load for your chosen curve-fit (i.e. one of P , M , w or w0 )

using the formula obtained in Requirement 1. Reports an estimated error for the load

calculation.

9. Compares the results from Requirements 2 and 8 and comments on the outcome.

10. Has appropriate comments throughout.

1.3

Semester 2, 2016

Assessment Criteria

Your code will be assessed using the following scheme. Note that you are marked based on how

well you perform for each category, so the correct answer determined in a basic way will receive

half marks and the correct answer determined using an excellent method/code will receive full

marks.

Quality

Quality

Quality

Quality

Quality

Quality

Quality

Quality

of

of

of

of

of

of

of

of

hand calculations

header(s) and comments

determination of appropriate curve-fit

plots (e.g. axis labels, titles)

reporting of curve-fit

load magnitude estimation

load magnitude comparison

the code

30 marks

5 marks

30 marks

5 marks

10 marks

10 marks

5 marks

5 marks

Semester 2, 2016

(worth 85 marks)

2.1

Introduction

One of the challenges with the results of Question 1 is that the curve-fits dont precisely match

the forms of Eqs. (1)(4) (they dont satisfy the boundary conditions of zero deflection and zero

slope at the fixed support). In this question, you will perform curve-fits which do precisely match

the forms of Eqs. (1)(4). To achieve this, you need to solve appropriate simultaneous equations

for the polynomial coefficients, where the data values are known. For instance, suppose you

have the data in Table 1. You might recognise that this satisfies the form

y = f (x) = a1 x2 + a3 + ,

(5)

where ai , i [1, 3] are the polynomial coefficients, a2 = 0 and is an error. The unknown

coefficients are to take values so that when each (x, y) pair is substituted into Eq. (5), the value

of is minimised. To enforce the constraint a2 = 0, when solving the simultaneous equations

to determine ai , you dont include a2 in the vector of unknown ai .

Table 1: Sample (xi , yi ) data

i x

y

1 1

-6

2 3

10

3 4

24

64

4 6

5 8 120

6 9 154

2.2

Requirements

1. Using the first two rows of Table 1, solve Eq. (5) for a1 and a3 using substitution or

elimination.

2. Repeat Requirement 1, but express the set of equations in the form

Aa = y

a1

a =

a3

y1

y =

.

y2

(6)

(7)

(8)

3. Perform the same calculations as in Requirement 2, but use the first and last data values

from ass2q1in.csv and estimate the polynomial coefficients for Eq. (1).

You must also produce MATLAB code which analyses the data in ass2q1in.csv:

4. Performs a curve-fit of Eq. (1) using all the data. Solve for a complete cubic polynomial

(include all polynomial coefficients) using the method of Requirement 2 to verify your

method against polyfit.

4

Semester 2, 2016

5. Performs curve-fits of all the data using polynomials that have the same terms as Eqs. (1)

(4).

6. Determines what type of loading has been applied based on which curve-fit is the best.

7. Demonstrates that the chosen curve-fit is the best both graphically and numerically.

8. Displays a message in the Command Window stating which type of curve-fit was chosen,

stating the parameters of the curve-fit and the result of the numerical test of the curve-fit.

9. Discusses whether the chosen curve-fit from Question 1 is the same as from Question 2

and comments on any reasons.

10. Has appropriate comments throughout.

2.3

Assessment Criteria

Your code will be assessed using the following scheme. Note that you are marked based on how

well you perform for each category, so the correct answer determined in a basic way will receive

half marks and the correct answer determined using an excellent method/code will receive full

marks.

Quality

Quality

Quality

Quality

Quality

Quality

Quality

of

of

of

of

of

of

of

hand calculations

header(s) and comments

verification

determination of appropriate curve-fit

plots and reporting

comparisons

the code

30 marks

5 marks

5 marks

30 marks

5 marks

5 marks

5 marks

Semester 2, 2016

(worth 60 marks)

3.1

Introduction

The chosen switch to be used in an inverter is an IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar junction

Transistor), the voltage-controlled drive side of a MOSFET with the power side of a power

transistor. One design issue for these devices is to ensure that they do not overheat and

therefore fail. Your task is to check whether the SEMIKRON SKM75GB12T4 is an appropriate

choice for the application. The specifications for this unit are available from the StudyDesk.

This question relies heavily on Figs. 1 and 3 from those specifications.

The gate drive voltage (VGE ) is the input voltage to the switch and for a particular rated

current (IC ) and temperature (Ti ) there is a specific voltage drop across the switch (VCE ) which

occurs. The greater the value of VCE , the greater the energy losses (Eon + Eoff ) and therefore

the more likely it is that the switch will overheat. Your task is to determine whether the energy

losses are below the critical value Ecrit for your particular application. The switch will overheat

if the energy losses reach the critical value.

For your assignment, the following values are to be used:

IC

= 5.3542 5 + 25 A

VGE = 3.678 3 + 11 V

Ti = 150 C

Ecrit = 6.5852 2 mJ

VCC = 600 V ,

(9)

3.2

Requirements

For this assessment item, you must perform hand calculations based on Figs. 1 and 3 from the

SEMIKRON spec. sheet:

1. For the value of Ti and VGE = 15 V, determine the values of VCE for IC = 25 A, 50 A and

75 A.

2. Using the values from Requirement 1, use linear interpolation to determine the value of

VCE for your value of IC .

3. Repeat Requirement 1 for VGE = 11 V.

4. Repeat Requirement 2 for VGE = 11 V.

5. Using your results from Requirements 2 and 4, estimate the value of VCE for your value

of VGE .

6. For your value of IC , determine the values of Eon and Eoff for VGE = 15 V.

You must also produce MATLAB code which uses the data from Figs. 1 and 3 in the SEMIKRON

spec. sheet:

7. Using the values from Requirement 1, use linear interpolation to determine the value of

VCE for your value of IC (obtain the same answer as Requirement 2).

8. Repeat Requirements 4 and 5. Verify your result against that from Requirement 5.

9. Calculate the result from Requirement 8 directly from the data in Requirements 1 and 3

(i.e. perform one linear interpolation operation to determine the answer). Compare your

result with that from Requirement 8 and discuss why they are similar or different.

6

Semester 2, 2016

10. Estimate the error in your calculation of Requirement 7. As part of this error estimation,

use the formula:

VCE (IC = 25 A) 2VCE (IC = 50 A) + VCE (IC = 75 A)

d2 VCE

=

.

2

(25 A)2

dIC

(10)

Discuss the size of the error and how accurate you consider the answer from Requirement 8

to be.

11. The values from Requirement 6 are proportional to VCE . Determine the values of Eon

and Eoff for your value of VCE from Requirement 8. Thereby test whether this switch will

overheat for the given operating conditions.

12. Has appropriate comments throughout.

3.3

Assessment Criteria

Your code will be assessed using the following scheme. Note that you are marked based on how

well you perform for each category, so the correct answer determined in a basic way will receive

half marks and the correct answer determined using an excellent method/code will receive full

marks.

Quality

Quality

Quality

Quality

Quality

Quality

of

of

of

of

of

of

hand calculations

header(s) and comments

calculating VCE

error analysis

energy test

the code

20 marks

5 marks

20 marks

5 marks

5 marks

5 marks

Semester 2, 2016

4.1

Introduction

At the start of the film Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead, unbiased coins are tossed.

The first 157 tosses are all heads, before the 158th toss yields a tail.

In another test, an unbiased coin is tossed 10 times and the total number of tails is counted.

This test is repeated 20 times (so the coin is tossed a total of 200 times), with the results

recorded in Table 2:

Table 2: Total number of tails k for n = 10 coin tosses. Each i is an independent test.

i 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

k 8 5 5 7 4 4 7 4 7 5

5

5

6

6

2

1

6

3

1

4

The binomial distribution describes the probability for a binary system [where there are two

possible outcomes for a realisation (e.g. an individual coin toss), a set of realisations forms a

test (in Table 2 there are 10 realisations in each test) and each realisation is independent of

each other]. A set of tests forms the sample (in Table 2 there are 20 tests in the sample). There

are two parameters: n, which is the total number of realisations in the test; and p, which is the

probability of the target outcome.

A limitation of the binomial distribution is that it only contains information on the total

number of instances: it does not provide information on the actual sequence of values. To

obtain that additional information, you actually need to conduct the random test (the total of

which will obey the binomial distribution).

To obtain consistent results from your random number generation, you should initialise the

seed to a fixed value using rng(seed). For your assignment, the value is:

seed = 2.2198

4.2

Requirements

For this assessment item, you must perform hand calculations on the data in Table 2:

1. Calculate the sample mean and standard deviation.

2. Calculates the population mean E(k) = np and population variance E(k 02 ) = np(1 p).

3. Plot the sample pdf. You can produce the plot in MATLAB, but you must perform the

calculations by hand.

You must also perform hand calculations:

4. Hypothesise a random sequence by writing a sequence of 10 realisations of a coin toss

(write H for Heads or T for Tails), making the sequence obey what you consider

to be a completely random sequence. This forms a single test of 10 realisations. At the

conclusion of the test, write the total number of tails and also the longest sequence of

repeating values (e.g. in the sequence HTHHTT the result is 2 because the 3rd and 4th

values are both H; it is also 2 because the 5th and 6th values are both T).

5. Actually perform a coin toss 10 times and record the same information as Requirement 4

(conduct a test).

You must also produce MATLAB code which analyses Table 2:

8

Semester 2, 2016

6. Calculates the sample mean and standard deviation for the data in Table 2.

7. Plots the sample pdf of Table 2, with the calculations performed in MATLAB. Plots the

population pdf on the same axes.

8. Verifies that all the MATLAB calculations match the hand calculations.

9. Compares the sample mean and standard deviation to the population mean and population

variance (note that it is not easily possible in MATLAB to calculate confidence intervals

for sample statistics of a binomial distribution). Also compares the sample pdf to the

population pdf.

10. Randomly produces a sequence of 10 coin tosses and records the same information as

Requirement 4 (conduct a test).

11. Compares all the outcomes from Requirements 4, 5 and 10.

12. Repeats the test from Requirement 10 so that a total of 20 tests are conducted and

compares the results with Requirements 6 and 7 (compile a sample of 20 tests).

13. Estimate how big the sample size needs to be in order for the sample pdf to have non-zero

probability everywhere the population pdf is non-zero. Report the value to the Command

Window. Hint: If the smallest value of the population pdf had an absolute frequency of

1, how many samples would be required?

14. Run additional tests to the 20 that you have performed so that you have conducted the

number of tests estimated in Requirement 13. Check to see if every possible value has

been sampled.

You must also produce MATLAB code which analyses the longest sequence data:

15. Calculates the probability of 1 realisation being a tail for a test containing 158 realisations.

Calculates the probability that the first 157 tests are all heads and the last test is a tail.

Reports the results to the Command Window.

16. Plots the sample pdf for the longest sequence (as obtained from Requirement 14 if you have

completed that, or Requirement 12). Determine which is the most appropriate discrete

distribution for this data (discrete distributions only have probabilities for integer values;

continuous distributions have probabilities for any number between integers). Determine

the appropriate parametric value(s) for your chosen distribution (hint: since a value of 0

is impossible and 1 is inconceivable, perform this calculation by subtracting 2 from the

data and ignoring any instances of 1 in the data). Check whether the sample statistics

are consistent with the distributions parameter(s). Report the parameters and the test

results to the Command Window.

17. Estimate the maximum longest sequence of repeated values for a test containing:

(a) 100 realisations

(b) 1000 realisations

(c) 104 realisations

(d) 105 realisations

Set seed = 1 before running these tests. Report the results to the Command Window.

Hint: Run 1000 tests3 for each number of realisations. Change the seed if the longest

sequence doesnt monotonically increase with number of realisations.

3

This is not enough tests to reliably obtain this information, but we have to execute and mark over 300

assignments, so dont want your code running for too long!

Semester 2, 2016

18. Based on your results from Requirement 17, estimate and report how many realisations

would be required in a test to make 157 repeated values possible (i.e. at least 0.1% chance).

19. Has appropriate comments throughout.

4.3

Assessment Criteria

Your code will be assessed using the following scheme. Note that you are marked based on how

well you perform for each category, so the correct answer determined in a basic way will receive

half marks and the correct answer determined using an excellent method/code will receive full

marks.

Quality

Quality

Quality

Quality

Quality

Quality

Quality

Quality

Quality

Quality

Quality

Quality

Quality

of

of

of

of

of

of

of

of

of

of

of

of

of

hand calculations

header(s) and comments

calculation and plotting of hand statistics

verification based on hand calculations

coin toss simulation

Requirement 11

Requirement 12

sample size estimation and testing

probability calculation

longest sequence statistical analysis

longest sequence simulations

realisation value estimation

the code

10

30 marks

5 marks

30 marks

10 marks

10 marks

5 marks

15 marks

10 marks

5 marks

10 marks

5 marks

10 marks

5 marks

Semester 2, 2016

(worth 5 marks)

You are to write a brief report (about 100 words, excluding any code), which includes:

1. A description of an instance during the writing of your code for this assignment where

there was a problem (e.g. a bug, an error, an unexpected result) or the most challenging

aspect to overcome.

2. What steps you took to overcome the problem or challenge (including any code you wrote

to test the problem/challenge).

3. The code before you resolved the problem or challenge, highlighting the line(s) of code

where the problem or challenge occurred.

4. The code after you resolved the problem/overcame the challenge.

5. Code from the MATLAB editor is to be copied into Word; screenshots should be taken of

the Command window.

The problem report will be assessed using the following scheme:

Description

Excellent description of a difficult problem and effective solution

Good description of a moderate problem and useful solution

Reasonable description of a genuine problem with a pragmatic solution

Poor description or Problem is not very challenging or Solution is not effective/efficient

Problem is trivial or Solution is poor

No report or description does not include a genuine problem

Marks

5

4

3

2

1

0

Submission

Submit your code, with the ass2q1in.csv file that is provided to you, by the due date to

the StudyDesk. Submit your problem report as a pdf file that contains selectable text (your

assignment will not be marked if the pdf file does not satisfy this requirement). Note that:

only code appearing in *.m files will be marked.

You do not need to rename your files when uploading: the system automatically segregates

different students submissions.

You can submit all your MATLAB files and ass2q1in.csv in a *.zip file or individually

(do not archive in another file format such as rar or 7z). Any zipped file MUST have the

extension *.zip. You must submit your pdf file(s) separately.

Your problem report and all other pdf files must be separate files that arent archived.

You will NOT receive any confirmation of receipt. If you can see that the files have

uploaded, then you have successfully submitted your assignment. There is no need to

click a send for marking button, but you will have to click a button confirming that the

submission is your own work.

After your files are successfully submitted, the system will automatically attempt to

submit each file to Turnitin. The system can ONLY submit your file to Turnitin if

it has been SUCCESSFULLY SUBMITTED for marking. You will almost certainly

receive a warning or error message from Turnitin:

11

Semester 2, 2016

*.zip files WILL ALWAYS return an error message (Turnitin cannot extract

the files to process them)

*.m files SOMETIMES return an error message (although they contain plain

text, *.m is not a standard file extension which Turnitin recognises)

*.mat files WILL ALWAYS return an error message (it is a binary format which

Turnitin doesnt recognise)

*.pdf files without selectable text MAY return an error/warning message (there

is no content that Turnitin can process).

your file has DEFINITELY BEEN SUCCESSFULLY SUBMITTED

for marking by the markers.

12

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