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Linear Algebra Propositions

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Proposition 2: Row equivalence is an equivalence relation on the set R mn of mn matrices with entries from the

field R of real numbers.

Proposition 3: If A is a square matrix, then A is row equivalent to the identity matrix if and only if the

homogeneous system Ax = 0 has only the trivial solution.

Proposition 4: The system is consistent if and only if the rightmost column of R is not a pivot column, i.e. if there

is no row of the form:

[0 0 b] with b non-zero.

If the system is consistent, then it has either (i) a unique solution if there are no free variables or (ii) infinitely

many solutions when there is at least one free variable.

Proposition 5: If e is an elementary row operation and E is the mm elementary matrix e(Im), then for every mn

matrix A, e(A) = EA.

Proposition 6: Every elementary matrix is invertible.

Proposition 7: Let V be a vector space. Then:

a) The zero vector is unique.

b) The additive inverse vector of any vector u is unique; we use the notation u for the inverse vector

c) 0u = 0 for every vector u

d) c0 = 0 for every scalar c

e) u = (1)u for every vector u

Proposition 8: A subset W of V is a subspace if and only if it satisfies the following three properties:

a) The zero vector 0 is in W

b) W is closed under addition. That is, for each u and v in W, the sum u + v is in W

c) W is closed under scalar multiplication. That is, for each u in W, and each scalar c, the scalar

product cu is in W

Proposition 9: A non-empty subset W of V is a subspace if and only if for each u and v in W, and each scalar c,

the sum cu + v is in W

Proposition 10: If S = {v1,v2,.,vp} is a set of vectors in a vector space V, then Span S = Span {v1,v2,.,vp} is

a subspace of V.

Proposition 11: B = {v1,v2,.,vn} is a basis of the vector space V if and only if every vector v V is uniquely

expressible as a linear combination of the elements of B.

Proposition 12 (Steinitz Exchange Lemma): Suppose v1,v2,., vn are linearly independent vectors in a vector

space V, and suppose V= Span {w1,w2,.,wm}. Then:

a) n m

b) {v1,v2,., vn,wn + 1 ,wn + 2,.,wm } span V, after re-ordering the ws if necessary.

Proposition 13: If V is a finite-dimensional vector space, then any two bases of V have the same number of

elements.

Proposition 14: Suppose S = {v1,v2,.,vn} is a linearly independent set in a vector space V. Suppose v is a

vector which is not in Span S. Then the set obtained by adjoining v to S is linearly independent.

Proposition 15: Any linearly independent set S in a finite-dimensional vector space can be expanded to a basis.

Proposition 16: Any finite spanning set S in a non-zero vector space can be contracted to a basis.

Proposition 17: Let V be a finite-dimensional vector space with dimension n. Then:

a)

Any subset of V which contains more than n elements is linearly dependent

b) No subset of V which contains less than n vectors can span V

Proposition 18: If W is a proper subspace of a finite-dimensional space V, then W is also finite-dimensional and 0

< dim W < dim V.

Proposition 19: If U and W are subspaces of the vector space V, then V = U W if and only if V = U + W and U

W = {0}.

Proposition 20: If U and W are finite-dimensional subspaces of the vector space V, then dim (U + W) = dim U +

dim W dim (U W).

Corollary to Proposition 20: If V is the direct sum of the finite dimensional subspaces U and W, then dim V =

dim (U W) = dim U + dim W.

1. Corollary 1.1: An invertible matrix A is a product of elementary matrices. Any sequence of

row operations that reduces A to I also transforms I into A1.

Corollary 1.2: If A has a left inverse or a right inverse, then it has an inverse.

Corollary 1.3: Suppose a square matrix A is factored as a product of square matrices, i.e. A = A 1A2An (all

square matrices). Then A is invertible if and only if each Ai is invertible.

Corollary 1.4: (Alternative version of last equivalence in VIT): The matrix A is invertible if and only if the system

of equations Ax = b has a unique solution for each and every vector b in Rm.

Corollary 10.1: Let V be a vector space.

a) If U and W are two subspaces of V, then U W (i.e. the intersection of U and W) is also a subspace of V

b) If S = {v1,v2,.,vp} is a set of vectors in a vector space V, then Span S = Span {v 1,v2,.,vp} is the

smallest subspace which

contains S, i.e. if W is a subspace such that S W, then Span S W.

REMARK: In terms of this, Span S is sometimes described as the intersection of all subspaces of V

containing S. (Also left as an exercise.)

Theorem 1: The following are equivalent for an mm square matrix A:

a. A is invertible

b. A is row equivalent to the identity matrix

c. The homogeneous system Ax = 0 has only the trivial solution

d. The system of equations Ax = b has at least one solution for every b in Rm.

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