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cn

AND EARTHWORK CALCULATION SYSTEM

Dongming Fan1 and Guoqing Zhou2

1

2

Tel: (757) 683-3619; Fax: (757) 683-5655; E-mail: gzhou@odu.edu

ABSTRACT

In the design of highway, the cross-section mapping and the computation of earthwork are needed. This paper

first presents the design and implementation of a software system for road cross-section mapping and earthwork

calculation based on AutoCAD software, and then presents how to automatically determine the boundary of

earthwork, automatically map the highway cross-section in AutoCAD, automatically detecting the area of filling

and cutting earthwork, and automatically calculate the volume of filling and cutting Earthwork. Finally, this

paper describes the implementation of this system using AutoLISP based on AutoCAD. The project was

performed for the construction of Qinghai-Tibet Railway in China, funded by China Railway Engineering

Corporation. The results demonstrated that the designed and implemented system can successfully applied in the

mapping of highway cross-section and the calculation of highway earthwork.

INTRODUCTION

In highway and railway design, it usually is necessary to build the cross-section mapping along the

centreline of highway and railway (Djazmati 1982, Ferris 2002, 2001, Khattak et al. 2003, Taiganidis et al 1991),

and determine the volumes of various types of materials (Ayetey and Frempong 1996, Batayneh et al. 2002,

Simmons, 1981). This work was traditionally done manually, which is time-consuming and labor-intensive. On

the other hand, the procedures of computations and the final product, such as table, mapping standard, accuracy

in various companies have different requirements. This fact caused inconvenient for data sharing and data

compatibility. Therefore, the mapping of the cross-section along the centerline of highway and railway and the

volume computation of earthwork in China cannot meet the increasing civil projects requirement, especially I

highway design and construction. For example, volume computations on many types of construction projects are

required to determine the capacities of bins, tanks, reservoirs, and buildings, and to check stockpiles of

centerlines, while the current earthwork software in China cannot implement this function. Based on the fact

above, the technique group at the Chinese Railway Engineering Corporation was developing an entire complete

software system in order to meet the requirement of linear civil engineering, especially, highway and railway

engineering. This paper described our efforts, which is part of this software system.

Geospatial Goes Global: From Your Neighborhood to the Whole Planet

March 7-11, 2005 Baltimore, Maryland

http://www.paper.edu.cn

The computation of volumes is classified into direct measurement and indirect measurement. Direct

measurement of volumes is rarely employed in civil engineering, since it is difficult to actually apply a unit of

measure to the materials involved (Khattak et al 2003). Instead, indirect measurements are applied by measuring

line length and cross-section areas for the volume computation. Three principal approaches of the indirect

methods are used (Wolf and Ghilani 2002): (1) the cross-section method, (2) the unit-area, or borrow-pit, and (3)

the contour-area method. The cross-section method is widely employed in civil engineering, especially for

computing volumes of linear construction projects such as highways, railroads, and canals. Therefore, the

algorithm in our software is based on the cross-section method.

The procedures of the cross-section requires to compute ground profiles, called cross-sections, at intervals

of full- or half-stations along staked centerline of highway and railway. The cross-sectioning consists of

measuring ground elevations and their corresponding distances left and right perpendicular to the centerline.

Actually, a staked centerline of highway consists of many segments (Chinese Railway Design Institute 1998),

thus one usually used to fit these line segments using a smooth curve, in which all of staked points lie in the

curve. Figure 1 illustrates a cross-section of a real railway in China. As seen from Figure 1, the cross-section is a

polygon composed by ground lines measured in the earths surface and designed cross-sections. Moreover the

coordinates of each corners of polygon are known. Thus, the volume computation becomes the issue of how to

determine the coordinates of point J1 and J2. Classically, one determined the coordinates using rulers. For the

computer programming, the algorithm for computing the coordinates of intersects point will be implemented

through two equations described two straight lines. In order to increase the computational speed, this paper

presents a simple, but effective method. This method is based on complete enumerate, and adopt a complete

combination to determinate the coordinates of the intersection point of two straight lines. They are the following

four cases (Figure 2):

15.61

14.78

ground section

152.58

J1

J2

1.

2

1

1:

226.53

5

.2

designed section

5

1:0.2

h=-12.57m

3.75

3.75

140.01

1:0.

25

1:

DK041+420.00

A= -226.53m 2 (stone)

ASPRS 2005 Annual Conference

Geospatial Goes Global: From Your Neighborhood to the Whole Planet

March 7-11, 2005 Baltimore, Maryland

http://www.paper.edu.cn

ground line

ground line

designed line

designed line

J

C

(a)

(b)

B

ground line

ground line

designed line

designed line

C

(c)

(d)

Figure 2. The four cases of the ground line intersecting with designed line

In the four cases, the intersection in Figure 2a is from the ground line and the designed line, and other three

intersections are from the extension of either ground line or the designed line. The coordinates of intersect point,

J in Figure 2a is:

(x D xC ) (x B y A x A y B ) (x B x A ) (x D y C xC y D )

( x B x A ) ( y D y C ) ( x D xC ) ( y B y A )

( y D yC ) (x B y A x A y B ) ( y B y A ) (x D yC xC y D )

=

( x B x A ) ( y D y C ) (x D xC ) ( y B y A )

xJ =

yJ

With the coordinates of point J, the ratios of the intersect point to either the ground line or the designed line are,

respectively:

x A xJ y A y J

=

xJ xB y J y B

x x J yC y J

= C

=

xJ xD y J y D

measured =

designed

From the Figure 2a, 2b, 2c, and 2d, we have, respectively,

For Fig. 2a

For Fig. 2b

For Fig. 2c

For 2d

measured 0

designed 0

measured < 0

designed 0

measured < 0

designed < 0

measured 0

designed < 0

Geospatial Goes Global: From Your Neighborhood to the Whole Planet

March 7-11, 2005 Baltimore, Maryland

http://www.paper.edu.cn

Based on the inequations above, it is easy to distinguish the Figure 2a and 2b, 2c, and 2d. In other words, it

is easy to determine the locations of the ground line and the designed line, further to calculate the extent of

cutting and filling areas.

COMPUTATION OF EARTHWORK

The computation formula of earthwork can be derived from Figure 3. The basic steps are (1) determination

of the area of each cutting or filling cross-sections, (2) computation of volume of each cutting and filling areas,

and (3) accumulation of each cutting volume and filling volume.

ground section

cutting area

7.34

7.65

0.21

1.91

0.17

7.16

designed section

filling area

Figure 3. The computation of cross-section of cutting and filling areas

S=

1 x1

2 x2

y1 x 2

+

y 2 x3

y2

+L+

y3

xn

x1

yn

y1

The volume of each two neighbor segments along centerline can be calculated by:

Vi =

1

S i + S i +1 + S i S i +1 (DK i +1 DK i )

3

( i + 1) th cross-section segment;

n

V = Vi

i =1

Geospatial Goes Global: From Your Neighborhood to the Whole Planet

March 7-11, 2005 Baltimore, Maryland

http://www.paper.edu.cn

We implemented this system using AutoLISP language and Script file. This is because AutoCAD software

is widely used in many companies worldwide. The development for further applications based on the AutoCAD

will be able to directly be applied in these companies without any training. Consequently, the developed tools

will be able to have a good compatibility, easy-to-learn, and data sharing.

The Script file format, with extension scr, in AutoCAD is used. This type of file is a text file format, thus,

can be compatible for various versions of AutoCAD, but has a low function for handling graphs. Therefore, in

order to better develop the software tools, we use Script file to call AutoLISP commands to implement some

complex graphic processing functions (Rawls et al 1998). An example of this call is as follow:

(COMMAND "STYLE" "STANDARD" "Courier New" "" "" "" "" "")

(COMMAND "OSNAP" "NONE")

TEXT J BC -11.480,+147.975 +0.500 321 1:1.25

LINE +0.000,+139.870 +0.000,+152.580

ZOOM E

where the row 1 and 2 are to call the AutoLISP commands, to set the fonts as Courier New and close all the

object snap settings; the row 3 is a command to label text, and the row 4 is to draw line, the last line is to view

entire drawing on screen. Figure 1 is a result generated by our tool developed in this project.

REFERENCES

Ayetey, J.K.; Frempong, E.M., 1996. Engineering soils mapping in the tropical terrain: The Ghana experience

Bulletin of the International Association of Engineering Geology, no. 54, Oct, 1996, pp. 33-43

Batayneh, Awni T., Al-Diabat, Abdullah A. 2002. Application of a two-dimensional electrical tomography

technique for investigating landslides along the Amman-Dead Sea highway, Jordan, Environmental

Geology, vol. 42, no. 4, Jul 1, 2002, pp. 399-403

Chinese Second Railway Design Institute, Manual of Railway Surveying, Beijing Chinese Railway Press, 1998.

Grace, A.E., Pycock, D., Tillotson, H.T., and Snaith, M.S. 2000. Active shape from stereo for highway

inspection, Machine Vision and Applications, vol. 12, no. 1, Jul, 2000, pp. 7-15

Djazmati S. , 1982. Digital terrain models for detailed highway design and construction, ITC Journal, vol. 4, pp.

375-382

Ferris, John B., 2001. Singular value decomposition of road events into characteristic shapes, ASME

International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings, vol. 2, pp. 1067-1072

Ferris, John B., 2002. Singular value decomposition of road events into characteristic shapes American Society

of Mechanical Engineers, Dynamic Systems and Control Division, DSC, vol. 70, pp. 121-126

Khattak, Aemal J., Hallmark, Shauna; Souleyrette, Reginald, 2003. Application of Light Detection and Ranging

Technology to Highway Safety, Transportation Research Record, vol. 1836, no. 03-3332, pp. 7-15

Park, Dongjoo, and Rilett, Laurence R. 1998. Forecasting multiple-period freeway link travel times using

modular neural networks, Transportation Research Record, no. 1617, Sept., pp. 163-170

Park, Dongjoo, Rilett, Laurence R.; Han, Gunhee, 1998. Forecasting multiple-period freeway link travel times

ASPRS 2005 Annual Conference

Geospatial Goes Global: From Your Neighborhood to the Whole Planet

March 7-11, 2005 Baltimore, Maryland

http://www.paper.edu.cn

using neural networks with expanded input nodes: Proceedings of the International Conference on

Applications of Advanced Technologies in Transportation Engineering, pp. 325-332

Rawls, Rod, and Mark A. Hagen, 1998. AutoLISP Programming: Principles and Techniques, Goodheart Wilcox

Company; June 1, ASIN: 1566374170

Simmons Jr D.B., 1981. CE computing basics: highway vertical profile program, Civil Engineering, ASCE 51,

no. 9, p. 88-90

Taiganidis, J., Kanellaidis, G. 1991. Method for grading design of highways, Journal of Transportation

Engineering, vol. 117, no. 6, Nov-Dec, pp. 706-712

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March 7-11, 2005 Baltimore, Maryland

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