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Chapter 7

Structural Dynamics

MDOF system

Mq

&& + C q& + K q + f NL (q,q)

& = g (q, t )

Vector of nonlinear forces

In the nonlinear case

Mq

&& + K q + f NL ( q,q& ) = 0

Mq

&& + K q = 0

Structural eigenproblem

j th

K x( j ) = 2j M x( j )

eigenvector

j = 1, L , n

j th natural frequency

normal modes (NNMs) which is a

rigorous extension of the concept of

eigenmodes to nonlinear systems.

(not mature)

Structural Dynamics

MDOF system

Mq

&& + C q& + K q + f NL (q,q)

& = g (q, t )

Vector of nonlinear forces

Dynamic analysis

Prediction of the responses using a numerical integration procedure

(e.g. Newmarks schema)

the solution for industrial examples

Mechanical Vibrations

Part 2

Response of Nonlinear Systems

General form of the equilibrium equations

vector of internal forces

Mq

q 0 , q& 0 given

Let us rewrite the equilibrium equations in the form

r (q) = M q

&& + f(q, q)

& g (q, t ) = 0

residual vector

= q& *n+1

Newmarks formulas

&&n + h q

&&n+1

1

q n+1 = q n + h q& n + h 2 q

&&n+1

&&n + h 2 q

2

= q*n+1

may be rewritten as follows

1

*

&& n+1 =

q

q

q

n +1

n +1

2

h

q& n+1 = q& *n+1 +

q n+1 q*n+1

h

The residual equation is expressed in terms of qn+1 only

r (q n+1 ) = 0

Linearization :

( )

( ) ( )(

Jacobian (iteration) matrix :

=

I

h

&& g

f f q&

q

S(q ) =

+

+M

q q& q

q q

( )

q kn+1

r

=

q q kn +1

1

=

I

2

h

The iteration matrix is finally given by

1

t

S(q ) = K +

C +

M

2

h

h

t

At iteration k of the time step n+1 :

S q = r

k

( )

q kn+1

q k

1

k

&& =

q

q

h2

k

q& k =

q kn++11 q nk +1 + q k , etc

q k

h

M, f , p, S q 0 , q& 0

&&0

Compute q

&&0 = M 1 (g 0 f (q& 0 , q 0 ) )

q

Convergence ?

Time incrementation

t n +1 = t n + h

No

Prediction

&& n

q& n +1 = q& n + (1 ) h q

&& n

q n +1 = q n + h q& n + (0.5 ) h q

2

&& n +1 = 0

q

Residual vector evaluation

rn+1 = M q

Correction

q n +1 = q n+1 + q

q& n +1 = q& n+1 +

q

h

&& n +1 = q

&& n+1 +

q

1

q

2

h

Yes

10

y

l

m

mg

1

T = m x& 2 + y& 2

2

1

2

V = m g x + k (l l 0 )

2

with

l = x2 + y 2

Equations of motion

x

y

m &x& + k (l l 0 ) m g = 0 and m &y& + k (l l 0 ) = 0

l

l

2

l

l

x

x

y

l

0

0

k

k 1 + 3

3

l

l

l

0

t

K =

2

l0 x y

l

y

l

1 + 0

k

k

3

3

l

l

l

0

11

1

1

2

4

m = 1 kg , k = 30 N / m, g = 10 m / s 2 , l 0 = 1 m

h = 3 10 2 s, iteration treshold of r : m g 10 5 ,

x(0) = 0, y (0) = 1.5 m

Initial state

x& (0) = y& (0) = 0

12

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