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Mechanical Vibrations

Chapter 7

Direct Time-Integration Methods

Structural Dynamics

MDOF system

Mq
&& + C q& + K q + f NL (q,q)
& = g (q, t )
Vector of nonlinear forces

Modal analysis of the MDOF system (with no damping)


In the nonlinear case

In the linear case

Mq
&& + K q + f NL ( q,q& ) = 0

Mq
&& + K q = 0
Structural eigenproblem
j th

K x( j ) = 2j M x( j )

eigenvector

j = 1, L , n

j th natural frequency

Use of the concept of nonlinear


normal modes (NNMs) which is a
rigorous extension of the concept of
eigenmodes to nonlinear systems.
(not mature)

Structural Dynamics

MDOF system

Mq
&& + C q& + K q + f NL (q,q)
& = g (q, t )
Vector of nonlinear forces

Dynamic analysis
Prediction of the responses using a numerical integration procedure
(e.g. Newmarks schema)
the solution for industrial examples

Mechanical Vibrations

Part 2
Response of Nonlinear Systems

The non-linear case


General form of the equilibrium equations
vector of internal forces

&& + f(q, q& ) = g (q, t )


Mq

q 0 , q& 0 given

The implicit case


Let us rewrite the equilibrium equations in the form

r (q) = M q
&& + f(q, q)
& g (q, t ) = 0
residual vector

The non-linear case

= q& *n+1

Newmarks formulas

q& n+1 = q& n + (1 ) h q


&&n + h q
&&n+1
1

q n+1 = q n + h q& n + h 2 q
&&n+1
&&n + h 2 q
2

= q*n+1
may be rewritten as follows

1
*
&& n+1 =

q
q
q
n +1
n +1
2
h
q& n+1 = q& *n+1 +

q n+1 q*n+1
h

The non-linear case


The residual equation is expressed in terms of qn+1 only

r (q n+1 ) = 0

Let us denote q n +1 an approximate value of qn+1 at iteration k.


Linearization :

( )

( ) ( )(

rL q kn++11 = rL q kn+1 + S q kn+1 q kn++11 q kn+1


Jacobian (iteration) matrix :

tangent stiffness matrix

=
I
h

&& g
f f q&
q
S(q ) =
+
+M

q q& q
q q

( )
q kn+1

r
=

q q kn +1

1
=
I
2
h

tangent damping matrix

The non-linear case


The iteration matrix is finally given by

1
t
S(q ) = K +
C +
M
2
h
h
t

Solution of r (q n +1 ) = 0 in an iterative manner.


At iteration k of the time step n+1 :

S q = r
k

( )
q kn+1

q k
1
k
&& =
q

q
h2
k

q& k =
q kn++11 q nk +1 + q k , etc

q k
h

Implicit integration of the response


M, f , p, S q 0 , q& 0
&&0
Compute q

&&0 = M 1 (g 0 f (q& 0 , q 0 ) )
q
Convergence ?

Time incrementation

rn+1 < f n+1

t n +1 = t n + h

No

Prediction

&& n
q& n +1 = q& n + (1 ) h q

Calculation of the correction

&& n
q n +1 = q n + h q& n + (0.5 ) h q
2

&& n +1 = 0
q
Residual vector evaluation

&& n+1 + f n+1 g n+1


rn+1 = M q

S(q n+1 ) q = rn+1


Correction

q n +1 = q n+1 + q
q& n +1 = q& n+1 +

q
h

&& n +1 = q
&& n+1 +
q

1
q
2
h

Yes

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Example : the elastic pendulum

y
l

m
mg

1
T = m x& 2 + y& 2
2
1
2
V = m g x + k (l l 0 )
2
with

l = x2 + y 2

Equations of motion

x
y
m &x& + k (l l 0 ) m g = 0 and m &y& + k (l l 0 ) = 0
l
l
2

l
l
x
x
y
l
0
0
k
k 1 + 3

3
l
l
l
0
t

K =
2

l0 x y
l
y
l
1 + 0

k
k

3
3

l
l
l
0

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1
1

Response of the system using the Newmark method = , =


2
4

using the data

m = 1 kg , k = 30 N / m, g = 10 m / s 2 , l 0 = 1 m
h = 3 10 2 s, iteration treshold of r : m g 10 5 ,
x(0) = 0, y (0) = 1.5 m
Initial state
x& (0) = y& (0) = 0

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