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Development Theories

Development theories are an important asset for social work. These theories help to better
understand human behavior and how the development stages are related to the way a human will
behave in the future. We can find development theories in another discipline that are directly
related to the social work field, like Sigmund Freud’s Development Theory. In his theory, Freud
states the way parents deal with the child’s basic sexual and behavior desire will determine the
child’s personality (Oswalt, n.d.). He labeled five stages of children development, which we will
discuss further.
Sigmund Freud was a Austrian neurologist, who is best known as the father of
psychoanalysis, which analyses the conflicts based on the free associations, and unconsciousness
on a patient. He was influenced by the work of Josef Breuer. Freud theorizes that neuroses were
based on post traumatic events and believed those had been hidden from consciousness. The
method he used was making the patient recall the event to confront them and by this, discard the
event to be out of neurotic symptoms. His emphasis on his theory of Psychosexual Theory and
the sexual origins of patient’s neuroses cost Freud to end the work relationship with Breuer. This
point of view about sexuality was sees as scandalous in the early 1900’s.
Freud’s Theory stated that each stage was focused on the sexual activity and the pleasure in
any particular area of the body. The first stage, Oral, is focused on the pleasure of sucking and
biting. The second stage, Anal, is focused in the anus, since it is the time to control the bowel
movements. The third stage is known as the Phallic, and is centered in the genital stimulation and
the sexual identification. In addition, Freud stated that during this stage, the children trend to
love the opposite sex parent, and this idea was called the Oedipus Complex, based on Oedipus

because the behavior and the motivation to behave in certain ways have their roots on the levels of awareness. The next stage is identified as the Latency period. The Psychoanalytic Theory helps the social worker. and develops a realistic appreciation of what is realistic and possible. The “Super Ego” is when the babies internalize and represent their parent’s values and rules. wishes. instinct and self urges for gratification. (Greene. Besides the fact that Freud’s Psychosexual Theory is not considered very accurate. He stated that all babies were dominated by an unconscious.desires to marrying his mother and kill his father. so the client knows the social worker understands their needs. Social workers need to focus their efforts on the client and be able to put their feelings into words. The “Super Ego” will work with the “Ego” to control the “Id”. n. it has influenced all fields which work with the human behavior and development. The final stage is called Genital and this stage is prolonged until adulthood. called the ID. pp.) Freud also developed a theory in which he described the parts of consciousness. and the struggling with what is right or wrong. and sometimes individuals are not aware of what motivates them to act in certain ways. social workers must be able to have an active role interpreting the root of the human behavior in terms of ideas. and which the base of the conscience development is. where the sexual interests and activities comes to dominate an individual (Oswalt. 2009. The “Ego” arises when the babies attempts and fail to get what they want. In these cases. 31-33) . d. feeling and fantasies and the conflicts between them. where not interest in is sexual urges.

. K.google. (n. A. New Jersey. Human Behavior Theory: A diversity Framework (Second ed. Oswalt. (2015). 2016. R.org/poc/view_doc. Retrieved September 17.gulfbend.. 2016. Place of publication not identified: Cengage Learning. & Kropf.d..).php?type=doc Zastrow. from https://books.com/books?id=BX5UAQAAQBAJ Greene. Understanding human behavior and the social environment. Human Behavior Theory and Social Work Practice. N. R.). from http://www.d. (n. K.). Gulf Bend MHMR Center. NY: New Brumswick. (2009). C.References Greene. & Kirst-Ashman. Retrieved September 16. R. R.