You are on page 1of 24

Presented by

First Lieutenant Geraldine George


Legal Officer
Armed Forces of Liberia (AFL)
Overview
 AFL Military History & Heritage
 AFL Military Training
 Liberia Defense Sector Reform – Operation
ONWARD LIBERTY
 AFL Military Justice System
Military History & Heritage
• Liberian military established in 1908
• Armed Forces of Liberia (AFL) created in 1962
• 1989-2003: AFL entangled in conflict during civil war period
• 2003: AFL disbanded
• 2006: New AFL Army formed
• AFL trained by U.S. Military Contractors using U.S. Army
Doctrine
• 2007: First soldiers graduate from initial training
• January 2010: Onward Liberty formed
• February 2010: Activation of Coast Guard
Military History & Heritage
 AFL consists of Army and
Coast Guard
 Military service eligibility
 Must be at least 18 yrs
 Both male and female
 Officers must be a college
graduate
 Enlisted must be a high
school graduate
 Fitness Standards
Military Training
• ECOWAS
• OCS Rwanda, Sierra Leone, and Nigeria
• Jungle School in Nigeria
• US Military
• Basic Training by U.S. Military Contractors (2006-2009)
• Various technical training in U.S. (Army, Marine, and Coast
Guard)
• Other Military Training
• China (IT and Engineering)
• AFL
• Initial Entry Training (IET)
• Advanced Individual Training (AIT)
• LOAC Training
Barclay Training Center (BTC)
• AFL HQ and MOD
CampMilitary
• Future site National Tubman
Response Center (NMRC)
Camp Todee
Camp Ware
• Armed Forces Training
Center
• Maneuver areas
• Small arms training
MONROVIA: • Potential sniper course
Barclay Training Center Camp Ware
Edward Binyah Kesselley (EBK)
• 23rd BDE (2 Bns, MP, ENG)
• Barracks , armory, motor
pool
• Small arms training

EBK Camp Todee


• Historical significance to
AFL
• AFL develop plan to
revitalize
• UNMIL train and work
w/AFL
AFL Structure
Personnel: *Note: AFL COIC is a Nigerian General
• 2120 AFL Personnel
• 16 ECOWAS seconded officers
(Nigeria, Ghana, Sierra Leone, Benin)
• 10 ECOWAS Enlisted (Nigeria)
• 56 U.S. Mentors

AFL HQ
MLC

Armed Forces
Training 23rd Brigade Coast Guard
Center

Military Police Engineer


1st BN 2nd BN Support (CSS)
Company Company

7
Presented by
Major Arthur A. Ayo-Aghimien II
Judge Advocate
United States Air Force
Agenda
 ONWARD LIBERTY
 Mission Statement
 Staff Capabilities
 Objectives
 Accomplishments
 AFL Military Justice System
ONWARD LIBERTY
Mission Statement
Advise and mentor the Armed Forces of Liberia in order
to develop the AFL’s ability to build and maintain a
professional and capable military force that is subservient
to a democratic government.
OL Mentors Capabilities
• Infantry • Communications
• Combat Engineer • Medical Doctor,
• Administration PA, and medics
• Legal • Military Police
• Doctrine & • Scouts
Education • Logistics
• Intelligence • Supply
ONWARD LIBERTY
Objectives
 Develop AFL into an operationally capable force respectful of the
Rule of Law
 Mentor ethical and respectful officers and enlisted personnel
 Facilitate AFL’s staff to assume command responsibilities
 Establish a military justice system and judicial staff
 Assist AFL to match budget to mission requirements
 Improve AFL logistical support
 Assist AFL to repair relationship with the Liberian people
 Enhance AFL’s ability to vet and train future recruits
 Advise AFL on how to improve operational relationships with
Liberian National Police
2010 Accomplishments
• Engineers
• Developed proficiency in basic engineering
• Developed skills for combat engineering
• ENG Co worked alongside Sea Bees
• Medical
• Trained on suturing, oxygen tanks, and minor procedures.
• Developed Career Development Course (CDC) guidebooks
• Conducted medical outreach in local communities
• Logistics
• Established system to receive and issue supplies
• Enhanced motor transport operations and maintenance
• Prepared for fiscal year closeout (30 JUN)
• Established SOPs for warehouse and Motor-Transport
2010 Accomplishments
• Communications
• Restored communication equipment operational
• Trained operators
• Public Affairs
• Reestablished AFL Guardian (newspaper)
• Improved partnership between AFL and MoD Public
Affairs
• Established partnership for Public Affairs between
MoD, AFL HQ, and BDE
2010 Accomplishments
• Operations
• Established an Expert Infantry Badge program
• Established an MOU for training with UNMIL
• Increased coordination between AFL HQ J3, J5, J7 staff
• Assisted in developing National Military Response
Center
• AFL Professional Development
• Established PME program at AFL HQ and 23rd BDE

• Military Ethics

• Officer Command Responsibility


2010 Accomplishments
• Military Police/Force Protection
• Developed a Quick Reaction Force capability
• AFL assumed security EBK, minus armory and
ammunition supply point
• Established SOP for EBK Interior Guard Force
• Legal
• Created a Military Legal Center (MLC)
• Selected and trained legal officers and clerks
• Eliminated old AFL practices such as arbitrary
confinement
• Instituted a Magistrate program to direct searches,
seizures and confinement
AFL Military Justice
• Sources of AFL Military Justice
• Liberian Constitution
• International Law
• Uniform Code of Military Justice
• Adopted U.S. UCMJ in 2008
Military Legal Center
• MLC established in February 2010
• Mission: To assist commanders in maintaining good order and
discipline within the AFL
• Train AFL personnel on UCMJ, Ethics, LOAC, etc
• MLC consists of 6 legal officers & 7 legal clerks
• Initial training by OL Legal Mentors
• 5 Week course on legal principles, doctrines, and MJ processes
• Partners for MLC training
• American Bar Association
• International Red Cross
• USAID
• Liberia Law School
• Ministry of Justice
Challenges of MLC
• AFL developed without a legal system for discipline
• Soldiers lack basic knowledge of the principles of law
• Commanders conforming to the Rule of law
• Conflict of Doctrines (i.e. U.S., ECOWAS, British, and
Chinese)
• Detention & Confinement Facility
• MoD involved in MJ issues
• Corruption by Commanders and senior officers
• Lack of financial resources
• No lawyers
• Cannot try cases via courts-martial
• Must refer felonious crimes to MoJ for civilian trials
• Working with the judicial sector
Military Justice System
 Administrative Process
 Nonjudicial Punishment under Article 15, UCMJ
Minor Disciplinary Infractions such as

 i.e. Dereliction of duty, tardiness, or false statements
 AFL Disciplinary Board
 Used for more egregious crimes, but not felonious
 i.e. AWOL, larceny, disrespect officer/SNCO/NCO
 Both officers and enlisted allowed in this forum
 Panel of three officer members
 Enlisted Boards have two officers and one enlisted member

 Ministry of Justice
 Serious (felonious) crimes are handled via civilian judicial
system
 i.e. Murder, sexual assault, or drugs
REPORT CLOSURE COMMANDER
ACTION

MEMBER SHOWS LEGAL REPORT OF DISPOSITION


DISPOSITION RECOMMENDATION

LEGAL MONITORING REPORT OF RECOMMEND


INVESTIGATION ENFORCEMENT
ADMIN PROCESS

REFER MEMBER TO INVESTIGATION LEGAL


PROPER PROCESS

NOTIFY MEMBER LEGAL NOTIFY MEMBER

CIVIL WARRANT MEMBER COURT ORDER


SUMMONS FINES

IMMEDIATE
COMMANDER

CIVIL
COMPLAINT
MoD Decision
Adjudication ?????
of Crime
After
Continue Release 48 Hours
Detention Accused
If exigent circumstances, MLC Monitors LNP
detain and seek legal Investigation/
Yes No opinion Disposition

Refer Internal Determine/Continue


Magistrate Makes To MP Disposition Detention/Release
Determination
Major Minor CDR Consult
Legal Officer
Magistrate Legal Officer
Review w/24 hrs Reviews/Advises
the Magistrate CDR Detain

Legal Officer Before confinement


Reviews/Advises or w/24 hrs of Officer Through If Turned Over to
the Magistrate confinement C/O of Soldier AFL

MP/PM CDR AFL Soldier LNP Detains


Detains Soldier Witnesses Crime Soldier

PROBABLE CAUSE DETERMINATION


“To avoid arbitrary and capricious confinement”

Detention/Confinement
of AFL Soldier
AFL Legal Team
Questions?

24