CONTENTS

1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 ANAGRAM ENGINE 1.2 DEFINITIONS OF ANAGRAM 1.3 HISTORY 1.4 SOME FACTS TO ITS RELEVANCE 1.4.1 PANAGRAM 1.4.2 AMBIGRAM 1.4.3 BLANAGRAM 1.4.4 PALINDROME 1.4.5 SCRABBLE 2 AIM 2.1 PERMUTATION 2.2 COUNTING PERMUTATIONS 2.3 DICTIONARY 2.3.1 TYPES OF DICTIONARIES 2.3.2 ANAGRAM DICTIONARY 2.3.3 ONLINE DICTIONARY 2.4 SCOPE 2.4.1 ASTRONOMY 2.4.2 PSEUDONYMS 2.4.3 GAMES AND PUZZLES 2.4.4 ANAGRAMMATIC POEM 2.4.5 DICTIONARY ATTRIBUTE 2.4.6 CRYPTIC CROSSWORD 2.4.7 SECURITY AND ENCRYPTION 2.4.7.1 SKYPE SOFTWARE 3 MATERIALS AND METHODS 3.1 PLATFORM 3.2 OVERVIEW 3.3 FEATURES 3.4 DESIGN 3.5 APPLICATION 3.6 IMPLEMENTATION 1 1 1 2 3 3 3 5 5 7 9 9 10 11 12 13 14 14 14 15 16 16 17 17 24 24 26 26 26 27 27 29 30

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3.7 DISCUSSIONS 3.7.1 ARE THERE ANY UNUSUAL VARIETIES OF ANAGRAMS? 3.7.2 WHAT IS THE LONGEST ONE-WORD ANAGRAM?

31 31

32 3.7.3 WHAT SET OF LETTERS HAS THE MOST ONE-WORD ANAGRAMS? 33 3.7.4 WHAT IS THE POINT OF ANAGRAMS? 33 3.7.5 HOW DO YOU CREATE ANAGRAMS? 34 3.7.6 WHAT ARE THE HALLMARKS OF A GOOD ANAGRAM? 35 3.7.7 SKETCH OF ALGORITHM 38 3.7.8 METHOD (CONTD.) 39 4 RESULT 4.1 PROGRAM RUN 4.2 PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS 4.2.1 A SLOW ALGORITHM 4.2.2 A FAST ALGORITHM 4.3 PLATFORM USAGE 4.3.1 PERMUTATION.C 4.3.2 DICTIONARY.C 4.3.3 FUSE.C 4.3.4 RESULTANT 5 SUMMARY 5.1 CONCLUSIONS 6 BILBIOGRAPHY/REFERENCES 41 41 42 42 42 43 43 43 44 44 45 46 47

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1. INTRODUCTION
1 . 1 T H E A N AG R AM E N G I N E Most anagram programs try to "guess" the anagrams you'll like. Some of them even do a good job, picking out rude or funny words. But the specialt y of the An agram Engine is it puts you in control. It is able to solve and create anagrams in a way that automatic systems simply can't. It's like the forensic expert of anagrams! Its incredible number-crunching power is able to calculate all the permutations of words in your phrase, not just a small selection. But it can return a lot of anagrams. If your name is 30 letters long, it could easil y generate over a million anagrams! This is just too many to manage, so there are some option settings to provide you with a way to filter your results and control the engine. This wa y you can zoom-in on the best anagrams, and this page describes how to do it. 1 . 2 D E F I N I T I O N S O F AN A G R AM A word that is spelled with the exact same letters as another word. Example: RIDES is an anagram of SIRED and vice versa. L i t e r a l l y, t h i s m e a n s t h e l e t t e r s o f a w o r d a r e r e a d b a c k w a r d s . Can also refer to the change of one word into another by the transposition of letters. Often, the letters of a word read out of order to discover hidden meaning. Word formed by rearranging the letters of another word; 'lager' is an anagram of 'regal', as too is 'large'. An anagram (Greek ana- = "back" or "again", and graphein = "to write") is the result of permuting the letters of a word or words in such a manner as to produce other words that possess

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linguistic meaning. The meaning of the new word so created is seen in the context of or in contrast to that of the old word so as to create humorous or interesting associations between the t w o . A n a g r a m s a r e a t yp e o f w o r d p l a y.

1 . 3 H I S T O RY The construction of anagrams is an amusement of great antiquity. They were popular throughout Europe during the Middle Ages, although it is widely believed the art of a n a g r a m m i n g w a s i n v e n t e d b y t h e G r e e k p o e t L yc o p h r o n . W. Camden (Remains, 7th ed., 1674) defines "Anagrammatisme" as "a dissolution of a name truly written into his letters, as his elements, and a new connection of it by artificial transposition, without addition, subtraction or change o f a n y l e t t e r, i n t o d i f f e r e n t w o r d s , m a k i n g s o m e p e r f e c t s e n s e appl y able (i.e., applicable) to the person named." Dryden disdainfully called the pastime the "torturing of one poor word ten thousand wa ys" but many men and women of note have found amusement in it. A well-known anagram is the change of "Ave Maria, gratia p l e n a , D o m i n u s t e c u m " ( H a i l M a r y, f u l l o f g r a c e , t h e L o r d [ i s ] with you) into "Virgo serena, pia, munda et immaculata" (Serene virgin, pious, clean and spotless). Among others are the anagrammatic answer to Pilate's question, "Quid est v e r i t a s ? " ( W h a t i s t r u t h ? ) , n a m e l y, " E s t v i r q u i a d e s t " ( I t i s t h e man who is here); and the transposition of "Horatio Nelson" into "Honor est a Nilo" (Latin = Honor is from the Nile); and of "Florence Nightingale" into "Flit on, cheering angel". James I's courtiers discovered in "James Stuart" "a just master", and converted "Charles James Stuart" into "Claims Arthur's seat" (even at that point in time, the letters I and J were more-or-less interchangeable). "Eleanor Audeley", wife of Sir John Davies, is said to have been brought before the High Commission in 1634 for extravagances, stimulated by the discovery that her name could be transposed to "Reveale, O Daniel", and to have been laughed out of court by another anagram submitted by the dean of the Arches, "Dame Eleanor Davies", "Never soe mad a ladie".

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1 . 4 S O M E FAC T S TO I T S R E L E VAN C E
1 . 4 . 1 PAN G R AM A pangram is a short sentence containing all 26 letters of the alphabet. Some reserve the term for sentences containing exactly 26 letters, sometimes referred to as perfect pangrams. By our definition of an anagram, all letters must be used once and only once, so only a 26-letter pangram is an anagram of the English alphabet. The most well-known pangrams are these:
• • •

The quick brown fox jumps over a lazy dog. Pack my box with five dozen liquor jugs. T h e f i v e b o x i n g w i z a r d s j u m p q u i c k l y.

E a c h i s s h o r t e r t h a n t h e l a s t , b u t l e t t e r s a r e s t i l l r e p e a t e d . To arrive at a perfect pangram, the use of obscure foreign words and abbreviations is often required, as seen in these examples:
• •

T V q u i z d r a g n ym p h b l e w J F K ' s c o x . C wm fjord-bank gl yphs vext quiz.

1 . 4 . 2 AM B I G R AM An ambigram, also sometimes known as an inversion, is a graphical figure that spells out a word not only in its form as presented, but also in another direction or orientation. Douglas R. Hofstadter describes an ambigram as a "calligraphic design that manages to squeeze two different readings into the selfsame set of curves." The first published reference to the t e r m w a s b y H o f s t a d t e r, w h o a t t r i b u t e s t h e o r i g i n o f t h e w o r d t o a f r i e n d . T h e 1 9 9 9 e d i t i o n o f H o f s t a d t e r ' s G ö d e l , E s c h e r, B a c h f e a t u r e s a 3 - D a m b i g r a m o n t h e c o v e r.

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AM B I G R AM T Y P E S Ambigrams usually fall into one of several categories: Rotational A design that presents several instances of words when rotated through a fixed angle. This is usually 180 degrees, but rotational ambigrams of other angles exist, for example 90 or 45 degrees. The word spelled out from the alternative direction(s) is often the same, but may be a different word to the initiall y presented form. A simple example is the lower-case abbreviation for "Down", dn, which looks like the lower-case word up when rotated 180 degrees. Mirror A design that can be read when reflected or viewed t h r o u g h a m i r r o r, u s u a l l y a s t h e s a m e w o r d o r p h r a s e b o t h wa ys, but not always. Figure-ground A design in which the spaces between the letters of one word form another word. Chain A design where a word (or sometimes words) are interlinked forming a repeating chain. Letters are usually overlapped meaning that a word will start partway through another word. Sometimes chain ambigrams are presented in the form of a circle. Space-filling Similar to chain ambigrams, but tile to fill the 2dimensional plane. 3-dimensional A design where an object is presented that will appear to read several letters or words when viewed from different angles. Such designs can be generated using constructive solid geometry. Perceptual shift A d e s i g n w i t h n o s ym m e t r y b u t c a n b e r e a d a s t w o different words depending on how the curves of the letters are interpreted. 6

Natural A natural ambigram is a word that possesses one or more o f t h e a b o v e s ym m e t r i e s w h e n w r i t t e n i n i t s n a t u r a l s t a t e , a n d r e q u i r i n g n o t yp o g r a p h i c s t y l i n g . F o r e x a m p l e t h e words "dollop", "suns" and "solos" are natural rotational ambigrams. The word "bud" forms a natural mirror ambigram when reflected h o r i z o n t a l l y. The word "CHOICE", in all capitals, forms a natural mirror ambigram w h e n r e f l e c t e d v e r t i c a l l y. Ambigrams are exercises in graphic design that play with o p t i c a l i l l u s i o n s , s ym m e t r y a n d v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n . A m b i g r a m lovers value especially those with a relation between form and content. Ambigrams feature prominently in Dan Brown's novel, Angels and Demons, of which the first UK release featured an a m b i g r a m o f t h e t i t l e o n t h e c o v e r. T h e a m b i g r a m s i n t h e n o v e l were designed by graphic artist John Langdon. Since the release of the bestseller sequel The Da Vinci Code , there has been a marked increase in the popularity and awareness of ambigrams, and this has led to a reprint of John Langdon's book on ambigrams entitled Wordplay.

1 . 4 . 3 B L AN AG R AM A blanagram (from blank+anagram) is a word which is an a n a g r a m o f a n o t h e r b u t f o r t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n o f a s i n g l e l e t t e r. The term has its origin in competitive Scrabble, where a blank t i l e o n a p l a ye r ' s r a c k m a y b e u s e d t o f o r m a n y o f s e v e r a l possible words in conjunction with the player's other tiles. 1 . 4 . 4 PAL I N D R O M E A palindrome is a word, phrase, number or other sequence of units that has the property of reading the same in either direction (the adjustment of punctuation and spaces between words is generally permitted). T Y P E S O F PAL I N D R O M E

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Symmetry by characters The most familiar palindromes, in English at least, are c h a r a c t e r - b y- c h a r a c t e r : t h e w r i t t e n c h a r a c t e r s r e a d t h e s a m e backwards as forwards. Palindromes may consist of a single word (such as "civic" or "level" ), a phrase or sentence ("Neil, a trap! Sid is part alien!"), or a longer passage of text ("Sit on a potato pan, Otis.") Some other examples are "Do geese see G o d ? " , " M r. O w l a t e m y m e t a l w o r m . " a n d " G o h a n g a s a l a m i , I ' m a lasagna hog." Spaces, punctuation and case are usually ignored. Three famous English palindromes are: "Able was I ere I saw Elba," honoring the first exile of Napoleon; "A man, a plan, a c a n a l : P a n a m a , " ( b y L e i g h M e r c e r, c o m m e m o r a t i n g T h e o d o r e Roosevelt or Ferdinand Lesseps), and "Madam, in Eden I'm Adam," (a reference to the creation story in the Bible). (This last example is still palindromic if "in Eden" is omitted. The response would be a one-word palindrome, "Eve.") A famous palindrome sentence in Portuguese is "Socorram-me, subi no onibus em Marrocos" which means "Help me, I took a bus in Morocco." Symmetry by words Some palindromes use words as units rather than letters. An example is "fall leaves after leaves fall" or "First Ladies rule the State and state the rule: ladies first". The Chinese palindromes described above are most like this type of English palindrome. Symmetry by lines Still other palindromes take the line as the unit. The poem D o p p e l g a n g e r, c o m p o s e d b y J a m e s A . L i n d o n , i s a n e x a m p l e . The dialogue "Crab Canon" in Douglas Hofstadter's Gödel, E s c h e r, B a c h i s n e a r l y a l i n e - b y- l i n e p a l i n d r o m e . T h e s e c o n d half of the dialog consists, with some very minor changes, of the same lines as the first half, but in reverse order and spoken by the opposite characters (i.e., lines spoken by Achilles in the f i r s t h a l f a r e s p o k e n b y t h e To r t o i s e i n t h e s e c o n d , a n d v i c e v e r s a ) . I n t h e m i d d l e i s a n o n - s ym m e t r i c a l l i n e s p o k e n b y t h e Crab, who enters and spouts some nonsense, apparently triggering the reversal. The structure is modeled after the

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musical form known as crab canon, in particular the canon a 2 c a n c r i za n s o f J o h a n n S e b a s t i a n B a c h ' s T h e M u s i c a l O f f e r i n g .

1 . 4 . 5 S C R AB B L E Scrabble is a popular word game and board game in which 2 to 4 players score points by forming words from individual lettered t i l e s o n a 1 5 - b y- 1 5 g a m e b o a r d . T h e w o r d s a r e f o r m e d a c r o s s and down in crossword fashion, and must appear in a standard dictionary. Official reference works (e.g. The Official Scrabble Players Dictionary, now in its 4th edition) that provide a list of permissible words, some of which are rarely found in standard English writing, are also available. The name Scrabble is a trademark of Hasbro, Inc. in the US a n d C a n a d a a n d o f J . W. S p e a r & S o n s P L C e l s e w h e r e . Scrabble was a trademark of Murfett Regency in Australia, until 1 9 9 3 w h e n i t w a s a c q u i r e d b y S p e a r. T h e g a m e i s a l s o k n o w n as Alfapet, FUNWORDER, S k i p - A- C r o s s and Palabras Cruzadas. The game is sold in 121 countries in 29 different language versions. Worldwide, one hundred million sets have been sold, and sets are found in one out of every three American homes. The game was created by architect Alfred Mosher Butts in 1938, as a variation on an earlier word game he invented called Lexiko. The two games had the same set of letter tiles, whose distributions and point values Butts worked out meticulously by counting letter usage from the various sources including The N e w Yo r k T i m e s . T h e n e w g a m e , w h i c h h e c a l l e d " C r i s s Crosswords", added the 15-by-15 game board and the c r o s s w o r d - s t yl e g a m e p l a y. In 1948, lawyer James Brunot, a resident of Newtown, Connecticut, bought the rights to manufacture the game in exchange for granting Butts a royalty on every unit sold. Though he left most of the game (including the distribution of letters) unchanged, Brunot slightly rearranged the "premium" squares of the board and simplified the rules; he also changed the name of the game to "Scrabble", a real word which means " t o g r o p e f r a n t i c a l l y, " a n d s o l d s e t s t o , a m o n g o t h e r c u s t o m e r s ,

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Macy's game.

department store, which

created

a demand

for

the

N O TAT I O N S Y S T E M I n t h e n o t a t i o n s ys t e m c o m m o n i n t o u r n a m e n t p l a y, c o l u m n s a r e labeled "A-O" and rows "1-15". A play is usually identified in the format xy WORD score or WORD xy score, where: x d e n o t e s t h e c o l u m n o r r o w o n w h i c h t h e p l a y' s m a i n w o r d extends; y denotes the second coordinate of the main word's f i r s t l e t t e r, a n d W O R D i s t h e m a i n w o r d . A l t h o u g h u n n e c e s s a r y, additional words formed by the play are occasionally listed after the main word and a slash. In the case where the play of a single tile formed words in each direction, one of the words is arbitrarily chosen to serve as the main word for purposes of notation. When a blank tile is employed in the main word, the letter it has been chosen to represent is indicated with a lower case l e t t e r, o r, i n h a n d w r i t t e n n o t a t i o n , w i t h a s q u a r e a r o u n d t h e l e t t e r. P a r e n t h e s e s a r e s o m e t i m e s a l s o u s e d t o d e s i g n a t e a blank, although this may create confusion with a second (optional) function of parentheses, namely indication of an e x i s t i n g l e t t e r o r w o r d t h a t h a s b e e n " p l a ye d t h r o u g h " b y t h e main word.

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2 AI M
Finding the possible anagrams of the particular input and to output the string as an anagram to the desired input string. The three important tasks performed through the program: 1. Permutation of the given string 2. Dictionary building with all possible combination of words 3. Checking all the permuted values of the string with the dictionary file of the presence of data. 2 . 1 P E R M U TAT I O N P e r m u t a t i o n i s t h e r e a r r a n g e m e n t o f o b j e c t s o r s ym b o l s i n t o distinguishable sequences. Each unique ordering is called a permutation.For example, with the numerals one to six, each possible ordering consists of a complete list of the numerals, without repetitions. There are 720 total permutations of these numerals, one of which is: "4, 5, 6, 1, 2, 3". The general concept of permutation formally in different contexts:

can

be

defined

more

In set theory, a permutation is an ordered sequence c o n t a i n i n g e a c h s ym b o l f r o m a s e t o n c e , a n d o n l y o n c e . Neither "1, 2, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6" nor "1, 2, 4, 5, 6" are permutations of the sequence "1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6". A permutation is distinct from a set or combination, in that the ordering of elements in a set is not considered relevant. In other words, the set-theoretic definition of permutation is that of a one-to-one correspondence, or bijection, of labeled elements with "positions" or "places" which are arranged in a straight line. In finite geometry, permutative places may be arranged in more geometrically complicated structures than a simple straight line; for instance, a square. For examples, see finite geometry of the square and cube.

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In abstract algebra and related areas, the elements of permutation may not be arranged in a linear order, or indeed in any order at all. Under this refined definition, a permutation is a bijection from a finite set, X, onto itself. This allows for the definition of groups of permutations; see permutation group. In combinatorics, the term permutation also has a traditional meaning which includes ordered lists without repetition and where one or more elements from the list are omitted from the distinguishable orderings; for example, a permutation of "1,2,4,3" with "5" and "6" omitted.

2 . 2 C O U N T I N G P E R M U TAT I O N S I n t h i s s e c t i o n o n l y, t h e t r a d i t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n i s u s e d : a permutation is an ordered list without repetitions, perhaps missing some elements. The number of permutations of a sequence is:

where:
• • •

r is the size of each permutation, n is the size of the sequence from which elements are permuted, and ! i s t h e f a c t o r i a l o p e r a t o r.

For example, if we have a total of 10 elements, the integers {1, 2, ..., 10}, a permutation of three elements from this set is (5, 3 , 4 ) . I n t h i s c a s e , n = 1 0 a n d r = 3 . To f i n d o u t h o w m a n y u n i q u e s e q u e n c e s , s u c h a s t h e o n e p r e v i o u s l y, w e c a n f i n d , w e need to calculate P(10,3) = 720. An easier way to compute this is to take the first r numbers of n factorial; in this case: take the first 3 numbers in 10 factorial, so you would have 10 times 9 times 8, which equals 720. O t h e r, o l d e r n o t a t i o n s i n c l u d e n P r , P n , r , o r n P r . A c o m m o n modern notation is (n)r which is called a falling factorial. H o w e v e r, t h e s a m e n o t a t i o n i s u s e d f o r t h e r i s i n g f a c t o r i a l ( a l s o called Pochhammer symbol) n(n + 1)(n + 2)...(n + r − 1). 12

With the rising factorial notation, the number of permutations is (n − r + 1)r.

2 . 3 D I C T I O N AR Y The dictionary is a list of words with their definitions, a list of c h a r a c t e r s w i t h t h e i r g l yp h s , o r a l i s t o f w o r d s w i t h corresponding words in other languages. In a few languages, words can appear in many different forms, but onl y the lemma form appears as the main word or headword in most dictionaries. Many dictionaries also provide pronunciation information; grammatical information; word derivations, h i s t o r i e s , o r e t ym o l o g i e s ; i l l u s t r a t i o n s ; u s a g e g u i d a n c e ; a n d examples in phrases or sentences. Dictionaries are most commonly found in the form of a book, but more and more dictionaries are produced as software runs from electronic PDA or a general purpose computer. Some dictionary software are capable of speak out the word it contains, and so being called talking dictionar y. Most dictionaries are produced by lexicographers.

WORD ORDER To d a y, d i c t i o n a r i e s o f m o s t l a n g u a g e s w i t h a l p h a b e t i c a n d s y l l a b i c w r i t i n g s ys t e m s l i s t w o r d s i n l e x i c o g r a p h i c o r d e r, usually alphabetical or some analogous phonetic system. In many languages, words are grouped together according to their true or normal origin ("root"), and these roots are a r r a n g e d a l p h a b e t i c a l l y. I f E n g l i s h d i c t i o n a r i e s w e r e a r r a n g e d like this, the words "import", "export", "support", "report", "porter", "port", "important" and "transportation" would all be listed under "port". This method has the advantage that all w o r d s o f a c o m m o n o r i g i n a r e l i s t e d t o g e t h e r, b u t t h e disadvantage is that one has to know how to recognize all prefixes of a word before one can look it up. Some Hebrew, S a n s k r i t , a n d A r a b i c d i c t i o n a r i e s w o r k t h i s w a y. The main Chinese Japanese dictionary body of modern dictionaries of languages using the logographic writing system, such as Chinese, and Korean, is sorted phonetically: most Chinese order entries according to the Latin alphabet with the

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pin yin spelling, Japanese dictionar y use the order of the kana s yllabic script, and Korean dictionaries use the hangul alphabet. However the dictionary for these languages also usually include a list of characters sorted in a non-phonetic w a y, i n o r d e r t o a l l o w r e a d e r s t o f i n d w o r d s w r i t t e n i n logograms whose pronunciation is not known. Chinese characters may be sorted according to one of many schemes based on the component parts of the characters (radicals, number of strokes, overall shape). The first English alphabetical dictionary came out in 1604 and alphabetical ordering was a rarity until the 18th century. Before alphabetical listings, dictionaries were organized by topic, i.e. a list of animals all together in one topic 2 . 3 . 1 T Y P E S O F D I C T I O N AR I E S The following titles will give you an idea of the variety of d i c t i o n a r i e s a v a i l a b l e a t t h e L i b r a r y. T h e r e a r e m a n y m o r e . Language dictionaries Collins English dictionary English-Zulu Zulu-English dictionary Webster's third new international dictionary of the English language English-Xhosa dictionary The Oxford dictionary of abbreviations Dictionary of contemporary slang A dictionary of English usage in Southern Africa Subject dictionaries Dictionary of library terms Dictionary of legal words and phrases Dictionary of feminist theory A dictionary of birds Dictionary of applied ecology Dictionary of advertising and marketing A political and economic dictionary of Africa Biographical dictionaries Dictionary of African biography

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A biographical dictionary of artists The biographical dictionary of scientists An African biographical dictionary Biographical dictionary of the Middle East

2 . 3 . 2 A N AG R AM D I C T I O N AR Y In the main type of anagram dictionary, the letters in words or p h r a s e s a r e r e a r r a n g e d i n a l p h a b e t i c a l o r d e r, a n d t h e s e transpositions are themselves then ordered alphabetically within word-length groups, so that any words consisting of this group of letters can be found. This arrangement is designed for u s e i n s o l v i n g w o r d p u z z l e s s u c h a s c r o s s w o r d s , o r f o r p l a yi n g games such as Scrabble. The first such anagram dictionary was t h e " C r o s s w o r d A n a g r a m D i c t i o n a r y" b y R . J . E d w a r d s , p u b l i s h e d in 1978 b y Barrie & Jenkins in the UK and Ma yflower Books in the US. I n t h e o t h e r k i n d o f a n a g r a m d i c t i o n a r y, w o r d s a r e c a t e g o r i z e d into equivalence classes that consist of words with the same n u m b e r o f e a c h k i n d o f l e t t e r. T h u s w o r d s w i l l o n l y a p p e a r w h e n other words can be made from the same letters. Anagram dictionaries were formerly produced by hand, but can now be trivially generated from any machine-readable word list b y c o m p u t e r, b y s o r t i n g w o r d s i n o r d e r o f t h e i r s o r t e d l e t t e r strings.

2 . 3 . 3 O N L I N E D I C T I O N AR I E S Dictionaries do not only appear in paper format. Many are also a v a i l a b l e e l e c t r o n i c a l l y. The examples below are online dictionaries. Dictionary present online Oxford English dictionary online Cambridge dictionaries online

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Language dictionaries, multi-lingual dictionaries, specialty dictionaries, the Endangered Language Repository - the sanctuary for endangered languages on the World Wide Web, and more Online Medical & Science dictionaries Oxford Reference Online

2.4 SCOPE
2.4.1 AS TRON OM Y Perhaps the practical use to which anagrams have been turned is to be found in the transpositions in which some of the astronomers of the 17th century embodied their discoveries with the design apparently of avoiding the risk that, while they were engaged in further verification, the credit of what they had found out might be claimed by others. Thus Galileo announced h i s d i s c o v e r y t h a t Ve n u s h a d p h a s e s l i k e t h e M o o n i n t h e f o r m " H a e c i m m a t u r a a m e i a m f r u s t r a l e g u n t u r - o y" ( L a t i n : T h e s e immature ones have already been read in vain by me -oy), that i s , w h e n r e a r r a n g e d , " C yn t h i a e f i g u r a s a e m u l a t u r M a t e r A m o r u m " ( L a t i n : T h e M o t h e r o f L o v e s [ = Ve n u s ] i m i t a t e s t h e f i g u r e s o f C y n t h i a [ = t h e m o o n ] ) . S i m i l a r l y, w h e n R o b e r t H o o k e discovered Hooke's law in 1660, he first published it in anagram form. One might think of this as a primitive example of a zero-knowledge proof. There are also a few "natural" anagrams, English words unconsciously created by switching letters around. The French chaise longue ("long chair") became the American "chaise lounge" by metathesis (transposition of letters and/or sounds). It has also been speculated that the English "curd" comes from the Latin crudus ("raw"). 2.4.2 PSEUDONYMS T h e p s e u d o n ym s a d o p t e d b y a u t h o r s a r e o f t e n t r a n s p o s e d forms, more or less exact, of their names; thus "Calvinus" becomes "Alcuinus" (V = U); "Francois Rabelais" = "Alcofribas N a s i e r " ; " A r r i g o B o i t o " = " To b i a G o r r i o " ; " E d w a r d G o r e y " = 16

"Ogdred Wear y", = "Regera Dowd y" or = "E. G. Dead worr y" (and others); "Vladim ir Nabokov" = "Vi vian Darkbloom ", = " V i v i a n B l o o d m a r k " o r = " D o r i a n V i v a l c o m b " ; " B r y a n Wa l l e r Proctor" = "Barry Cornwall, poet"; "Henry Rogers" = "R. E. H. G r e y s o n " ; " ( S a n c h e ) d e G r a m o n t " = " Te d M o r g a n " , a n d s o o n . I t is to be noted that several of these are "imperfect anagrams", letters having been left out in some cases for the sake of easy pronunciation. " Te l l i a m e d " , a s i m p l e r e v e r s a l , i s t h e t i t l e o f a w e l l k n o w n w o r k b y " D e M a i l l e t " . O n e o f t h e m o s t r e m a r k a b l e p s e u d o n ym s o f t h i s c l a s s i s t h e n a m e " Vo l t a i r e " , w h i c h t h e c e l e b r a t e d p h i l o s o p h e r assumed instead of his family name, François Marie Arouet, and which is now generally allowed to be an anagram of " A r o u e t , l [ e ] j [ e u n e ] " ( U = V, J = I ) t h a t i s , " A r o u e t t h e y o u n g e r " . Anagramming may also be used to good effect in farce or parod y. A writer might take an unpleasant person he knows, base a character in a book on him, and then transpose the letters in the source's name.

2 . 4 . 3 G AM E S A N D P U Z Z L E S A n a g r a m s a r e i n t h e m s e l v e s a r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y, b u t a l s o make up part of many other games, puzzles and game shows.

I n S c r a b b l e , t h e p l a ye r s m u s t m a k e w o r d s b y p l a c i n g lettered tiles on a grid to score points in an effort to have scored more points than the opponent at the end of the game. A version of Scrabble called Clabbers, the name itself being an anagram of Scrabble, allows for tiles to be placed in any order on the board as long as they anagram to a valid word.

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I n B o g g l e , p l a ye r s m a k e w o r d s f r o m a g r i d o f s i x t e e n random letters by joining adjacent cubes to make valid words. On the British game show Countdown contestants are given 30 seconds to make the longest word from nine random letters. One point is awarded per letter of the word, or 18 points for using all nine letters. O n t h e B r i t i s h g a m e s h o w B r a i n Te a s e r , c o n t e s t a n t s a r e shown a word broken into randomly arranged segments and must announce the whole word. At the end of the game there is a "Pyramid" which starts with a three-letter word. A letter appears in the line below to which the p l a ye r m u s t a d d t h e e x i s t i n g l e t t e r s t o f i n d a s o l u t i o n . T h e p a t t e r n c o n t i n u e s u n t i l t h e p l a ye r r e a c h e s t h e f i n a l e i g h t l e t t e r a n a g r a m . T h e p l a ye r w i n s t h e g a m e b y s o l v i n g a l l the anagrams within the allotted time. In several newspapers across the United States people figure out anagrams in the Jumble word search.

2 . 4 . 4 A N AG R AM M AT I C P O E M An agrammatic poetr y is poetry wi th the constrained form that either each line or each verse is an anagram of all other lines or verses in the poem. Writing anagrammatic poetry is a form of a constrained writing similar to writing pangrams or long alliterations.

2 . 4 . 5 D I C T I O N AR Y AT T R I B U T E S 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Meanings Spellings Adjectives Adverbs Conjunctions Interjections Nouns Prepositions Pronouns

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1 0 . Ve r b s The above d i c t i o n a r y. given are the 10 conventional attributes of a

But in this as we can see that there is no such attribute called ANAGRAM. But now in a dictionary software which is found in the internet also implements the anagram attribute for the users to check a word in a dictionary and also have a reference to the anagram o f t h a t p a r t i c u l a r w o r d w h i c h i s b e i n g l o o k e d f o r.

2 . 4 . 6 C RY P T I C C R O S S W O R D Cryptic crossw ords are a particular type of crossword which have become widely popular in the UK, and several other Commonwealth nations such as Australia, New Zealand, Canada and India. They are also popular in Israel in a Hebrew form (where they are called "Logic crosswords"). Each individual clue is a word puzzle in and of itself (often involving anagrams).

Ty p e s o f c l u e Pure cryptic The original cryptic clue, more commonl y known as a double entendre or cryptic definition. Clues of this sort appeared in "straight" crosswords before cryptic crosswords existed. Here the clue appears to say one thing, but with a slight shift of v i e w p o i n t i t s a y s a n o t h e r. F o r e x a m p l e : A word of praise? (8)

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would give the answer ALLELUIA, a word used by Christians to praise God, but not what first springs to mind on reading the clue. Notice the question mark - this is often (though by no means alwa ys) used by compilers to indicate this sort of clue is one where you need to interpret the words in a different fashion. The way that a clue reads as an ordinary sentence is called its surface reading and is often used to disguise the need for a different interpretation of the clue's component words. Another one might be: The flower of London? (6) which gives THAMES, a flow-er of London. Here, the surface r e a d i n g s u g g e s t s a f l o w e r, w h i c h d i s g u i s e s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e name of a river is required. T h i s t yp e o f c l u e r a r e l y a p p e a r s i n A m e r i c a n c r yp t i c s , b u t i s c o m m o n i n B r i t i s h a n d C a n a d i a n c r yp t i c s . Double definition A c l u e m a y, r a t h e r t h a n h a v i n g a d e f i n i t i o n p a r t a n d a w o r d p l a y part, have two definition parts. Thus Not seeing window covering (5) would have the answer BLIND, because both "not seeing" and "window covering" can mean blind. Note that since these definitions come from the same root word, an American magazine might not allow this clue. American double definitions tend to require both parts to come from different roots, like in this clue: Eastern European buff (6) This takes advantage of the two ver y different meanings (and pronunciations) of POLISH, the one with the long "o" sound meaning "someone from Poland" and the one with the short "o" s o u n d m e a n i n g " m a k e s h i n y. " T h e s e c l u e s t e n d t o b e s h o r t ; i n p a r t i c u l a r, t w o - w o r d c l u e s a r e almost alwa ys double definition clues. In the UK, multiple definitions are occasionally used e.g.

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Burn milk making hot drink for clergyman (6) is a triple definition of BISHOP ("mulled red wine flavoured with bitter oranges", or "to burn milk in cooking" as well as the usual meaning) - but in the US this would be considered unsound. Hidden words This is when the answer appears in the clue, but it is hidden within one or more words. For example: Found ermine, deer hides damaged (10) gives UNDERMINED, which means (crypticall y at least) "damaged" and can be found as part of "Found ermine deer". The word "hides" is used to mean "contains," but in the surface sense suggests "pelts". P o s s i b l e i n d i c a t o r s o f a h i d d e n c l u e a r e " i n p a r t " , " p a r t i a l l y" , "in", "within", "hides", "conceals", "some", and "held by". Another example: Introduction to do-gooder canine (3) gives DOG, which is the first part of, or "introduction to", the word "do-gooder", and means "canine". Reversals A word that gets turned around to make another is a reversal. For example: Returned beer fit for a king (5) The answer is REGAL. "Lager" (i.e., "beer") is "returned" to make regal. Other indicator words include "receding", "in the mirror", "going the wrong wa y", "returns", "to the left" or "left" (for across clues), and "rising", "overturned" or "mounted" or "comes up" (for down clues).

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Hidden backw ards Sometimes the above two clue types are combined. A word may be hidden backwards, such as in the clue: Cruel to turn part of internet torrid (6) The answer to this clue is ROTTEN. The phrase "to turn" indicates "to reverse," and "part of" suggests a piece of "internet torrid". "Charade" clues Here the answer is formed by joining individually clued words t o m a k e a l a r g e r w o r d ( n a m e l y, t h e a n s w e r ) . For example: Outlaw leader managing money (7) The answer is BANKING formed by BAN for "outlaw" and KING f o r " l e a d e r " . T h e d e f i n i t i o n i s " m a n a g i n g m o n e y" . W i t h t h i s example, the words go next to each other in the clue as they do i n t h e a n s w e r - i t i s n ' t s p e c i f i c a l l y i n d i c a t e d . H o w e v e r, w h e r e the parts go in relation to others is sometimes indicated with words like "against", "after", "with" or (in a down clue) "above". Containers A c o n t a i n e r c l u e p u t s o n e s e t o f l e t t e r s i n s i d e a n o t h e r. S o : Perfume cloth seen in European nation (9) gives FRAGRANCE, ("European nation"). placing "rag" ("cloth") inside "France"

Other container indicators are "around," "clutching," "enters," and the like. An agrams An anagram is a rearrangement of a certain section of the clue t o f o r m t h e a n s w e r. T h i s i s u s u a l l y i n d i c a t e d b y w o r d s s u c h a s 'strange', 'bizarre', 'muddled', 'wild', 'drunk', or any other term indicating change. One example might be:

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Chaperone shredded corset (6) g i v e s E S C O R T, w h i c h m e a n s c h a p e r o n e a n d i s a n a n a g r a m o f corset, indicated by the word shredded. Anagram clues are characterized by an indicator word adjacent t o a p h r a s e t h a t h a s t h e s a m e n u m b e r o f l e t t e r s a s t h e a n s w e r. The indicator tells the solver that there is an anagram they n e e d t o s o l v e i n o r d e r t o w o r k o u t t h e a n s w e r. I n d i c a t o r s c o m e either before or after the letters to be anagrammed. In an A m e r i c a n c r yp t i c , o n l y t h e w o r d s g i v e n i n t h e c l u e m a y b e anagrammed; in some older puzzles, the words to be anagrammed may be clued and then anagrammed. So in this clue: Chew honeydew fruit (5) c h e w i s t h e a n a g r a m i n d i c a t o r, h o n e y d e w c l u e s m e l o n , w h i c h i s t o b e a n a g r a m m e d , a n d f r u i t i s t h e d e f i n i t i o n f o r t h e a n s w e r, LEMON. Other possible anagram indicators, among the thousands possible: abstract, absurd, alien, alternative, awkward, bad, b a r m y, b l e n d , b r e a k , c a r e l e s s , c h a o t i c , c l u m s y, c o n t r i v e d , c o n v e r t , c o r r u p t , d e v e l o p , d o c t o r, e c c e n t r i c , f a b r i c a t e , f a k e , f i x , f u d g e , g r o u n d , h a m m e r, h y b r i d , j o s t l e , k n e a d , l o o s e , m a y b e , m e s s y, m i x , m u t a n t , n e w, n o v e l , o d d , o r d e r, o u t , o u t r a g e o u s , p e c u l i a r, p o o r, q u e s t i o n a b l e , r e m o d e l , r e s o r t , r o u g h , s o r t , s t r a n g e , s t yl e , t r o u b l e d , t w i s t , u n c o n v e n t i o n a l , u n s o u n d , v a r y. It is common for the setter to use a juxtaposition of anagram indicator and anagram that form a common phrase, to make the clue appear as much like a 'normal' sentence or phrase as possible. For example: Lap-dancing friend (3) uses dancing as the indicator as it fits cohesively with lap to g i v e t h e s o l u t i o n , PA L . Homophones Homophones are words that sound the same but have different meanings, such as "night" and "knight". Homophone clues always have an indicator word or phrase that has to do with

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p h o n e t i c s , s u c h a s " r e p o r t e d l y" , " t h e y s a y" , " v o c a l " , " t o t h e audience", "by the sound of it", and "is heard". An example of a homophone clue is We hear twins shave (4) w h i c h i s a c l u e f o r PA R E , w h i c h m e a n s " s h a v e " a n d i s a h o m o p h o n e o f p a i r, o r " t w i n s " . T h e h o m o p h o n e i s i n d i c a t e d b y "we hear". If the words are the same length, the homophone indicator is always adjacent to the word that is not the answer; therefore, in the previous example, "we hear" was adjacent to "twins" and the answer was pare rather than pair. The indicator could come between the words if the y were of different lengths and the enumeration was given, such as in the case of "right" and "rite". Deletions Deletions consist of beheadments, curtailments, and internal d e l e t i o n s . I n b e h e a d m e n t s , a w o r d l o s e s i t s f i r s t l e t t e r. I n c u r t a i l m e n t s , i t l o s e s i t s l a s t l e t t e r, a n d i n t e r n a l d e l e t i o n s r e m o v e a n i n n e r l e t t e r, s u c h a s t h e m i d d l e o n e . An example of a beheadment: Beheaded celebrity is sailor (3) T h e a n s w e r w o u l d b e TA R , a n o t h e r w o r d f o r " s a i l o r " , w h i c h i s a " c e l e b r i t y" , o r s t a r, w i t h o u t t h e f i r s t l e t t e r. Other indicator words of beheadment include "topless", and "after the first". An example of curtailment: Shout, "Read!" endlessly (3) The answer is BOO. If you ignore the punctuation, a book is a " r e a d " , a n d b o o k " e n d l e s s l y" i s b o o , a " s h o u t " . Other indicators include "nearly" and "unfinished". An example of internal deletion: "don't start",

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Challenging sweetheart heartlessly (6) The answer is DARING, which means "challenging", and is d a r l i n g w i t h o u t i t s m i d d l e l e t t e r, o r " h e a r t l e s s l y" . Combination clues A c l u e m a y e m p l o y m o r e t h a n o n e m e t h o d o f w o r d p l a y. F o r example: Illustrious baron returns in pit (9) The answer is HONORABLE. "Baron" "returns", or is reversed, and put inside "pit" or hole, to make honorable, or "illustrious". "& lit." A r a r e c l u e t yp e i s t h e so". In this case, both are the same. In some an exclamation point at "& lit." clue, standing for "and literally the wordplay and the definition halves publications this is alwa ys indicated by the end of the clue. For example:

God incarnate, essentially! (4) The answer is ODIN. The Norse god Odin is hidden in "god i n c a r n a t e , " a s c l u e d b y " e s s e n t i a l l y, " b u t t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f O d i n is also the whole clue, as Odin is essentially a God incarnate. This satisfies the "& lit." clue definition, but as read is clearly a cr yp tic clue. Another e xam ple: Spoil vote! (4) would give the answer VETO as a perfectly passable clue in a c o n c i s e c r o s s w o r d ; i n a c r y p t i c p u z z l e , h o w e v e r, s p o i l w o r k s a s an anagram indicator for vote, while the whole clue is, with a certain amount of license allowed to crossword setters, the definition.

2.4.7 SECURITY AN D ENCRYP TION T h e a n a g r a m h a s i t s r e a c h t i l l t h e c r y p t o g r a p h y. T h i s i s v e r y n i c e t o o l f o r t h e e n c r y p t i o n a n d d e c r yp t i o n p u r p o s e . T h e r e m a y

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b e m a n y w a y s t o e n c r y p t a n d d e c r yp t a d a t a b u t i f t h e p r o g r a m is intended to be made simpler and less complex in all areas then the anagram implementation suits. 2 . 4 . 7 . 1 S K Y P E S O F T WAR E Ever since Skype was launched, we have said it is, and will r e m a i n , s e c u r e . Yo u r S k y p e - t o - S k yp e c a l l s , c h a t s a n d o t h e r c o m m u n i c a t i o n s a r e e n d - t o - e n d e n c r yp e d . What sometimes happens is that after claiming this, we get a s k e d “ yo u s a y y o u ’ r e s e c u r e … s o p r o v e i t ” . T h a t ’ s a v a l i d q u e s t i o n — a n yo n e c a n c l a i m a n y t h i n g a b o u t t h e i r o w n p r o d u c t . We have recognized that you want more assurance than we sa y ourselves. So we did a comprehensive external security review of Skype, focusing on its encryption methods. We’re happy to report that the work is now complete and you c a n d o w n l o a d t h e f u l l r e p o r t f r o m S k yp e s e c u r i t y c e n t e r ( P G P signature). There’s also an executive summary available. Note t h a t w h i l e t h e f u l l r e p o r t w a s c o m p i l e d b y D r. To m B e r s o n f r o m Anagram Laboratories, the summary is written in-house by Sk ype based on the full report . I n s h o r t , t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e r e p o r t i s t h a t S k yp e u s e s standards-based methods and a sound design to secure its users, software and system, and does what it says — is secure. Of course, security is never “done”, so security continues to be a n i m p o r t a n t t r a c k i n a l l S k yp e d e v e l o p m e n t s a n d o p e r a t i o n s . W h o a r e To m B e r s o n a n d A n a g r a m a n y w a y ? I n t h e i r o w n w o r d s : Anagram Laboratories is an information security consultancy based in Palo Alto, CA. Anagram was founded in 1986, back b e f o r e i n f o r m a t i o n s e c u r i t y w a s c o o l . D r. T h o m a s A . B e r s o n , A n a g r a m ’ s o w n e r, h a s m o r e t h a n 3 5 y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e i n c r y p t o l o g y a n d c o m p u t e r s e c u r i t y. To m i s a l o n g - t i m e v e t e r a n i n f o r m a t i o n s e c u r i t y e x p e r t w i d e l y r e s p e c t e d b y h i s p e e r s i n t h e s e c u r i t y i n d u s t r y. T h i s i s a standard method of doing this type of research — you don’t just want to get anyone “off the street” to do it for you because the name is unknown in the industry and the quality cannot be trusted. Our selection process for finding the right person and c o m p a n y t o d o t h e S k yp e s e c u r i t y r e v i e w s t a r t e d m o r e t h a n a

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year ago, and we’re happy to have ended up working with Dr Berson. As Skype and its software and services evolve, so does the need for security and similar reviews. This won’t remain the last one, but we’re happy to get our securit y review process off the ground with this report.

3 M AT E R I AL S AN D M E T H O D S

3 . 1 P L AT F O R M
P e r l i s a d yn a m i c p r o g r a m m i n g l a n g u a g e c r e a t e d b y L a r r y Wa l l and first released in 1987. Perl borrows features from a variety

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o f o t h e r l a n g u a g e s i n c l u d i n g C , s h e l l s c r i p t i n g ( s h ) , AW K , s e d and Lisp. S t r u c t u r a l l y, P e r l i s b a s e d o n t h e b r a c e - d e l i m i t e d b l o c k s t y l e o f AW K a n d C , a n d w a s w i d e l y a d o p t e d f o r i t s s t r e n g t h s i n s t r i n g processing, and lack of the arbitrary limitations of many scripting languages at the time. Dynamic programming language is a term used broadl y in computer science to describe a class of high level programming languages which share many common runtime behaviors that other languages might perform during compilation, if at all. These behaviors could include extension of the program, by adding new code, or by extending objects and definitions, or by m o d i f y i n g t h e t yp e s y s t e m , a l l d u r i n g p r o g r a m e x e c u t i o n . T h e s e behaviors can be emulated in nearly an y language of sufficient c o m p l e x i t y, b u t d y n a m i c l a n g u a g e s p r o v i d e d i r e c t t o o l s t o m a k e use of them. D y n a m i c l a n g u a g e s a n d d yn a m i c t yp i n g a r e n o t i d e n t i c a l concepts, and a dynamic language need not be dynamically t yp ed, though man y d ynam ic languages are d ynam icall y t yped. 3.2 OVERVIEW Perl is a general-purpose programming language originally developed for text manipulation and now used for a wide range of tasks including system administration, web development, network programming, GUI development, and more. The language is intended to be practical (eas y to use, efficient, c o m p l e t e ) r a t h e r t h a n b e a u t i f u l ( t i n y, e l e g a n t , m i n i m a l ) . I t s major features include support for multiple programming paradigms (procedural, object-oriented, and functional styles), automatic memory management, built-in support for text processing, and a large collection of third-party modules.

3 . 3 F E AT U R E S The overall structure of Perl derives broadly from C. Perl is procedural in nature, with variables, expressions, assignment statements, brace-delimited code blocks, control structures, and subroutines.

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Perl also takes features from shell programming. All variables are marked with leading sigils, which unambiguously identify t h e d a t a t yp e ( s c a l a r, a r r a y, h a s h , e t c . ) o f t h e v a r i a b l e i n c o n t e x t . I m p o r t a n t l y, s i g i l s a l l o w v a r i a b l e s t o b e i n t e r p o l a t e d directly into strings. Perl has many built-in functions which provide tools often used in shell programming (though many of these tools are implemented by programs external to the shell) like sorting, and calling on system facilities. Perl takes lists from Lisp, associative arrays (hashes) from AW K , a n d r e g u l a r e x p r e s s i o n s f r o m s e d . T h e s e s i m p l i f y a n d facilitate many parsing, text handling, and data management tasks. In Perl 5, features were added that support complex data structures, first-class functions (i.e. closures as values), and an object-oriented programming model. These include references, packages, class-based method dispatch, and lexically scoped variables, along with compiler directives (for example, the strict pragma). A major additional feature introduced with Perl 5 was the ability to package code as r e u s a b l e m o d u l e s . L a r r y Wa l l l a t e r s t a t e d t h a t " T h e w h o l e i n t e n t of Perl 5's module system was to encourage the growth of Perl culture rather than the Perl core." All versions of Perl do automatic data typing and memory management. The interpreter knows the type and storage requirements of every data object in the program; it allocates a n d f r e e s s t o r a g e f o r t h e m a s n e c e s s a r y. L e g a l t yp e c o n v e r s i o n s a r e d o n e a u t o m a t i c a l l y a t r u n t i m e ; i l l e g a l t yp e conversions are fatal errors. 3.4 DESIGN The design of Perl can be understood as a response to three broad trends in the computer industry: falling hardware costs, r i s i n g l a b o r c o s t s , a n d i m p r o v e m e n t s i n c o m p i l e r t e c h n o l o g y. Many earlier computer languages, such as Fortran and C, were designed to make efficient use of expensive computer hardware. In contrast, Perl is designed to make efficient use of expensive computer programmers. Perl has many features that ease the programmer's task at the expense of greater CPU and memory requirements. These include automatic memor y management; dynamic typing;

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strings, lists, and hashes; regular expressions; introspection and an eval() function. Wa l l w a s t r a i n e d a s a l i n g u i s t , a n d t h e d e s i g n o f P e r l i s v e r y much informed by linguistic principles. Examples include Huffman coding (common constructions should be short), good end-weighting (the important information should come first), and a large collection of language primitives. Perl favors language constructs that are natural for humans to read and w r i t e , e v e n w h e r e t h e y c o m p l i c a t e t h e P e r l i n t e r p r e t e r. Perl syntax reflects the idea that "things that are different should look different". For example, scalars, arrays, and hashes have different leading sigils. Arra y indices and hash ke ys use different kinds of braces. Strings and regular expressions have different standard delimiters. This approach can be contrasted with languages like Lisp, where the same Se x p r e s s i o n c o n s t r u c t a n d b a s i c s yn t a x i s u s e d f o r m a n y different purposes. Perl does not enforce any particular programming paradigm (procedural, object-oriented, functional, etc.), or even require the programmer to choose among them. There is a broad practical bent to both the Perl language and the community and culture that surround it. The preface to Programming Perl begins, "Perl is a language for getting your job done." One consequence of this is that Perl is not a tidy language. It includes features if people use them, tolerates e x c e p t i o n s t o i t s r u l e s , a n d e m p l o ys h e u r i s t i c s t o r e s o l v e s yn tactical am biguities. Because of the forgi ving nature of the c o m p i l e r, b u g s c a n b e h a r d t o f i n d s o m e t i m e s . D i s c u s s i n g t h e variant behaviour of built-in functions in list and scalar contexts, the perlfunc(1) manual page says "In general, they do w h a t y o u w a n t , u n l e s s y o u w a n t c o n s i s t e n c y. " Perl has several mottos that convey aspects of its design and use. One is "There's more than one way to do it ." (TIMTOW TDI, u s u a l l y p r o n o u n c e d ' Ti m To a d y ' ) . O t h e r s a r e " P e r l : t h e S w i s s Army Chainsaw of Programming Languages" and "No unnecessary limits". A stated design goal of Perl is to make easy tasks eas y and difficult tasks possible. Perl has also been c a l l e d " T h e D u c t Ta p e o f t h e I n t e r n e t " . There is no written specification or standard for the Perl language, and no plans to create one for the current version of

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Perl. There has only ever been one implementation of the i n t e r p r e t e r. T h a t i n t e r p r e t e r, t o g e t h e r w i t h i t s f u n c t i o n a l t e s t s , stands as a de facto specification of the language.

3 . 5 A P P L I C AT I O N S Perl has many and varied applications, compounded by the availability of many standard and third-party modules. P e r l h a s b e e n u s e d s i n c e t h e e a r l y d a ys o f t h e W e b t o w r i t e CGI scripts. It is known as one of "the three Ps" (along with P y t h o n a n d P H P ) , t h e m o s t p o p u l a r d yn a m i c l a n g u a g e s f o r writing Web applications (which now also include Ruby). It is also an integral component of the popular LAMP solution stack for web development. Large projects written in Perl include S l a s h , B u g z i l l a , T W i k i a n d M o v a b l e Ty p e . M a n y h i g h - t r a f f i c websites, such as Amazon.com, Livejournal.com, Ti c k e t m a s t e r. c o m a n d I M D b . c o m u s e P e r l e x t e n s i v e l y. P e r l i s o f t e n u s e d a s a g l u e l a n g u a g e , t yi n g t o g e t h e r s ys t e m s and interfaces that were not specifically designed to interoperate, and for "data munging", ie. converting or processing large amounts of data for tasks like creating reports. In fact, these strengths are intimately linked. The combination makes perl a popular all-purpose tool for system administrators, particularly as short programs can be entered and run on a single command line. Perl is also widely used in finance and bioinformatics, where it i s v a l u e d f o r r a p i d a p p l i c a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t a n d d e p l o ym e n t , and the ability to handle large data sets.

3 . 6 I M P L E M E N TAT I O N P e r l i s i m p l e m e n t e d a s a c o r e i n t e r p r e t e r, w r i t t e n i n C , t o g e t h e r with a large collection of modules, written in Perl and C. The source distribution is, as of 2005, 12 MB when packaged in a tar file and compressed. The interpreter is 150,000 lines of C c o d e a n d c o m p i l e s t o a 1 M B e x e c u t a b l e o n t yp i c a l m a c h i n e a r c h i t e c t u r e s . A l t e r n a t i v e l y, t h e i n t e r p r e t e r c a n b e c o m p i l e d t o a link library and embedded in other programs. There are nearly 500 modules in the distribution, comprising 200,000

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lines of Perl and an additional 350,000 lines of C code. (Much of the C code in the modules consists of character encoding tables.) The interpreter has an object-oriented architecture. All of the elements of the Perl language—scalars, arrays, hashes, coderefs, file handles—are represented in the interpreter by C structs. Operations on these structs are defined by a large collection of macros, typedefs and functions; these constitute the Perl C API. The Perl API can be bewildering to the uninitiated, but its entry points follow a consistent naming scheme, which provides guidance to those who use it. The execution of a Perl program divides broadly into two phases: compile-time and run-time.[9] At compile time, the interpreter parses the program text into a syntax tree. At run time, it executes the program by walking the tree. The text is parsed only once, and the syntax tree is subject to optimization before it is executed, so the execution phase is relatively e f f i c i e n t . C o m p i l e - t i m e o p t i m i z a t i o n s o n t h e s yn t a x t r e e i n c l u d e constant folding and context propagation, but peephole o p t i m i z a t i o n i s a l s o p e r f o r m e d . H o w e v e r, c o m p i l e - t i m e a n d r u n time phases may nest: BEGIN code blocks execute at compiletime, while the eval function initiates compilation during runtime. Both operations are an implicit part of a number of o t h e r s — m o s t n o t a b l y, t h e u s e c l a u s e t h a t l o a d s l i b r a r i e s , k n o w n in Perl as modules, implies a BEGIN block. Perl has a context-sensitive grammar which can be affected by code executed during an intermittent run-time phase.[10] T h e r e f o r e P e r l c a n n o t b e p a r s e d b y a s t r a i g h t L e x / Ya c c lexer/parser combination. Instead, the interpreter implements i t s o w n l e x e r, w h i c h c o o r d i n a t e s w i t h a m o d i f i e d G N U b i s o n parser to resolve ambiguities in the language. It is said that "only perl can parse Perl", meaning that only the Perl interpreter (perl) can parse the Perl language (Perl). The truth of this is attested to by the persistent imperfections of other programs that undertake to parse Perl, such as source code anal yzers and auto-indenters, which ha ve to contend not onl y with the many ways to express unambiguous syntactic constructs, but also the fact that Perl cannot be parsed in the general case without executing it. Perl is distributed with some 120,000 functional tests. These run as part of the normal build process, and extensively exercise the interpreter and its core modules. Perl developers

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rely on the functional tests to ensure that changes to the i n t e r p r e t e r d o n o t i n t r o d u c e b u g s ; c o n v e r s e l y, P e r l u s e r s w h o see the interpreter pass its functional tests on their system can h a v e a h i g h d e g r e e o f c o n f i d e n c e t h a t i t i s w o r k i n g p r o p e r l y. Maintenance of the Perl interpreter has become increasingly difficult over the years. The code base has been in continuous development since 1994. The code has been optimized for p e r f o r m a n c e a t t h e e x p e n s e o f s i m p l i c i t y, c l a r i t y, a n d s t r o n g internal interfaces. New features have been added, yet virtuall y complete backward compatibility with earlier versions is maintained. The size and complexity of the interpreter is a barrier to developers who wish to work on it.

3.7 DISCUSSIONS

3 . 7 . 1 A R E T H E R E A N Y U N U S U AL VAR I E T I E S O F A N AG R AM S ? ( A d a p t e d f r o m W o r d s a t P l a y b y O . V. M i c h a e l s e n , a n d w i t h a d d i t i o n a l m a t e r i a l f r o m W i l l i a m Tu n s t a l l - P e d o e ) A n a n t i g r a m , o r a n t o n ym o u s a n a g r a m , h a s a n o p p o s i t e m e a n i n g to the subject text. Such anagrams are quite uncommon and often accidentally discovered. Here are some great examples:
• • • • • • • • •

Funeral = real fun! Antagonist = not against. Evangelists = evil's agents. T h e O s c a r N o m i n a t i o n s = I t ' s n o t a c i n e m a h o n o r. Protectionism = nice to imports. Saintliness = entails sins. Sweltering heat = the winter gales Within earshot = I won't hear this. On a slightly more taboo subject, Mick Unite Against Fascism -- Antisemitic fun's a gas.

Tu l l y ' s

A word that is spelled backward to become a new word, a word reversal, has been called an anadrome. This term combines 'ana-' from anagram and '-drome' from palindrome. Lewis Carroll called this a semordnilap ('palindromes' spelled b a c k w a r d s ) . O l d e r s o u r c e s ( D u d e n e y, 1 9 2 9 ) r e f e r r e d t o t h e s e as antigrams. Examples of this genre include: 33

• • •

Evian = naive. Pat = tap. Samaroid = dioramas.

Tr a n s p o s e d c o u p l e t s , o r p a i r a g r a m s , a r e s i n g l e - w o r d a n a g r a m s that placed together create a short meaningful phrase.
• • • • • • • • • • • •

A c t o r s c o - s t a r. Best bets. Demo mode. Elvis lives. Float aloft. Latent talent. American Cinerama. L o v e l y v o l l e y. Nameless salesmen. Oriental relation. Outer route. Streaming emigrants.

3 . 7 . 2 W H AT I S T H E L O N G E S T O N E - W O R D A N AG R AM ? Which is the longest anagram of a single word into another single word depends on the amount of transposition of letters that is acceptable and also whether using rather contrived technical, scientific, or medical names is acceptable. According to the Guinness Book of Records, the longest nonscientific English words that form anagrams are the 18-letter o n e s b e l o w ; h o w e v e r, t h e y r e q u i r e n o m o r e t h a n a s i m p l e s w a p of two letters.

conversationalists = conservationalists

The longest scientific anagram is 27 letters, but this involves j u s t t h e s i m p l e m o v e m e n t o f o n e l e t t e r.

Hydroxydeoxycorticosterones Hydroxydesoxycorticosterone.

=

Our list of 12- to 17-letter words that can be anagrammed into a n o t h e r w o r d w a s c o m p i l e d b y W i l l i a m Tu n s t a l l - P e d o e a n d L a r r y Brash. Being on the list requires that no more than three consecutive letters from the original be repeated in sequence in the anagram, but the list does include unusual or technical words. 34

3 . 7 . 3 W H AT S E T O F L E T T E R S H AS T H E M O S T O N E - W O R D A N AG R AM S ? One problem in answering this question is that there is no one authority as to what constitutes a legitimate word. Ross Eckler's Making the Alphabet Dance lists 24 anagrams of the letters 'aest', but many of these are quite obscure and they are drawn from a wide range of sources. Merriam-Webster's unabridged dictionary contains entries for these 14 words:

a n e s t r i , a s t e r i n , e r a n i s t , n a s t i e r, r a t i n e s , r e s i a n t , r e s t a i n , r e t a i n s , r e t i n a s , r e t s i n a , s a i n t e r, s t a i n e r, s t a r n i e , s t e a r i n

Other wordplay sources omit some of these words and/or add others, including the multi-word anagrams 'tin ears' and 'in tears'. W o r d Wa y s h a s f o r s o m e y e a r s b e e n c o l l e c t i n g a n a g r a m s o f ' a e g i n r s t ' . W i l l i a m Tu n s t a l l - P e d o e i n d i c a t e s t h a t a w h o p p i n g 157 of these have some justification. 3 . 7 . 4 W H AT I S T H E P O I N T O F AN A G R AM S ? E s s e n t i a l l y, a n a g r a m m i n g i s a r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y. G r e a t pleasure can be obtained when one finds a witty anagram in someone's name. We will often find the 'hidden truth' in an anagram of a person's name:

M a t t h i a s N . R i t c h i e . = I a m t h e A n t i c h r i s t ! ( M i c k Tu l l y, 1998)

A 'visitor' to alt.anagrams presented the above false name for anagramming. Practical joking is not unknown in alt.anagrams . An important aim is to find a relevant or apt anagram that is amusing, poignant, or abusive in content, and one that either paraphrases the original text or creates an 'antigram', an anagram with the opposite meaning to the subject text. Occasionally anagram puzzles are presented to be solved, e.g., a b o o k t i t l e a n d a u t h o r. I t i s a g r e a t f e e l i n g w h e n y o u c r a c k t h e code.

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To p i c a l a n a g r a m s f r o m c u r r e n t e v e n t s a r e f r e q u e n t l y a s o u r c e of interest. For example:
• •

B o s n i a n Wa r C r i m e s . = S e r b i a n r a c i s m w o n . ( To m M y e r s , 1999) Whitehouse Intern Miss Monica Samille Lewinsky = Hey! William Clinton arouses me. Hi! I'm Ken's witness! ( W i l l i a m Tu n s t a l l - P e d o e , 1 9 9 8 )

Occasionally this newsgroup is belittled by outsiders who think that it is all a waste of time and that we 'are stupid geeks and s h o u l d g e t a l i f e ' . S u c h c r i t i c i s m i s d e a l t w i t h i n o u r u s u a l w a y. We anagram the crap out of the critic! 3 . 7 . 5 H O W D O Y O U C R E AT E A N AG R AM S ? There are two basic generator program. wa ys: Manually or with an anagram

The main advantages of using a computer program are speed a n d t h e g e n e r a t o r ' s d i c t i o n a r y. T h e y w i l l g e n e r a t e h u n d r e d s o r thousands of anagrams in a minute or two. Most will be meaningless, and one has to wade through them, find the most appropriate combinations of words, arrange the words, etc. There has been debate in the group as to whether using an anagram generator is 'cheating'. Sometimes, generators will quickl y reveal a great anagram, but there is always a modicum of luck and a lot of skill needed to find the best anagrams. The consensus here is that it is not cheating. Programs have also been written that juggle items in a long list (recording artists, aphorisms, etc.) between the 'left' and 'right' side until an anagram is formed; while opinions vary as to the artistry and m e r i t o f a n a g r a m s g e n e r a t e d i n t h i s w a y, t h e r e i s r o o m i n t h e group for such anagrams and civil discussion of them. 3 . 7 . 6 W H AT AR E T H E H AL L M AR K S O F A G O O D AN AG R AM ? These are hallmarks of a good anagram, mostly as gleaned from erudite postings on this subject by Richard Brodie, William Tu n s t a l l - P e d o e , Richard Grantham, and Jean Fontaine. Examples from the folk in alt.anagrams are included. (1) Meaningfulness. It must be more than just a series of u n c o n n e c t e d w o r d s i n n o p a r t i c u l a r o r d e r. I t m u s t ' s o u n d ' l i k e a meaningful phrase or a sentence, however condensed.

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Condensations that sound like newspaper headlines are quite acceptable. Simply reordering the words can make a difference.

Male chauvinism = Va l i u m m a c h i n e s - - i s q u i t e b i z a r r e a n d m e a n i n g l e s s . Ah, masculine vim -is a bit b e t t e r. I ' m s u c h a v i l e m a n . ( J a yb u r, 2 0 0 0 ) - - m a k e s g r e a t s e n s e .

(2) Aptness, relevance, or reference to the original phrase. This m a y i n v o l v e t h e u s e o f s yn o n ym s , p a r a p h r a s i n g t h e o r i g i n a l phrase, or a commentary or joke about the original. The more relevant the anagram is to the original phrase, the better it will be regarded. It may even be the direct opposite in meaning (an antigram). Examples might also include a question in the original phrase that is answered in the anagram.

Madonna Louise Ciccone = Anomalous coincidence -not very apt. Musical? Done cocaine? No! -- is getting more relevant. One cool dance musician. (David Bourke, 2000) -- this one is very relevant.

( 3 ) E x p l a n a t i o n . A n a n a g r a m s h o u l d b e s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y, s e l f sufficient; it should not need an y extra explanation or comment. O c c a s i o n a l l y, such as when the subject matter is obscure/regional or the anagram refers to a little-known aspect of the original, it may validly be accompanied by some brief d e t a i l s ; h o w e v e r, i n m o s t c a s e s , t h e a n a g r a m i s w e a k i f a n explanation is required.

Ta m - o ' - s h a n t e r = One smart hat. (Janet Muggeridge, 1999)

(4) Avoidance of incorrect or uncommon spellings. These detract from the quality of the anagram and make it seem contrived or the author seem semi-literate. Old-fashioned s p e l l i n g s ( h a t h , d o t h , a ye , n a y, ' t i s ) a r e o f t e n a c c e p t a b l e . S o t o o a r e s h o r t e n e d w o r d s l i k e ' n ' ( f o r ' a n d ' ) , e ' e r, o r m a ' a m , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e s t yl e o f t h e a n a g r a m .

Gastroenterologist = I let go torrents o' gas. -- the use of the shortened form of 'of' is a minor f l a w. (Larry Brash, 2000)

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(5) Avoidance of repetition of words in original phrase. Repeating a key word from the original in its anagram detracts from the cleverness of the result. The repetition of 'the' and o t h e r s h o r t n o n - k e y w o r d s i s q u i t e O K , o f c o u r s e . O c c a s i o n a l l y, the repetition is acceptable. Such an anagram is sometimes referred to as a parallelogram.

These girls are barely legal = The "girls" are really beagles. -- repetition is used for a funny effect. (Richard Grantham, 2000)

( 6 ) H u m o u r, b e i t r u d e , w i t t y, s a r c a s t i c , o r a b u s i v e , w i l l a l w a y s improve an anagram, especially when the punchline contains a real surprise. WARNING: Eating and drinking whilst reading alt.anagrams can lead to the contents of your oral cavity being sprayed over your monitor or drinks being spilt onto your ke yboard.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease = M y a s s b l e w f i r e , I m o a n e d a l o t . - - i s v e r y f u n n y, y o u would have to admit. (Meyran Kraus, 2000)

(7) Grammatical correctness is the one area where some of us are pedantic. Many a good anagram has failed because of poor g r a m m a r. F o r e x a m p l e , n o u n s s t a r t i n g w i t h a v o w e l s o u n d m u s t have 'an' rather than 'a' before them. Minor discrepancies can be overlooked if the anagram excels in all other areas. Long anagrams should have impeccable grammar because having so many letters allows great flexibility in construction.

Wile E. C o yo t e and The Roadrunner = Tr y a c a r t o o n d u e l w h e r e n o n e d i e ! - - g o o d g r a m m a r despite a short subject. (Meyran Kraus, 2000)

(8) Clever use of punctuation. The use of punctuation has its critics, the purists who disapprove of any punctuation at all. H o w e v e r, g o o d u s e o f p u n c t u a t i o n c a n i m p r o v e a n o r d i n a r y anagram and change it into an extraordinary one, if cleverly done.

The Immaculate Pathetic cult... (Meyran Kraus, 2006)

I

Conception mean,

= come ON!

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Perhaps the ultimate in flow allowed through punctuation is an anagram with the phrase in the left side continuing on in the right-hand side, for one coherent thought. These are usually more impressive if one or the other side is a set phrase. An example:

Races can ruin ~ car insurance! (Joe Fathallah, 2002)

(9) Minimal use of interjections. Whilst the use of 'oh', 'eh', 'hey', 'ah', 'ahem', 'shhh', and so on can be a hand y wa y of g e t t i n g r i d o f t h o s e a n n o yi n g l e f t - o v e r l e t t e r s , m a n y b e l i e v e t h a t the excessive use of this device will damage an anagram. The use of one interjection in an otherwise great anagram is often considered acceptable. The key is for the word to be wellintegrated rather than tacked on. Even the much-maligned 'hi' can sometimes enhance an anagram.

The German neurologist Dr Alois Alzheimer = M e m o r i e s g o i n g , l o s t i n a r a t h e r d u l l . . . e r. . . h a z e . - - H e r e , the 'er' looks like it belongs and is not merely a way to get rid of two 'extra' letters. It is in keeping with the topic and adds a bit of h u m o u r. (David Bourke, 2004)

(10) Avoidance of contrived subject text. The best anagrams are those where the subject text is a familiar phrase or a real name. Using highly contrived subject text to create a clever anagram considerably weakens the result. Using minor contrivances, such as adding the definite or indefinite article to t h e t e x t , i s a m u c h l e s s s e r i o u s f l a w.

A McDonald's burger = Real dog and crumbs. -- adding an 'A' to the subject made this one work. ( M i c k Tu l l y, 1 9 9 8 )

( 11 ) W e l l - k n o w n s u b j e c t t e x t . T h e m o r e f a m o u s t h e n a m e o f t h e person or thing being anagrammed, the better the result is likely to be.

Leonardo DiCaprio = Ocean idol, or a drip? -- Nearly everyone has heard of him! (David Bourke, 2000)

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(12) Selectness. An anagram should represent your best efforts with the given letters. Don't make hundreds of readers sift through your efforts to find the good ones (or quit in disgust): do the selection yourself, though you may solicit readers' opinions on which of a couple wording options works best. Remember: if you've done twenty anagrams on the same base phrase, at least ten of them are crap. No, don't tell us how you were experimenting with different approaches, and don't add comments to explain their glories. At least ten of them are crap. 3.7.7 SKE TCH OF ALGORITHM Assume that the dictionary is read from a file where dictionary = ["opt", "pans", "pots", "snap", "stop", "tops"] In order to find the anagrams of a word we first create what we will call an ‘anagram dictionary’. We observe that all words that are anagrams of each other have the same ‘base’ form. The base form of a word is the sorted version of the word, e.g. the base form of “rat” is “art”. An anagram dictionary is an array or table of lists indexed by the base form of the words in the list, i.e. the table is indexed by a base form and the value at an index is the list of words in the input dictionary that are anagrams of this base form. e . g . To f i n d t h e a n a g r a m s o f a w o r d w e f i r s t r e d u c e i t t o b a s e form and then we search the anagram dictionary for this base form. For example, to find the anagrams of “snap” we reduce it to its base form “anps” and search the anagram dictionary for “anps” and return the value at this index, the words “pans” and “snap”. The input word itself m a y n o t b e i n t h e g i v e n d i c t i o n a r y, w h a t t h e p r o g r a m f i n d s i s a l l t h e w o r d s t h a t a r e a n a g r a m s o f i t i n t h e g i v e n d i c t i o n a r y.

3 . 7 . 8 M ET H O D S ( C O N T D . . . )
Before the Computer Age, anagrams were constructed using a p e n a n d p a p e r o r l e t t e r e d t i l e s , b y p l a yi n g w i t h l e t t e r combinations and experimenting with variations. (Some individuals with prodigious talent have also been known to ‘see’ anagrams in words, unaided by tools.) Anagram dictionaries could also be used to create anagrams.

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Computers have enabled a new method of creating anagrams, the anagram ser ver, anagram sol ve r or anagrammer. These are often used to find solutions for crosswords, Scrabble, Boggle and other word games. A large number of these are available on the Internet. When the anagrammist enters a word or phrase the program or server utilizes an exhaustive database of words to produce a list containing every possible combination of words or phrases from the input word or phrase. Some programs such as Lexpert (used for Scrabble) only allow one-word answers. Many anagram servers can control the search results, by excluding or including certain words, limiting the number or length of words in each anagram, or limiting the number of results. Anagram solvers are often banned from o n l i n e a n a g r a m g a m e s , s u c h a s Ya h o o ! L i t e r a t i w h e r e t h e y c a n be used for an unfair advantage, in some cases allowing a pla ye r to ne ver miss a single word . Anagram solvers do not have to use English. Any language can be used, particularly those which use the Roman alphabet. Anagrammers can even find solutions in multiple languages at the same time. Anagrammers may have other related functions, such as fitting the letters into a certain sequence. If while doing a crossword the reader knows he has a seven letter word in the form Z?R??N? (the question marks represent a blank square) then an anagram solver can tell us all the words that fit t h i s p a t t e r n , f o r e x a m p l e z e r o i n g a n d zi r c o n s . When sharing their newly discovered anagrams with other enthusiasts, some anagrammists indicate the method they used. Anagrams constructed without aid of a computer are noted as having been done ‘manually’ or ‘by hand’; those made by utilizing a computer may be noted ‘by machine’ or ‘by computer ’, or may indicate the name of the computer program (using ‘Anagram Genius’).

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4 R E S ULT S
The input is fed to the program and the output generation is done by checking the anagram for the given input and if present it feeds it back or else there is no anagram possible for the given input.

4 . 1 P R O G R AM R U N :
Earth Anagram generated: Heart 42

Abroad Anagram generated: Aboard Raw Anagram generated: Wa r Acme Anagram generated: Came Mace Aligned Anagram generated: Leading Dealing

4 . 2 P E R F O R M AN C E AN ALY S I S
4.2.1 A SLOW ALGOR ITHM E x a m i n e A l l P e r m u t a t i o n s . ‘ ‘ c h o l e c y s t o d u o d e n o s t o m y’ ’ h a s 2 2 ! p e r m u t a t i o n s . O n e p i c o s e c o n d e a c h g i v e s 1 . 11 0 9 seconds, or a few d e c a d e s . ( T h e r u l e o f t h u m b t h a t ‘ ‘  s e c o n d s i s a n a n o c e n t u r y’ ’ is half a percent off the true value of 3. 155107 seconds per y e a r. ) Examine All Pairs of Words. Assume 230,000

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words in the dictionary S TAT I S T I C S : 1 microsecond per compare. 230, 000 words, 230, 000 comps/word 1 microsecond/comp 52900106 microseconds 52900 seconds 14.7 hours 4 . 2 . 2 A FAS T A L G O R I T H M The Idea. Sign words so that those in the same anagram class have the same signature, and then collect equal signatures. The Signature. Sort letters within a word. The signature of ‘‘deposit’’ is ‘‘deiopst’’, which is also the signature of ‘‘dopiest’’. Collecting the Classes. Sort the words by their signatures. A S u m m a r y. S o r t t h i s w a y ( w i t h a h o r i z o n t a l w a v e o f t h e h a n d ) then that way (a vertical wave).

4 . 3 P L AT F O R M U S AG E :
Many questions arise on the basis of why this anagram implementation has been done in perl and not in some other language. The answer to it is explained with reasoning as follows: As implemented in c/c++: The coding requires:

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

permutation.c stack.h data.h d i c t i o n a r y. c fuse.c

its overview is presented down below:

4 . 3 . 1 P E R M U TAT I O N . C this consists of the coding which is performed using recursive backtracking of the given input .Its the main module in the anagram implementation because in this module we include stack.h data.h here we traverse through all the possible words which can be formed with the given input. It results in giving an output which consists of all the possible permutations of the input and this is what is presented to the user 4 . 3 . 2 D I C T I O N AR Y. C As the word suggests, this is the module which takes care of the traversal of the whole dictionary which is nothing but a file f u l l o f t h e a l l t h e p o s s i b l e t e x t a c c u m u l a t e d b y t h e p r o g r a m m e r. Here we make the general usage of Linked list concept and files concept This serves the purpose of searching a word and letting the user know whether the word which is being searched for is p r e s e n t i n t h e d i c t i o n a r y. 4.3.3 FUSE.C This is the final module which results in the fusing of the above two module explained. This takes in the output of the p e r m u t a t i o n . c a n d g i v e s i t a s a n i n p u t t o t h e d i c t i o n a r y. c a n d after checking the dictionary for each and every permuted word. The result is show to the user whether the word is present of

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not. If the word is present then anagram found or else not found.

4 . 3 . 4 R E S U LTAN T: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. very lengthy program. Usage of a lot of concept. lot of modular division Fault finding becomes difficult Increase in lines of code Implements slow algorithm(searching each permuted w o r d i n d i c t i o n a r y)

5 S U M M ARY
The above follows: A N AG R AM An anagram is a rearrangement of the letters of one word or phrase to form another word or phrase. AIM project can be summarized with the points as

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Generation of an anagram by the user for the specified word, which is presented as an input to the program. SCOPE 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Astronomy P s e u d o n ym s Anagrammatic Poem Dictionaries Scrabble game and puzzles Security reasons

P L AT F O R M ACTIVEPERL Reason behind this particular language: As logically implied in the explanation that the c/c++ languages which are conventionally good and considerable easy to understand are really difficult to be made use of and implemented for the purpose of anagram generation.

CONCLUSIONS 1. Permutation of the given input 2. Dictionary file implementation 3. For the given input the output has been successfully generated and shown as an anagram. Hence fulfilling the requirements of generating a anagram

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6 B I L B I O G R AP H Y / R E F E R E N C E S
Where can one find anagram generators, books, and Web sites? 1. Where can I find an anagram generator? Several programs are available, and more are being written all the time to meet specific needs. Many of our regular contributors have developed or are developing anagram generators and checkers themselves. This is only a partial list of the programs available:

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* One of the most popular is Anagram Genius, a commercial Mac/Windows package. Information and a categorised archive of anagrams discovered with Anagram Genius is available at h t t p : / / w w w. a n a g r a m g e n i u s . c o m / . Another major player is Anagram Artist, h t t p : / / w w w. a n a g r a m m y. c o m / r e s o u r c e s / a n a g r a m _ a r t i s t . h t m l freeware for Windows 98 and XP that is designed more with longer anagrams in mind.

* A relative newcomer is the cross-platform (Windows/Linux/UNIX) Nanagram, available at h t t p : / / w w w. v o i d s p a c e . o r g . u k / a t l a n t i b o t s / n a n a g r a m . h t m l . * Mac users can try on the shareware Anagrams program for size. It can be found at h t t p : / / w w w. t r e v o r r o w. c o m / a n a g r a m s / . • John Dagg's freeware program Anagen is simple and fast. Visit h t t p : / / w w w. g e o c i t i e s . c o m / a s c i w o r x / i n d e x . h t m l The program works under Win95 and more recent versions of Windows. * an is a very fast multi-platform anagram generator (for Linux, UNIX, Windows, and DOS). The source code and package are available at http://fatphil.org/words/an.html. * Anagram Ferret is a freeware program for Windows which comes as a single file that is used with supplemental dictionaries. It is available at http://website.lineone.net/~6hoopers/. * Another program for Windows, Word Wizard is a commercial anagram generator with an information page at h t t p : / / w w w. l a p l a c e . d e m o n . c o . u k / c o d a s o f t / i n d e x . h t m l .

*wscr (Linux/UNIX) is h t t p : / / w w w. g t o a l . c o m / w o r d g a m e s / w s c r / . code.

It

available comes with

at source

* Shareware for UNIX and DOS, the venerable Wordplay forms the backbone for many of the online anagram generators. Details are at http://hsvmovies.com/static_subpages/personal/wordplay/.

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* Manarags 2 (for DOS/Windows, written in 32-bit C++) is available from To m 7's download page at h t t p : / / w w w. a n d r e w. c m u . e d u / ~ t w m / m a n a / . * A l s o , a t h t t p : / / w w w. g t o a l . c o m / w o r d g a m e s / a n a g r a m s . h t m l y o u will find - if the site is having a good day - a list with links to various other anagram generators' source code, available from the gtoal.com site. Several of these programs support languages other than English, often through the use of supplemental dictionaries (as is the case with an). In addition, it is worth noting that: * Ulf Lunde has created a version of Wordplay which can be used to produce anagrams in Norwegian. One can email him at U l f . L u n d e @ k v a t r o . n o t o r e q u e s t a c o p y. * For anagrams in Dutch there is Maanrag, DOS/W indows freeware available for download at h t t p : / / w w w. x s 4 a l l . n l / ~ o n n o z / m a a n r a g / d o w n l o a d . h t m l . * Anagram Generator includes dictionary files for anagram generation in Japanese, Italian, French, German, Spanish, and English. A trial version of this commercial program for Windows 9x/NT/2000 is available at h t t p : / / w w w. s o f t o l o g y. c o m . a u / a n a g r a m . h t m . Also, various anagram aids exist. One is the Mar yana patterna n c h o r e d a n a g r a m m e r, d e s c r i b i n g i t s e l f a s " e x t r e m e l y u s e f u l f o r cheating at Scrabble". It is available for download at h t t p : / / r u n s l i n u x . n e t / p r o j e c t s / m a r g a n a / m a r g a n a - 1 . 1 . t a r. g z . In addition, several people have written anagram checker programs that determine the difference in letters of the subject text and the anagram-in-progress, letting you know how many of each letter are still available for use. Information on some anagram checkers, as well as further details on many of the anagram generators mentioned above, can be found at h t t p : / / w w w. a n a g r a m m y. c o m / r e s o u r c e s / g e n e r a t o r s . h t m l . 2. Can you point me to an online anagram generator? There are many of these. See the list at h t t p : / / w w w. a n a g r a m m y. c o m / r e s o u r c e s / o n l i n e . h t m l . H o w e v e r, i f you plan to be doing a lot of anagramming, you might want to use anagramming software on your own computer rather than

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increase the load on these sites. Some anagram generation sites have been closed down or become unusable due to high traffic. 3. What are the best books on anagrams? A 'top 6' list is h t t p : / / w w w. a n a g r a m m y. c o m / r e s o u r c e s / b o o k s . h t m l . 4. What are some good anagramming-related Web sites? at

To m M y e r s h a s a J a v a a p p l e t t h a t c r e a t e s a n i m a t e d a n a g r a m s a v a i l a b l e a t h i s s i t e h t t p : / / w w w. a n i - g r a m . c o m / . The Anagrammy site has a page with links to several pages, most of which were created by alt.anagrams members: h t t p : / / w w w. a n a g r a m m y. c o m / r e s o u r c e s / w e b s i t e s . h t m l .

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