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Repone to Intervention in Primar Grade Reading

By: What Works Clearinghouse, U.S. Department of Education

Learn more about the four recommended practices in Response to Intervention (RTI):
universal screening progress monitoring and differentiation systematic skill instruction and
systemwide implementation.
This visual diagram illustrates three essential practices (universal screening, progress
monitoring and differentiation, and systematic skill instruction) based on the
recommendations in the Practice Guide. Use this diagram to compare the recommended
practices for implementing a Response to Intervention system in reading with the way your

school or district provides services to students who are at risk for reading difficulties.
Download diagram ( (577K

Recommended practices

Screen all students for potential reading problems in the beginning and middle of the year.
Effective RTI begins with universal student screenings. Research shows that teachers can use
beginning and middleoftheyear screenings in the primary grades to accurately predict
future reading performance. Accurate identification of atrisk students requires efficient,
reliable, and valid measures of appropriate gradelevel reading skills. Setting cutpoint scores
allows schools to identify an initial pool of students who may require interventions. Because
no single assessment is perfectly reliable, schools should engage regular progress monitoring
to track atrisk students' achievement. A buildinglevel intervention team can help coordinate
the staff and resources needed to implement a schoolwide screening process.
In this multimedia overview, learn about the value of universal
screening(, the
recommended components of an effective screening system, and establishing benchmarks
and using cutpoints to identify atrisk students.

Differentiate instruction based on assessed reading skills for all students

Differentiated instruction is essential for all students, not only those receiving Tier 2 and Tier
3 interventions. Teachers can vary instruction by changing content focus, amount of
instructional time, and degree of scaffolding. In Tier 1, differentiation can be provided during
independent work or small groups. In Tiers 2 and 3, teachers should use progress monitoring
and analyze data to assess reading proficiency growth, differentiate instruction, and
determine if students need additional help.
Progress monitoring is critical for regrouping students based on changing skill levels.
Teachers will need professional development to learn how to collect data, interpret results,
and use data to differentiate instruction. Staff may want to work collectively to develop
guidelines for grouping students for instruction. Teachers need strong classroom management
skills to provide Tier 1 differentiated instruction. Some teachers will need help developing
classroom routines that allow them to lead small groups with selected students while others
work independently.
In this multimedia overview, learn the importance of progress monitoring as a tool to
guide differentiated
instruction(, and
how data from reading proficiency assessments can be used to adapt instructional focus and
time and the degree of scaffolding provided at each tier level.

Plan intensive instruction on foundational reading skills for students in Tier 2 and Tier 3 interventions
Instruction at Tier 2 and Tier 3 must be intensive and focused on the critical gradelevel
reading skills, such as phonemic awareness, decoding, reading comprehension, and fluency.
Students in Tier 2 interventions should receive small group instruction focused on up to three
foundational reading skills three to five times a week for 20 to 40 minutes per session. At
Tier 3, schools should intensify instruction by focusing on fewer skills and providing extended
daily sessions. Research suggests systematic, explicit instruction is most effective, so

teachers should incorporate instructional strategies and supports, such as modeling,

scaffolding, thinkalouds, and graphic organizers, and provide students with immediate
corrective feedback. Teachers need to build skills gradually and provide frequent practice
opportunities to ensure that students have mastered a reading skill before moving on.
In this multimedia overview, learn the key elements of systematic
instruction(, explicit
strategies teachers can use to help students master critical reading skills, and the
importance of instructional dosage, scaffolded instruction, student practice, and corrective

Establish a systemwide framework for RTI to support the three recommended practices
Implementation encompasses the groundwork and support needed to put the recommended
practices into action. RTI begins with a systemwide framework that includes universal
screening and ongoing progress monitoring, differentiated instruction based on data, and
systematic teaching that is explicit and focused on foundational skills. Districts and schools
need leadership and specific guidance at all levels to support implementation of the
components of a multitiered system. Statelevel leadership teams can inform policy
decisions and provide guidance on assessments, instructional resources, and funding
allocation. Some states have provided highlevel support for RTI implementation through
special training or technical assistance centers that are charged with working with local
districts and schools. In those cases, districtlevel teams can access professional
development and coaching in RTI implementation. Schools will need to provide extensive
training and ongoing support to staff to ensure fidelity and sustain an RTI framework.
In this multimedia overview, learn how RTI systems are designed to identify students
potentially at risk(
in reading and then provide them with the support they need to develop foundational reading
What Works Clearinghouse, U.S. Department of Education (2011)


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Tags: Assessment and Evaluation | Curriculum and Instruction | Intervention and
Prevention | Response to Intervention | Basics

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