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OFFSHORE LOADING

MODULE
FOR
STAAD.Pro
TYPES OF OFFSHORE STRUCTURES

MARINE AND OFFSHORE


STRUCTURES

FIXED FLOATING FLEXIBLE

Drilling Jackets FPSO, FSO CALM, SALM


Production Platform Semisub Risers
Caissons TLP TLP Tendons
Articulated Towers
PHOTOS: Jacket

Courtsey: Respective Websites


PHOTOS: Jackup Rig

Courtsey: Respective Websites


FPSO

FSO

Courtsey: Respective Websites


PHOTOS: Semi−submersible

Courtsey: Respective Websites


PHOTOS: TLP

Courtsey: Respective Websites


OFFSHORE STRUCTURES IN OIL FIELD

Courtsey: Respective Websites


LOADINGS:

• General
Offshore Load
• Dead Loads Generator
• Live Loads Module

• Environmental Loads
• Transportation Loads
• Impact Loads
• Others
ANALYSIS:

• Static
Offshore Load
• Dynamic Generator
• Random Response Module

• Fatigue
DESIGN STANDARDS:
• Rules/Regulations from various
Classification Societies such as ABS, DnV,
Lloyds, BV, etc.
• Classification Notes/Design
Guidelines/Recommended Practices from
Class (DnV’s CN-30.5, RP-C203)
• API RP-2A-WSD/API RP-2A-LRFD

Most popular and used standards


ENVIRONMENTAL LOADS:
Due to natural phenomena of general importance:

• Wave
• Current Wave Load
Module
• Wind
Due to natural phenomena of specific importance:

• Earthquake
• Snow, Ice
• Temperature
TRANSPORTATION LOADS:

• The inertial forces beside gravity


are generated due to motion of the
vessel on which the structure is
mounted due to combined random
effects of wave, wind, current, etc.
during transportation.
• The inertial forces are generally to
be computed using the appropriate Transport
period and amplitude by combining Load Module
roll with heave and pitch with
heave
Offshore Structure Design

• Check
with
API/AISC
• Check
Fatigue
Life
• Redesign
Fatigue Module • Report for
of Approval
OLP
OVERVIEW:

Offshore Loading Program

Transport
Wave Load Fatigue
Load
Module Module
Module

Use STAAD.Pro Results due


Computes Loads/Load Cases to to wave loads to compute
be used with STAAD.Pro Fatigue Damage of Joints
WAVE LOAD MODULE:
• Computes particle velocities • Calculate weight & submerged
and accelerations buoyancy of structure
• Computes design wave • Calculates COG & COB
forces (drag & inertia) on 3- • Generates wave load cases, a
D structures in the global X, single buoyancy load case in a
Y and Z-directions new STAAD.Pro input file,
• Sections include pipe, tubes filename_wave.std
and open sections such as I- • Additional user supplied loads
beams, etc. and analysis commands can be
• Comply API RP 2A-WSD added to this STAAD.Pro file
• Total Base Shear and
Overturning Moment are
calculated
Theoretical Background: Sheet 1

Steps to Compute Environmental Forces


Theoretical Background: Sheet 2

Wave Theory
• Appropriate order of Stream Function
• Stokes V
• Airy Linear
• User defined grid of
Velocities and Stokes V/
Accelerations H
Stream 3
2
gTapp
Applicability
Airy/
Function of H, Tapp Stream Stream 3
Function
and d

d
2
gTapp
Theoretical Background: Sheet 3

Other Factors
• Combined Wave/Current Kinematics
• Marine Growth
• Drag/Inertia Coefficients
• Conductor Shielding Factor

t Hard
Growth

D Pipe
Dc
e = k/D
D = Dc + 2t With no Current Profile Stretching
k Wave

Marine Growth Current Profile


Theoretical Background: Sheet 4

Drag/Inertia Coefficients, k/D


CD, Cm
• Reynold’s number, Re

CD
• Keulegan-Carpenter number, Kc
• Relative Surface Roughness, k/D
• Current/Wave Velocity Ratio, r Re
• Gap Ratio between Cylinder and Drag Coefficients for Circular Cylinders
fixed boundary, H/D

Note: 1) Refer to DnV’s CN No. −1


 H 
30.5 and API RP 2A Cm = 1 +  10
 D
+ 1

2) ALPHA values should be used

Cm
in STAAD.Pro basic input file
to define whether members are
flooded or buoyant
3) APPURTENANCES should be Gap Ratio, H/D
defined as INACTIVE members in Inertia Coefficients Variation
STAAD.Pro basic input file
Theoretical Background: Sheet 5

Hydrodynamic Force Computation


Morison’s Equation on Slender (λ/D > 5) member
1 δV
F(y,t) = FD + FI = C D ρ A V V + (Cm ρ Vr + ρVd )
2 δt
Where,
FD = Drag force vector/unit length; FI = Inertia force vector/unit length

CD = Drag Coefficient;
Cm = Inertia/added mass Coefficient
ρ = Water mass density;
Vr = Reference volume/unit length
Vd = Displaced volume/unit length
V = Velocity vector (combined wave and current) normal
to axis
A = Projected area normal to axis/unit length (=D, for
circular cylinder)
Theoretical Background: Sheet 6

Morison’s Equation to Inclined Members Option


• The drag and inertia pressure resultants are
assumed to act on the projected area of the PROJ
member and resulting forces are then resolved
into normal and tangential components.
• Resolution of the resultant drag and inertia
pressures into normal and tangential components, PRES
OTC 1976, Paper
the tangential 2723
components are and DnV Rules
ignored.
• Resolution of the resultant velocity and
acceleration into normal and tangential RESV
components, the tangential kinematics are Mostly used
generally ignored.
• The drag and inertia pressures are assumed to act
PRJN
on the projected area of the member and the force
is then applied normal to the member axis.
Typical Output:

• Wave Characteristics
• Member forces in Local and Global Co-ordinates
• Joint Loads due to Dead Weight and Buoyancy
• Joint Loads for Appurtenances
• Total Base Shear and Overturning Moments (Global
Structural Forces)
• Generation of STAAD.Pro Input file (filename_wave.std)
consisting of all load cases including one for buoyancy
load case with basic analysis commands
Input Data Screens: Sheet 1

Job Identification

STAAD.Pro
Model
Input Data Screens: Sheet 2

Wave Load
WaveLoad

Force Coefficients Table


Wave Parameters Table
Marine
Current Growth
Profile Table
Table
Analysis and Output Data Screens:
TRANSPORT LOAD MODULE:
• Need the basic STAAD.Pro Input File of the model
• Specify the vessel motion and the global position of center
of rotation
• Calculates the inertia forces on the members and joints
due to motion accelerations consisting of any combination
of 3-translational and 3-rotational d.o.f
• Generates a complete STAAD.Pro Input File
(filename_trans.std) consisting of basic load cases for the
inertia loadings and commands for basic analysis
• Other load cases and commands can be added manually.
• Total Base Shear and Overturning Moment are calculated
Theoretical Background: Sheet 1

Center of DY, Heave


Rotation

Y RY, Yaw

X RX, Roll
Z
DX, Surge

RZ, Pitch
DZ, Sway

Vessel Motion w.r.t. Global Coordinates


Theoretical Background: Sheet 2

The translational accelerations of a point relative to the center of


rotation are as follows:

X
Y

α
γ
Y

Center of Rotation
Roll Motion Pitch Motion
Input Data Screens:

Transport Load

Motion Parameters Table


Joint Lumped Weights Table
Output Data Screens:
FATIGUE MODULE:
• Computes the Fatigue Lives at up to 16 points around
tubular joints and creates an output file comprising of
minimum life of chord, stub and brace.
• It can consider up to 16 wave approach directions
• Maximum number of wave positions within the wave
length is ten to calculate stress range.
• Includes DOE’s S-N curves B, C, D, E, F, F2, G, W & T
and has option to define user-defined S-N curves (log-bi-
linear)
• SCF’s at the crown and saddle locations of chord and
stub can be computed be the program or can be entered
manually
• The fatigue damage calculation is based on Miners
cumulative damage rule.
S-N curves: Sheet 1
For tubular joints:

Thickness correction
Hot Spot Cyclic Stress Range (ksi)

X
/
X

Reference: API RP-2A-WSD

Permissible Cycles of Load N


S-N curves: Sheet 2
For Non-tubular members and connections

Reference: DnV’s CN-30.2


Stress Range (N/mm2)

Number of Cycles
SCF’s for Tubular Joints: Sheet 1
SCF’s can be calculated at the crown and saddle positions for axial
load, in-plane and out-of-plane bending moments by this module
using either of these options:
. Wordsworth-Smedley
. Lloyds
SCF’s for Tubular Joints: Sheet 2
Classification of Joints:

Geometric parameters of Tubular joint

Range of Validity
Example of Joint Classification
SCF’s for Tubular Joints: Sheet 3
SCF Equations :

Reference: DnV’s Classification Note-30.2/RP-C203


Input Data Screens: Sheet 1

Fatigue Module

Wave Height Exceedance


Table
Input Data Screens: Sheet 2

Fatigue Module

Stress-Wave
Height Table
Input Data Screens: Sheet 3

Fatigue Module

Joint Details
Table
Input Data Screens: Sheet 4

Fatigue Module

Wordsworth-Smedley
SCF Table
Input Data Screens: Sheet 5

Fatigue Module

Computed
SCF T
Output Data Screens:
EXAMPLE 1: 4 PILE JACKET ANALYSIS
(In-Place)
Basic Data:
Jacket Height = 44.2 m
Water Depth = 30.48 m
Member Sections:

40”, 36”, 16”, 14”, 10”, 8”, 6”, W-Shapes

Wave Parameters:
Wave Directions = 0 deg, 45 deg, etc.
1st: Wave Ht. = 3.048 m; Period = 7 secs.
2nd: Wave Ht. = 1.829 m; Period = 5.4 secs.
Initial Pos. = 0 deg., Final Pos. = 360 deg.,
Wave step = 45 deg.
Wave Theory = Airy
Drag & Inertia Co-efficients:

Cd = 0.7 and Cm = 1.1 (As per API RP-2A)


Basic Input Screens:
X Z
Output: 0 -1.524
1.887 -1.505
Wave Simulation for Wave Ht. = 3.048 m & Period = 7 sec. 3.774 -1.449
5.662 -1.358
7.549 -1.233
Wave Length Vs Elevation 9.436 -1.078
11.323 -0.896
2.25
13.21 -0.692
Wave Elevn., z

1.5
0.75 15.097 -0.471
0
-0.75 16.985 -0.238
0.00

3.77
7.55

11.32
15.10

18.87

22.65
26.42

30.20
33.97

37.74
-1.5
-2.25 18.872 0
Wave Length, x 20.759 0.238
22.646 0.471
24.533 0.692
WAVE LENGTH = 75.48679
26.42 0.896
WAVE CELERITY = 10.78383 28.308 1.078
30.195 1.233
32.082 1.358
33.969 1.449
35.856 1.505
Typical Output of Member Loads: 37.743 1.524
MEMBER NO = 35
DISTANCE
FROM MEM LOCAL-AXIS GLOBAL-AXIS
START 'x'-DIR 'y'-DIR 'z'-DIR 'X'-DIR 'Y'-DIR 'Z'-DIR
<-------- MEMBER LOADS -------->
0.00 -0.0111 -0.0089 0.0000 -0.0111 -0.0089 0.0000
2.33 -0.0077 -0.0098 0.0000 -0.0077 -0.0098 0.0000
4.66 -0.0039 -0.0103 0.0000 -0.0039 -0.0103 0.0000
7.00 0.0000 -0.0105 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0105 0.0000
Typical Joint Loads:
TOWER DEAD WEIGHT JOINT LOADS
JOINT
NO 'X'-DIR 'Y'-DIR 'Z'-DIR
72 0.000 -2.416 0.000
76 0.000 -2.425 0.000
71 0.000 -23.286 0.000
73 0.000 -3.804 0.000
79 0.000 -2.425 0.000
75 0.000 -2.305 0.000
77 0.000 -2.066 0.000
TOWER BUOYANCY JOINT LOADS
JOINT
NO 'X'-DIR 'Y'-DIR 'Z'-DIR
16 0.000 0.301 0.000
27 0.000 0.301 0.000
13 0.000 8.695 0.000
24 0.000 8.695 0.000
7 0.000 38.847 0.000
12 0.000 10.473 0.000
23 0.000 10.473 0.000

* Wave Loading : Non Structural Members


JOINT LOAD
136 FX -0.14 FY -1.671 FZ -0.14
135 FX -0.268 FY -3.349 FZ -0.268
134 FX -0.08 FY -1.017 FZ -0.08
133 FX -0.015 FY -0.149 FZ -0.015
Typical Base Shear and Base Moments:
WAVE XYZ BASE SHEARS XYZ BASE MOMENTS
POSN FX FY FZ MX MY MZ
0 10. -44. 9. 253. -9. -268.
45 -34. -32. -35. -753. -9. 737.
90 -54. 0. -54. -1198. -4. 1194.
135 -40. 28. -39. -875. -1. 875.
180 -5. 40. -5. -128. 3. 131.
225 32. 31. 33. 696. 6. -694.
270 55. 4. 55. 1217. 5. -1214.
315 47. -28. 46. 1077. 0. -1077.
360 10. -44. 9. 253. -9. -268.

Fx and Mz Fz and Mx

80 1500 80 1500
60 1000 60 1000
40 40
500 500
20 Fx 20 Fz

Mx
Mz

0 0

Fz
Fx

0 Mz 0 Mx
-500 -500

45

90

135

180

225

270

315

360
45

90
0

135

180

225

270

315

360

-20 -20
-40 -1000 -40 -1000
-60 -1500 -60 -1500
Wave Position Wave Position

Weights and CG’s:


TOWER WT CGXW CGYW CGZW BUOY WT CGXB CGYB CGZB
4160.92 0.04 19.54 0.01 778.81 -0.01 14.94 0.01
Graphical Plots of Typical Wave Loads:
Generation of STAAD.Pro Input File:
Wave Load Module generates filename_wave.std

Total No. of Load Cases, n = NW + NB = 2x(2x(360/45 + 1)) + 1 = 37

Note: Other Load cases, any load combinations and analysis commands can be
added manually in this STAAD.Pro Input File
Basic Data for Transportation Module:
Center of Rotation = 0, -34.0, 0 (in m.)
Gravity/Tilt =
Motion Parameters:
Heave (DY) = 6 m and Period = 10.0 secs
Roll (RX) = 20 deg. and Period = 12.0 secs
Combinations: Heave + Roll Starboard (DY + RX)
Heave + Roll Port (DY - RX)
Joint Lumped Weights:
Joint No. Weight (kN)

89 20

90 20

91 30

92 30
Basic Input Screens:
Output: Heave + Roll
LOADING 1 DOF LOADS = +DY +RX Starboard
MEMBER LOADS
*
* INERTIA FORCES DUE TO MEMBER SELF WEIGHT
*
1 TRAP GY -0.331 -0.343 0.000 2.439
1 UNI GZ 0.381 0.000 2.439
2 TRAP GY -0.343 -0.355 0.000 2.438
2 UNI GZ 0.381 0.000 2.438

*INERTIA FORCES DUE TO APPURTENANCE SELF WEIGHT


*
JOINT LOADS
*
132 FX 0.000 FY -15.605 FZ 17.971
136 FX 0.000 FY -28.981 FZ 29.073

* INERTIA FORCES DUE TO JOINT CONCENTRATED


WEIGHT
*
89 FX 0.000 FY -13.251 FZ 16.150
90 FX 0.000 FY -13.251 FZ 16.150
Heave + Roll
LOADING 2 DOF LOADS = +DY -RX Port
MEMBER LOADS
*
* INERTIA FORCES DUE TO MEMBER SELF WEIGHT
*
1 TRAP GY -0.366 -0.355 0.000 2.439
1 UNI GZ -0.381 0.000 2.439
2 TRAP GY -0.355 -0.343 0.000 2.438
2 UNI GZ -0.381 0.000 2.438

*INERTIA FORCES DUE TO APPURTENANCE SELF WEIGHT


*
JOINT LOADS
*
132 FX 0.000 FY -15.473 FZ -17.971
136 FX 0.000 FY -28.735 FZ -29.073

* INERTIA FORCES DUE TO JOINT CONCENTRATED WEIGHT


*
89 FX 0.000 FY -14.678 FZ -16.150
90 FX 0.000 FY -14.678 FZ -16.150
Graphical Plots of Transportation Loads:
Generation of STAAD.Pro Input File:
Wave Load Module generates filename_trans.std

Total No. of Load Cases, n = Combination sets in Motion Parameters

Note: Other Load cases such as wind loads, preloads and load combinations can
be added manually in this STAAD.Pro Input File
Fatigue Analysis:
A typical Flare Tower mounted on FPSO has been chosen.

Basic Data:
Tower Height ≅ 55 m
Member Sections:

30”, 24”, 18”, 12”, 10”, etc., Channels


Wind Loads:
TYPE DIRECTIONS MAXM
CYCLES/YR
NORMAL ±X, ±Z 87600

25 YR RETURN ±X, ±Z 87600

STORM ±X, ±Z 52300

100 YR ±X, ±Z 35040


RETURN

Vessel Motion:
TYPE DIRECTIONS MAXM
CYCLES/YR
EXTREME ±X, ±Z 13075
API RP-2A Code Check:

• In-built API code of


STAAD.Pro is used to carry
out Steel Design
• Pinpoint Critical Joints for
which Fatigue Analysis has
to be carried out

Critical Joints
5&6

Maxm. CFR
Punching Shear Check:

< 1.0
Joint Data to Calculate SCF’s:
Wordsworth-Smedley Concept is used.
• Joint 6, Chord 28, Brace 27
– Joint Type = K
– Angle, A1 = 0.6634 rad
– Angle, A2 = 0.0 rad
– Angle, A3 = 1.57 rad
– Gap = 0.050 m
– Brace SCF = 2.5

• Joint 5, Chord 30, Brace 24


– Joint Type = K
– Angle, A1 = 0.6634 rad
– Angle, A2 = 0.0 rad
– Angle, A3 = 1.57 rad
– Gap = 0.050 m
– Brace SCF = 2.5
Basic Input Screens:
Fatigue Life Evaluation:

MEMBER NO JOINT NO CHORD LIFE STUB LIFE BRACE LIFE

24 5 20.096 63.825 13257.769


27 6 26.168 83.853 20305.904
List of Offshore Load Generator Module Users:

• ABS Europe Ltd • J P Kenny Caledonia Ltd


• Aker McNulty Ltd • John Brown Hydrocarbons
• AMEC Birwelco Limited Limited
• Amec Offshore Services Ltd. • Kvaerner Heurtey France
• Andrew Palmer & Associates • Kvaerner Paladon Ltd
• BDL Engineering Limited • Kvaerner Process Netherlands
• Brico (UK) Ltd bv
• Capita Infrastructure Consultancy • Lewis Offshore Ltd
• Consafe Engineering Ltd • Lloyds Register
• Det Norske Veritas Classification • Lloyds Register of Shipping
• DRECO Ltd • M A Carroll
• Forsyths • Marine Technology Consultants
• Global Maritime • Merpro Ltd
• Grootint • MOS Ltd
• Halliburton Brown & Root Ltd. • MSW
• Harland & Wolff S.H.I. • Noble Denton Europe Ltd.
List of Offshore Load Generator Module Users: (Contd.)

• Ocean Resource Limite


• Ove Arup & Partners (Aberdeen)
• Ove Arup and Partners (London)
• PGS Production Services
• Rig Design Services Limited
• Shell
• Stork Protech (UK) Ltd
• Sunderland Offshore
• Swanhunter (Tyneside) Limited
• Tebodin Middle East Ltd
• THC Fabricators UK Ltd
• Trada Technology Ltd
• WS Atkins Consultants