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microwave ovens) etc. mixers. Microwave filters have many applications including duplexers. Duplexers are typically formed by a dual band-pass filter setup.1[5]. Duplexers are an essential component of most microwave transmission systems. physical research and domestic use (e. RF amplifiers and microwave filters to generate and process the baseband and carrier signals. Electro-Magnetic (EM) waves with frequencies between 300 MHz and 300 GHz are referred to as microwaves. including cellular phones. microwaves.e. they are used to protect the receiver’s channel from the transmitter’s channel when using the same antenna for both transmission and reception. diplexers. satellite communications and radar [4].CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1. namely the radio-spectrum with a frequency range of (0 – 300GHz) and the optical spectrum with a frequency range of (300GHz to infinity)[1]. radar. designed to operate on signals in the megahertz and gigahertz frequency spectrum i. with each band-pass filter section forming a transmit and receive filter section which are coupled to a common port on the antenna as shown in fig 1.1 INTRODUCTION The entire electromagnetic-spectrum is broadly divided into 2 regions. Microwave filters are required in all RF-communication techniques[3] and they are an integral part of a large variety of wireless communication systems. signal selectors etc. They represent a class of electronic filters. combiners. These systems make use of oscillators. Study and research in microwaves has led to several useful applications in communications. Modern communication systems require Radio Frequency (RF) and microwave signals for the wireless transmission of information[2].g. they may also be described by their wavelength which ranges between 100cm to 1mm. Low pass filters are also used 1 .

These products must be filtered to prevent leakage into the receiver and to also satisfy regulatory requirements.1 RF FRONT END OF A CELLULAR BASE STATION[4] Modern telecommunication and microwave transmission systems are typically full duplex. the radio frequency spectrum is limited and has to be shared between commercial radio broadcasters. communication systems to suppress spurious modes in oscillators and leakages in mixers[5]. Filters are required to select or confine microwave signals within their assigned spectral limits. television stations. Typically. 2 . Power Amplifier TX TX MICROWAVE UP CONVERTER FILTER ANTENNA RX MICROWAVE DOWN FILTER CONVERTER RX Low Noise Amplifier TX/RX DUPLEXER FIG 1. which involves bi-directional transmission of messages simultaneously on two separate channels. the modulation processes at the transmitter may produce out-of-band intermodulation signals and harmonics. microwave transmission systems are built using a single antenna for both transmission and reception. which may interfere with the received signals[4]. mobile telecommunication operators etc.

smaller size. coaxial line.Depending on the requirements and specifications. Radio Frequency (RF) or microwave filters may be designed as lumped element or distributed element circuits[6]. the design of filters for frequencies in the microwave range above 500MHz are practically realized through the use of distributed element circuits[7]. However.3 MICROSTRIP FILTER Emerging wireless communication technologies. lighter weight and reduced cost. continue to challenge microwave filter designers with more stringent requirements such as higher performance. and microstrip line. FIG 1. Microstrip lines are low cost. These requirements has made the option of microstrip filters more attractive to designers of microwave filters. The distributed element circuits are realized with the use of transmission line sections such as waveguide.2 WAVEGUIDE FILTER FIG 1. The analysis of these circuits are based on the transmission line theory. compact in size and easy to 3 .

2 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY Various methods have been used in the synthesis of a microstrip filter with varying results. Generally. The objectives of this project are: 4 . This study seeks to determine the performance of the stepped impedance and open circuited stub microstrip filter synthesis methods.integrate with other components on a single board.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES The purpose of this report is to present the performance analysis of a microstrip low pass filter with a cut-off frequency of 2 GHz. Results from this study may be useful in the design of microstrip filter based applications in the UMTS frequency band. large return loss for good impedance matching with interconnecting components and high frequency selectivity to prevent interference when used in certain applications in a communication system. 1. 1. With the limited licensed radio frequency spectrum available and the increasing demand for the transmission of data with greater speeds. return loss and frequency selectivity [8]. synthesized using the stepped impedance and open circuited stub synthesis method. Filters are required to have small insertion loss. microwave engineers continue to be tasked with the development of microwave filters with higher frequency selectivity. in the design of a microstrip low pass filter at frequencies within the Nigerian Communications Commission (NCC) licensed Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) frequency band (1920MHz–2150MHz). the electrical performance of a filter is mainly described in terms of its insertion loss.

The obtained inductance-capacitance network is converted into the equivalent distributed element form by using both the stepped impedance method and the open circuited stub approach. the lumped component filters must be converted into distributed element realizations. II. The following design procedure was used in the realization of the required microstrip filter layout. II. To derive the optimal design parameters for a 2 GHz microstrip low pass filter using the stepped impedance and open circuited stub synthesis method. capable of carrying out the low pass filtering function with the selected cut-off frequency. resulting in various losses and severely degrading the circuit performance. I. 1. Thus in order to design practical filters. The Advanced Design System (ADS) software is used to simulate the performance of the obtained microstrip layouts.I. Fabricate the microstrip layout on a FR4 PCB layout. 5 . The LC-ladder low pass filter prototype was used. Butterworth and Chebyshev filter response approximation was used to determine the order of the filter and the values of the reactive elements for the obtained LCladder structure. III. III.4 METHODOLOGY Filter designs beyond 900MHz are difficult to realize with discrete components because the wavelength becomes comparable with the physical filter element dimensions. Analyse the performance of both synthesis methods by comparing their frequency response with the use of the Advanced Design System (ADS) microwave simulation tool.

1. A discussion of the results obtained in chapter 4 is made and recommendations and conclusions drawn from this study are presented in this chapter. 6 . Chapter 5 presents the conclusion and recommendation chapter of this report. Chapter 4 presents the analysis of the frequency response obtained by the stepped impedance microstrip low pass filter and the Open-Circuited Stub low pass microstrip filter. some microwave design methods and microstrip transmission lines. A detailed comparison of their performance is presented.The microstrip layout is fabricated by etching the FR4 Printed Circuit Board (PCB) to produce the required layout. Chapter 3 presents the details of the Microstrip low pass filter design. This chapter also provides details about the process used in fabricating the microstrip filter layouts on a FR4 PCB. It includes a detailed presentation of the design procedures used and calculations. Chapter 2 presents the Literature Review and theoretical background on microwave filters.5 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT REPORT This project report consists of five chapters. Chapter 1 contains the Introduction of the project report and also enumerates the aim and objectives.

Singapore: Springer. Modern Communications Receiver Design and Technology. [6] M. 11.. “Microwave Stepped Impedance LPF Design at 1. DESIGN OF MICROWAVE FILTERS. Vasudev K. . [10] Dr. [9] Cornell Drentea.2GHz. [8] Phani kumar TVB.L Sisodia. no. Microwave Systems Design. 2. 2006. 1963. Network Theory and Filter Design. 2003. 2nd ed. Santhosh Kumar Ch. Radio-Frequency and Microwave Communication Circuits: Analysis and Design.” IJIRSET. Chris. New Age International (P) Ltd. RF Circuit Design. Advances in Intelligent Systems: Selected Papers from 2012 International Conference on Control Systems (ICCS 2012). Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Aatre.REFERENCES [1] M. 2013. Semi-lumped & Microwave Cavity Filters. Microwaves : Introduction To Circuits. G. Theory and Design of Microwave Filters. 2014. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. vol. Nov. Nagraju N. [4] Ian Hunter. NEWNES. 1982. 2012. and .Devices And Antennas. [11] Zaiki Awang. . Stanford Research Institute. Cambridge. [2] Devendra Misra. 2004. [3] B.M. A Practical Design of Lumped. 7 . [5] Dhanasekharan Natarajan. [7] Gary Lee. IMPEDANCE-MATCHING NETWORKS. New Age International (P) Ltd.I and Leo Young and E. 2013..T Jones. University Press. . AND COUPLING STRUCTURE.