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Homework 4

Quinn Ngo
September 16, 2016
Problem 1. Two swimmers leave point A on one bank of a river to reach point B lying directly across on
the other bank. One of them swims at the appropriate angle with respect to the water so that their velocity
with respect to the riverbanks is directed along the straight line from A to B. The other swimmer simply
starts swimming across, and is consequently pushed downstream. This second swimmer, after reaching the
other side, walks back along the riverbank to reach point B. What must be the walking velocity u of the
second swimmer so that both swimmers reach point B at the same time? The speed of the water is v0 = 2.0
km/hr, and the speed of both swimmers with respect to the water is v 0 = 2.5 km/hr.
Let ` denote the distance from A to B. We will refer to the swimmer who is moving in a straight line
from A to B as swimmer 1 and the swimmer who is being pushed downstream as swimmer 2.
+ v1y y
be the velocity of swimmer 1 and v2 be the velocity of swimmer 2 (both with
Let v1 = v1x x
respect to the Earth). Let w = 2
y be the velocity of the water. We know
v2 = 2.5
x
and
|v1 w| = 2.5.
Since swimmer 1 is swimming in a straight line with respect to the earth, we know that
v1y = wy = 2.
q

2 + v 2 , which yields v
2.52 22 = 1.5. Hence
We also have v 0 = 2.5 = v1x
1x =
1y
v1 = 1.5
x + 2
y.
Let T1 be the time it takes swimmer 1 to cross the river. Since swimmer 1 is moving at a constant velocity,
we have
`
T1 =
.
1.5
Similarly,
`
T2 =
.
2.5
So, in order to figure out the distance D swimmer 2 is from point B by the time they have crossed the river,
we have
4`
D = 2T2 = .
5
0
The amount of time T that swimmer 2 has to walk to point B is given by
T 0 = T1 T2 =

`
`
4`

=
.
1.5 2.5
15

We have
D = uT 0 .
By substituting D =

4`
4`
and T 0 =
and solving for u, we get
5
15
u = 3 km/hr.
1

Quinn Ngo

PHYS 151

Problem 3. Two crates, the left one with mass 4.00 kg and the other with mass 6.00 kg, sit on the frictionless
surface of a frozen pond, connected by a light rope. A woman wearing golf shoes (so she can get traction on
the ice) pulls horizontally on the 6.00 kg crate with a force F that gives an acceleration of 2.50 m/s2 .
a) What is the acceleration of the 4.00 kg crate?
The acceleration of the 4.00 kg crate is 2.50 m/s2 , as it is joined to the 6.00 kg crate.
c) What is the tension T of the rope between the crates.
Let m1 and m2 denote the masses of the 4.00 kg crate and the 6.00 kg crate respectively.
We have
T = m2 a = 4.00 2.50 = 10 N.
d) What is the net force on the 6.00 kg crate?
We have
Fnet = m1 a = 6.00 2.5 = 18 N.
e) What is the magnitude of the force, F .
By Newtons second law, we have
Fnet = 18 = F T = F 10.
Thus
F = 28 N.
Problem 5. If we know F (t), the force as a function of time, for straight line motion, Newtons second
law gives us a(t), the acceleration as a function of time. We can then integrate a(t) to find v(t) and x(t).
However, suppose we know F (v) instead.
a) P
The net force on a body moving along the x-axis equals Cv 2 . Use Newtons second law, written as
F = m dv/dt and two integrations to show that x x0 = (m/C) ln(v0 /v).
We have
X

F =m

dv
= Cv 2 .
dt

Some algebra gives us


C
1 dv
= .
2
v dt
m
Integrating once, we get