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as xx-ray

eyes as
Lobster eyes
-ray telescopes
P. Angel
R. P.
J. R.
Arizona
Observatory, University
Steward Observatory,
Steward
University of Arizona
85721
Tucson,
Tucson, Arizona 85721

of xx-ray
A detailed description of
-ray telescopes
telescopes based
based on
on the
the optical
optical principles
principles of lobster
the
of the
summary of
here aa summary
1979). We give here
(Angel 1979).
shortly (Angel
elsewhere shortly
to be
is to
eyes is
eyes
be published elsewhere
applications.
possible applications.
optical principle and discuss possible
optical
form of
the form
in the
are in
shrimps) are
crayfishes, shrimps)
(lobsters, crayfishes,
eyes of
The eyes
The
of macruran crustaceans (lobsters,
until
understood until
surface. Their optics were not understood
hemispherical surface.
square cells over aa hemispherical
small, square
small,
reflection
(1978) realized
(1975) and
1975 when
1975
when Vogt
Vogt (1975)
and Land
Land (1978)
realized that
that the
the square
square cells
cells worked by reflection
half
rather
rather than
than refraction,
refraction, to
to give
give aa single
single image
image on
on aa hemispherical
hemispherical retina of radius half
square
plane mirror
cells have plane
surface. The
that
of the cell surface.
The cells
mirror walls,
walls, each cell being aa square
that of
rays from
hemisphere. All rays
the hemisphere.
of the
center of
the center
to the
radial to
axis radial
its axis
sided reflective tube with its
sided
twice off adjacent walls
aa distant
distant point
point which
which on
on passing
passing through
through any
any cell
cell are
are reflected
reflected twice
walls
plane
lies in the plane
This is
is because
because the
the reflected ray lies
focus. This
are
are brought to a single point focus.
equal.
are equal.
reflection are
and reflection
incidence and
radius, and the angles of incidence
of the incident ray and the radius,
Some rays
reflected. Some
so reflected.
is so
light is
rays undergo
undergo only one reflection on
incident light
the incident
Not all the
to a
are brought to
oriented, these are
all similarly oriented,
cells are all
If the cells
cell. If
through aa cell.
passing through
to
(corresponding to
foci (corresponding
linear foci
focus. Two linear
point focus.
true point
the true
through the
focus, passing through
linear
linear focus,
cross.
angles, and form a cross.
reflections from
from horizontal
horizontal and
and vertical
vertical cell
cell walls)
walls) are
are at
at right angles,
reflections
is
1/2 is
focus, 1/2
true focus,
to aa true
1/4 of the reflected radiation is brought to
Roughly speaking about 1/4
the
a diffuse patch about the
forms a
is not
1/4 is
in the
the cross,
cross, and
and the
the remaining
remaining 1/4
not reflected
reflected and
and forms
in
focus.
true focus.
twice their width,
In
In aa real
real lobster
lobster eye
eye the
the square
square cells
cells are
are quite
quite short,
short, about
about twice
width, and
approxiset approxiis set
limit is
f/0.7. The resolution limit
focus, f/0.7.
fast focus,
rather fast
they reflect light to aa rather
they
geometrical
the geometrical
from the
and from
cells and
the cells
abberation, diffraction at the
mately equally by spherical abberation,
about 2 2.
is about
and is
size, and
cell size,
finite cell
the finite
to the
-ray imaging
imaging the
the square
abberation due to
. For xx-ray
angles. Otherwise
grazing angles.
at grazing
only at
place only
takes place
reflection takes
since reflection
long, since
cells must be very long,
cells
resolution
same, though the resolution
is the
the optical
the
optical principle
principle and
and the
the character
character of
of the
the images
images is
the same,
higher.
can be much higher.
x-ray
An x
-ray imaging
imaging device
device of
of square
square cells
cells has
has some
some substantially
substantially different characteristeleKirkpatrick-Baez
and Kirkpatrick
the Wolter and
to reflectors of the
tics to
tics
-Baez type
type that
that are
are currently
currently used
used as
as teleits
is its
reflector is
cell reflector
square cell
the square
feature of the
for xx-ray
The outstanding feature
scopes for
-ray astronomy.
surveys on broad
suited for sky surveys
ideally suited
it ideally
indefinitely large
indefinitely
large field
field of
of view,
view, which
which makes
makes it
to operate
It
It can
can also
also be
be made
made relatively
relatively easily
easily to
operate efficiently at high
field monitoring.
long. Its
cells long.
Its fabrication
fabrication presents
presents unusual
unusual and
and as
as yet
yet unexplored
unexplored
energies, by making the cells
energies,
lOOy
(~ 100u
cells can be
square cells
long square
If the
problems. If
the long
be replicated with very small dimensions (spatial
light weight,
across, ~- 11 cm
cm long),
long), the
the the
the reflectors
reflectors would
would be
be rather
rather light
weight, and of
of high
high spatial
10m focal
of 55 A
a wavelength of
resolution. For
For a
R the maximum resolution for a telescope of 10m
70y.
of 70p.
width of
cell width
requiring aa cell
seconds, requiring
2 arc seconds,
is 2
length is
length
collecteffective collectits effective
that, while its
is that,
square telescope is
field square
A disadvantage of the wide field
conventional xx-ray
with conventional
axis with
on axis
obtained on
that obtained
to that
is similar to
ing area
ing
area is
-ray telescopes
telescopes of
of the
the
and
focus, and
true point focus,
a true
in a
is in
focussed energy
the focussed
1/3 of
focal length,
same
length, only
only about
about 1/3
of the
energy is
same focal
loss
serious loss
is not aa serious
image. This is
cross image.
the cross
form the
to form
2/3
2/3 is
is focussed
focussed .in
in only
only one dimension to
1 Uhuru
sources (>
studies are
spectroscopy or
if spectroscopy
(5 1
if
or time
time dependent
dependent studies
are made
made of
of relatively
relatively bright sources
the
complicate the
sources and complicate
to faint point sources
sensitivity to
the sensitivity
count),
but does
does somewhat
somewhat reduce
reduce the
count), but
their diagso their
are oriented so
cells are
square cells
the square
if the
that if
sources. We note that
diffuse sources.
mapping of diffuse
all
reflector, than an axial telescope with all
the reflector,
in the
from central
onals are
onals
are radial
radial from
central point in
like
its field will
result, but its
focus will
the on
the
on axis
axis energy
energy in
in the
the point focus
will result,
will be vignetted like
telescope.
that of
-ray telescope.
conventional xx-ray
of aa conventional
a honeyaccurately a
to make
The
The outstanding
outstanding problem
problem is
is to
to devise
devise aa replication
replication technique
technique to
make accurately
honeyof -- 100
100 times
times the cell width.
thickness of
and aa thickness
less and
or less
1mm or
of square cells of width lmm
comb of
of w
sheets of
small cells
For
For very
very small
cells electroforming
electroforming may be
be practical
practical by
by making corregated sheets
square
if square
are great if
cells. The rewards are
square cells.
make square
to make
these to
stacking these
cross section and stacking
cross
year
Schmidt-like
built. Schmidt
be built.
can be
-like telescopes
telescopes could
could be
be made
made to
to survey in aa year
cell reflectors can
fields. Alternatively,
Einstein fields.
deepest Einstein
the deepest
as the
limit as
same limit
the same
to the
sky to
so the whole sky
or so
or
variabilto monitor continuously the variabil180 field could be
a wide
a
wide angle
angle reflector
reflector with
with 180
be made
made to
sources.
ity
ity of
of all
all moderately
moderately bright sources.
7822714.
ASF 7822714.
grant ASF
under grant
NSF under
the NSF
by the
is supported by
This
This work is

84

(1979)
Workshop (1979)
Optics Workshop
Optics-Imaging
Space Optics
184 Space
Vol. 184
SPIE Vol.
I/ SPIE
- Imaging XX-Ray
-Ray Optics

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LOBSTER
EYES AS XX-RAY
TELESCOPES
LOBSTER EYES
-RAY TELESCOPES
References

Angel, J.
J. R.
P.
R. P.
Land,
M. F.
F.
Land, M.
Vogt, K.
K.

1979, Ap.
1979,
Ap. J.,
J. , October
October 1.
1.

1978, Scientific American, 239,


1978,
239, 126.
126.

1975, Z.
Z. Naturfursch.,30c,
Naturfursch. , 30c, 691.
691.
1975,

Vol. 184
184 Space
Space Optics
Optics-Imaging
Workshop (1979)
(1979) // 85
SPIE Vol.
- Imaging XX-Ray
-Ray Optics Workshop

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