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The Challenges and Responses in the 19th Century

Nationalism
-has had a long history in our country. In our struggle for freedom, there have been
periods when strong nationalist feelings fired our people to action and other periods
when nationalism seemed to be forgotten. Every generation has its own views; and
each view can be supposed to differ from the others, each having its own
importance. Altogether, they would aid in the fair assessment of what Philippine
nationalism has achieved, or what it aims to achieve as part of a collective agenda
to strengthen the Filipinos' concept of nationhood and nationalism. Our early revolt
against Spain failed was because we had the absence of nationalism and national
leaders. Nationalists believe that the resources of our country should be for the
benefit of our people today and in the future. Nationalism is necessarily antiimperialist. However, anti-imperialism is not racism. Nationalists are not antiAmerican or anti-Japanese; they are only against those policies of governments that
harm the interests of the Filipino people, policies which these governments pressure
our government to adopt. Nationalism is an important development in the 19 th
Century because we Filipinos had the great intense desire to regain our lost freedom
not just against the Spanish oppression but from everyone.

Democracy
-has been a major component of who we are since the 19th century. However, the
Philippine democracy of the 19th century was not imposed, granted, instituted or
developed by a foreign power. It was internally generated and a testament to the
Filipino patriots of the past. The development of democracy in the Philippines has
been an uneven process, and the security forces of the country and their leaders
have played a major part in both advances in democracy and in setbacks. The
Philippines has been directly influenced by the United States in developing its
autonomy as a democracy. Part of the 19th century development of a Philippine
democracy was the development of guidelines and responsibilities of the Filipino as
a citizen. Democracy is an important development in the 19 th Century because we
had the rise and gradual spread of liberalism and equality which we first realized
successfully in the American Revolution and then achieved in part in the French
Revolution. Democracy is in our blood and on its behalf Filipino blood has been
spilled for its creation and in its defense. It is a legacy to be protected, preserved,
honored and should never be subverted.

The Industrial Revolution


-that started in Europe had repercussions to the Philippine economy. A radical
transformation of the economy took place between the middle of the eighteenth
century and the middle of the nineteenth; something that might almost be called an
agricultural revolution, with a coexisting development of agricultural industries and
domestic as well as foreign trade in the Philippines. I consider the industrial
revolution as an important development in the 19th Century during Rizals time
because it is the advancement of the early days to becoming to a modern world.
The universe is dynamic and therefore it always changes and I partake the essential
meaning of change in the Philippines where weve grown in becoming a good
country which we ourselves, Filipinos have developed, not just ourselves but also
from the foreign colonization. One of the most crucial developments in
the19th Century was the industrial revolution and in this time brought the invention
and use of machines. There was a rise of the factory system, the mass production of
essential and non-essential goods. There was an improvement of peoples standard
way of living and their encouragement of peoples mobility. However there was a
gap between the rich and the poor, an unending economic warfare between labor
and capital and other environmental problems. In the Philippines, it caused the

displacement of the farmers from their lands. Furthermore, the fast tempo of
economic progress in the Philippines during the 19 th Century facilitated by Industrial
Revolution resulted to the rise to a new breed of rich and influential Filipino middle
class.

Rizal in 19th Century - World Events


1. THE CHALLENGES AND RESPONSES OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY
2. The meaning and importance of a mans task can be understood and appreciated
when viewed within a time frame and its proper historical context. To better
understand and appreciate the role of Jose Rizal in the making of a Filipino nation,
one has to know the developments in the century when he lived, the period when
he worked.
3. NINETEENTH CENTURY Era of challenges and responses. A period of major
changes which affected men and society
4. 6 IMPORTANT CHANGES IN THE 19TH CENTURY 1. Struggle for nationalism 2.
Gradual spread of democracy 3. Modernization of living through the Industrial
Revolution 4. Advance of Science 5. March of Imperialism 6. New Current in the
movement of thought and growing confidence on progress
5. NATIONS STRUGGLE FOR NATIONALISM
6. NATIONS STRUGGLE FOR NATIONALISM A feeling of oneness by a group of people
who believe that they possess common traditions, culture and common ideals or
goals.
7. French Revolution (1779-1789) Overthrowing of absolutism American Revolution
(1775-1783) Independence from Great Britain
8. HOW TO RUN THE GOVERNMENT? Country should be free from domination and
that a country should enjoy liberty, equality and opportunity. In the good old days
when monarchs and kings ruled over the subjects
9. Greece became independent nation from the Turks on 1830. Norwegians won
their freedom from Swedes in 1905. Italy became a free and united nation through
the work of Camillo Cavour, Joseph Mazzini and Joseph Garibaldi in 1861. Germany
was united led by Iron Chancellor Otto von Bismarck who adopted the policy of
blood and iron in 1871.
10. 1867 1800 - 1825 Simon Bolivar The Liberator (Venezuela, Colombia, Bolivia
and part of Peru) Jose San Martin The Liberator (Argentina, Chile and part of Peru)
11. MEN FIGHT FOR DEMOCRACY Political ideas of the nineteenth century
12. EFFECTS OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION ARE MULTIFARIOUS Series of changes
in the industry: a. from hand work to machine work b. Domestic system to the
factory system
13. BEGAN IN ENGLAND IN 1760 Manufacturing Spinning jenny, Spinning frame,
Spinning shuttle, Cotton gin and Sewing machine
14. Transportation: Steam boats, Steam locomotives, Airplanes, Automobiles,
Balloons
15. Communication: Telephone, Telegraph, Wireless telegraphy, Cable, Postal
service and Newspapers
16. Establishment of factories, Employment of thousands of workers, Large scale
production of manufacturing goods, Commodities became cheaper, Towns and cities
grew, Improved standard of living and Division of labor practiced (capitalists and
laborers)

17. Increase in population, Advances in medical knowledge and public hygiene,


Opening of more lands for cultivation and commercialization, Increase in national
income and Encouraged migration
18. RESPONSES TO THE GROWING SOCIAL PROBLEMS CREATED BY THE INDUSTRIAL
REVOLUTION
19. LIBERALS Adopted the laissez-faire policy to stimulate the growth of factories,
allow everybody to expand as much as he wished in his individual enterprises,
Industrialists became powerful and rich, working men became poorer and
Unemployment and misery resulted
20. SOCIALISTS Government should own and manage the means of production,
Benefit of all and not only for a few individuals, As long as the capitalists controlled
the economic life of people, no democracy and Claude Henri, Francois Fourier and
Robert Owen
21. COMMUNISTS Authored Communist Manifesto, earliest socialists that reforms
could be achieved gradually and peacefully through normal political methods and
with compensation for the private owners, Only a violent revolution could improve
the lot of workingmen, Advocated, abolition of private property in land,
centralization of all means of production in the hands of the state, abolition of all
rights of inheritance, Confiscation of the property of emigrants and rebels and
Universal and equal obligation of work
22. CATHOLICISM Pope Leo XIII in Reform Nova rum (The Conditions of Labor),
Rights must be religiously respected, Duty of public authority to prevent and punish
injury, Poor and helpless have special consideration upon questioning its rights,
State has the right to regulate the use of private property and to protect it and
Workers have the right to form unions
23. SCIENCE BECOMES THE SERVANT OF MAN Soul of the Nineteenth century
24. MODERN IMPERIALISM STARTS A PROCESS OF HISTORIC CHANGE Activity of a
nation in extending its control and authority beyond its territorial boundaries
through the acquisition of new territories Purpose of securing raw materials,
markets for manufactured products, additional food supplies, outlets for surplus
population and fields for investment of surplus capital
25. GROWING CONFIDENCE ON PROGRESS INSPIRES OPTIMISM Man made
considerable progress in various fields
26. Democracy, Education, Science, Public Health, Literature, Music and Art
27. The divine flame of thought is inextinguishable among Filipino people and in
some way or another it has to shine and make it known. It is not possible to
brutalize the inhabitants of the Philippines.
28. QUESTIONS TO LIVE BY 1. Why is nationalism a desirable national goal? 2. Why
is industrialism a continuing concern of society? 3. Do you agree with Rizals point
of view that the pursuit of science is an ideal of man? Why?

http://www.academia.edu/8033458/The_Challenges_and_Responses_of_the_1
9th_Century. de Dios, Kaiser Daric C. 5,4 Hist 17 Tth 09:00-10:30AM. August
20, 2016 Date Retrieved
http://www.slideshare.net/hsaloria/rizal-in-19th-century-world-events.
Mindanao State University General Santo City History 5 O17 June 20,
2014. August 20, 2016 Date Retrieved

Kinds and Purposes of Imperialism


The Four Different Types of Imperialism are Colonial, Economic, Political and
Socio-Cultural.
Imperialism is the policy of extending a country's power and influence through
diplomacy or military force.
Colonial Imperialism is when the subjugated area is completely taken over in all
aspects.
Economic, Political and Social/Cultural by the stronger nation.
Economic Imperialism is when a stronger nation dominates the economy of a
weaker nation.
Political Imperialism is when a puppet government is set up so that it is
controlled by the stronger ruling nation.
Socio-Cultural Imperialism is when the stronger nation systematically attempts
to eradicate the customs, religion and language of the weaker nation.

Imperialism describes the domination of a one society or group over another, but this
can happen in many different forms beyond colonial territory expansion. The key is that
it involves the subjugation of an entire indigenous population. Some European
intellectuals like Immanuel Kant and Denis Diderot critiqued imperialism for its cruelty
to native populations. Philosophers as disparate as communist Karl Marx and utilitarian
John Stuart Mill defended imperialism as an activity that would advance so-called
"primitive" groups.
Cultural Imperialism denotes how a dominant group's cultural practices come to
dominate the cultural landscape of a subjugated population. In contemporary life,
cultural imperialism can refer to the dominance of American or European popular
culture in poor countries. One example is when American music dominates the charts in
a developing society. When European art is idealized as fine art while African art is
derided as "local craftsmanship," this suggests cultural imperialism. The term can also
refer to the spread of Christianity from the colonial period until today.
Political Imperialism The process through which a dominant country establishes
political control -- called a sphere of influence -- over a poor country is political
imperialism. Colonial expansion is one type, as is the establishment of puppet
governments. Both the United States and Soviet Union used puppet governments during
the Cold War. The intrastate wars that took place in Latin America during this period are
now understood as proxy wars in which both countries tried to install sympathetic
leadership via behind the scenes financial support and military training.
Economic imperialism -- coined by political theorist Leonard Woolf -- refers to the way in
which dominant powers establish economic power over developing countries. During
colonial expansion, this meant exploiting forced labor and pillaging local resources to
enrich the dominant countries. Left-leaning social scientists sometimes refer to the
World Bank and International Monetary Fund as bodies that exert the West's economic
domination over poor countries. They argue that this happens through structural

adjustment programs that impose harsh austerity programs on sovereign states to force
loan repayment.
When Types Overlap, Imperialism types can overlap with another and are often difficult
to isolate. The George W. Bush Doctrine of preemptive warfare in Iraq -- with the goal of
establishing a democracy there -- is sometimes viewed as political imperialism. But the
drive for influence over the oil supply in the Middle East -- including preemptive war in
Iraq -- can also be interpreted as economic imperialism. When American influences in
music, television and film seep into native Iraqi culture, that's cultural imperialism.

http://classroom.synonym.com/difference-between-cultural-politicaleconomic-imperialism-19042.html. August 20, 2016 Date Retrieved


https://www.reference.com/government-politics/four-types-imperialismbdcfeebbd92d45c6#. August 20, 2016 Date Retrieved