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WAI Wing Hong, Onyx

Sources: Google

Ecological

Hydraulic

Eco-hydraulic

Ecological
assessment
methods

Overseas river
restoration
guidelines

Estimation of
surface
roughness

Common
ecological
features

Sediment supply
and erosion issue

Modelling tools
for eco-hydraulic
analysis

Design guidelines
for pools & riffles

Natural stream
design vs. flood
control

Latest
development of
eco-hydraulics
2

It is well established that aquatic ecosystems are structured


by the interaction of physical, biological and chemical
processes at multiple spatial and temporal scales.
Eco-hydraulics is a rapidly emerging sub-discipline of
science with applications in river engineering
rehabilitation in degraded landscapes. Eco-hydraulics
ecological functions and hydrodynamic patterns at
spatio-temporal scale.

Sources: Google; Maddock, I., Harby, A., Kemp, P., & Wood, P. J. (2013).

river
and
links
each

Eco-hydraulics has drawn together biologists, ecologists, fluvial


geomorphologists, sedimentologists, hydrologists, hydraulic
engineers and water resource managers to address fundamental
research questions to sustain both natural ecosystems and the
demands placed on them by society.

Sources: Google;
http://www.livingdanube.wwf.hu/;
Maddock, I., Harby, A., Kemp, P., & Wood, P. J. (2013).

Structure-orientated approach
Restoration by engineering a river to an identified form that has
been lost (e.g. meandering).

System function approach


Restoring a desired process in the river system, and the system
is allowed to develop in response to the restoration.

Hybrid approach
Restoring a crucial element of the rivers structure and function
(e.g. pool-riffle sequence), and the system is allowed to evolve.

Sources: Google; Wohl et al. 2015

1. Common ecological features


2. Design guidelines for pools & riffles
3. Ecological assessment methods
6

How to
assess a
stream?

Bed stability & diversity


Sediment transport balance
In-stream habitat & flow diversity
Bank stability (native plant roots)
Riparian buffer (streamside forest)
Active floodplain
Healthy watershed

Sources: Google; Understanding and Restoring Streams

Rosgen (1996) classification is


structured into four levels of
analysis for different objectives:
(1) To predict a streams behavior
from its appearance.
(2) To develop specific hydraulic
and sediment relationships for a
given stream type.
(3) To provide a mechanism to
extrapolate site-specific data to
stream reaches having similar
characteristics.
(4) To provide a consistent frame
of reference for communicating
stream morphology and condition
among a variety of disciplines and
interested parties.

Sources: Google; Doll, B. A., Grabow, G. L., Hall, K. R., Halley, J., Harman, W. A., Jennings, G. D., & Wise, D. E. (2003)

A hierarchical key to the Rosgen stream-classification system

Sources: Doll, B. A., Grabow, G. L., Hall, K. R., Halley, J., Harman, W. A., Jennings, G. D., & Wise, D. E. (2003).

Level is a geomorphic characterization that categorizes


streams as "A," "B," "C," "D," "DA," "E," "F" or "G."

Sources: Google; Doll, B. A., Grabow, G. L., Hall, K. R., Halley, J., Harman, W. A., Jennings, G. D., & Wise, D. E. (2003)

10

Level assigns a number


(1 through 6) to each
stream type that describes
the dominant bed material.
A pebble count is used to
determine
the
median
particle size, or d50, of the
bed material.
Material

Classification

Size Range (mm)

Bedrock

>2,048

Boulder

256-2,048

Cobble

64-256

Gravel

2-64

Sand

0.062-2

Silt/Clay

<0.062

Sources: Google; Doll, B. A., Grabow, G. L., Hall, K. R., Halley, J., Harman, W. A., Jennings, G. D., & Wise, D. E. (2003)

11

Level is an evaluation of
the stream condition and its
stability.
It requires an assessment
and prediction of channel
erosion, riparian condition,
channel modification and
other characteristics.
Restoration projects often
fail because the designers
did not incorporate the
existing and future channel
morphologies into design.

Sources: Google; Doll, B. A., Grabow, G. L., Hall, K. R., Halley, J., Harman, W. A., Jennings, G. D., & Wise, D. E. (2003)

12

Level is the verification of predictions made in Level and


consists of sediment transport, stream flow and stability
measurements.
If long-term study is possible, a designer can develop a
sediment-rating curve for a stream and validate models used
to predict sediment transport or to predict changes in
sediment load due to changes in watershed landuse.

Sources: Google; Doll, B. A., Grabow, G. L., Hall, K. R., Halley, J., Harman, W. A., Jennings, G. D., & Wise, D. E. (2003)

13

Erosion / Deposition
Gradually form the rifflepool system in a stream

Natural streams have


sequences of riffles and
pools or steps and pools
that maintain channel
slope and stability.

Sources: Google;
http://www.bishfish.co.nz/webbooks/smttrout/findtrout.htm

14

Features of natural streams (Hey, R.D.


and Heritage, G.L., 1993).
Draft guidelines for the design and
restoration of flood alleviation schemes.
(National Rivers Authority, Bristol, UK,
R&D Note 154)

Location of features in a
step-pool system
(Rosgen, 1996, 5-10)

Sources: Doll, B. A., Grabow, G. L., Hall, K. R., Halley, J., Harman, W. A., Jennings, G. D., & Wise, D. E. (2003)

15

Riffles

A riffle may have gravel or larger rock particles. The water


depth is relatively shallow, and the slope is steeper than the
average slope of the channel. At low flows, water moves
faster over riffles, which removes fine sediments and
provides oxygen to the stream. Riffles enter and exit
meanders and control the streambed elevation.

Pools

Pools are located on the outside bends of meanders


between riffles. The pool has a flat surface and is much
deeper than the streams average depth. At low flows,
pools are depositional features and riffles are scour
features. At high flows, however, the pool scours and the
bed material deposits on the riffle.

Glides

A glide is the upward sloping area of the bed from the pool
to the head of the riffle.

Runs

A run is the transitional feature between a riffle and a pool.

Sources:
http://watershedmanagement.vt.gov/rivers/docs/assessmenthandbooks/rv_apxmdelineationbedfeatures.pdf;
Doll, B. A., Grabow, G. L., Hall, K. R., Halley, J., Harman, W. A., Jennings, G. D., & Wise, D. E. (2003).

16

Typical
slope
and
depth
characteristics and sequencing
of bed features in a riffle-pool
stream riffle-pool sequences
in alluvial streams

Typical slope and depth


characteristics and sequencing
of bed features in a step-pool
stream step-pool sequences
in high-gradient streams

Sources:
http://watershedmanagement.vt.gov/rivers/docs/assessmenthandbooks/rv_apxmdelineationbedfeatures.pdf

17

A mixture of flows and depth provide a variety of


habitats to support fish and invertebrate life.

Deepest water

Shallower water

Deeper water

Slowest water flow

Faster water flow

Below riffles

Rocks and boulders

Flow into pools

Sources:
http://www.bishfish.co.nz/webbooks/smttrout/poollakelies.htm;
http://www.bishfish.co.nz/webbooks/smttrout/rifflelies.htm;
http://www.bishfish.co.nz/webbooks/smttrout/runlies.htm

18

deflectors

Sources: Google

Using deflectors to enhance


the formation of instream
feature process

In a channelized stream with natural bottom, placing


instream structures such as current deflectors or low
weirs at strategic locations will ensure the stream
with enough energy and sediment transport load will
scour out pools and create pool-end riffles.
19

Without deflectors

With deflectors

20

Deflectors as wildlife
attraction
fish hiding behind
deflectors and
swimming upstream;
Snails attaching on
deflectors (bricks).

21

Sources: Rosgen Stream Classification TechniqueSupplemental Materials

Measuring stream gradient

22

Riffle slope ratio=Srif/Savg;


Run slope ratio=Srun/Savg;
Pool spacing ratio=pool spacing/Wbkf;
Pool slope ratio=Spool/Savg;
Glide slope ratio=Sglide/Savg

Step 1: Plot the longitudinal profile


with the longitudinal station on the
horizontal axis and thalweg, water
surface, inner berm, bankfull and
top of bank on the vertical axis.
Step 2: Calculate the length and
slopes for the following bedform
features: riffles, runs, pools and
glides.

(1) Length is calculated using the longitudinal thalweg station from the
head of the feature (i.e., riffle, run, pool or glide) to the head of the next
downstream feature.
(2) Slope is the length of the feature divided by the water-surface
elevation change over the thalweg distance for that feature.
(3) Pool-to-pool spacing (pp) should also be calculated as the distance
from max pool to max pool thalweg stations.
Sources: Doll, B. A., Grabow, G. L., Hall, K. R., Halley, J., Harman, W. A., Jennings, G. D., & Wise, D. E. (2003)

23

Field measurement of entrenchment ratio

Sources: Rosgen Stream Classification TechniqueSupplemental Materials

24

Bankfull mean depth (Dbkf)=Abkf/Wbkf;


Entrenchment ratio (ER)=Wfpa/Wbkf;
Width to depth ratio=Wbkf/Dbkf;
Max depth ratio=Dmax/Dbkf;
Bank height ratio (BHR)=DTOB/Dmax;
Pool max depth ratio=Dpool/Dbkf;
Pool area ratio=Apool/Abkf;
Pool width ratio=Wpool/Wbkf

Step 1: Plot riffle-and-pool cross sections.


Step 2: Calculate bankfull cross-sectional area
for all riffles (Abkf) and pools (Apool).
Step 3: Calculate bankfull width, Wbkf, for all
riffles (Wbkf) and pools (Wpool) as the horizontal
distance between left and right bankfull
stations.
Step 4: Calculate mean depth, Dbkf=Abkf/Wbkf.
Step 5: Calculate Dmax for all riffle crosssections and Dpool for all pool cross-sections.
Step 6: Calculate the bank height ratio, BHR.
Divide the difference in elevation between the
top of the low bank and the thalweg by the
difference in elevation between the bankfull
elevation and the thalweg (BHR=DTOB/Dmax). If
bankfull is the top of the bank, then BHR is 1.

Sources: Doll, B. A., Grabow, G. L., Hall, K. R., Halley, J., Harman, W. A., Jennings, G. D., & Wise, D. E. (2003)

25

Plot typical cross sections for riffles, pools, steps,


glides or other features. Scale the dimensions
properly and show point-bar slopes (C channels
only), entrenchment ratio and side-slope gradients.

Sources: Doll, B. A., Grabow, G. L., Hall, K. R., Halley, J., Harman, W. A., Jennings, G. D., & Wise, D. E. (2003)

26

Establish stations along the thalweg of the new stream


channel alignment. Locate the position for each riffle, run,
pool and glide along the new thalweg, remembering that
pools are located on the outside of the meander bends.
Determine the station for the head of each riffle, run, pool
and glide and the max pool.
When establishing the stations for these features, refer to
the appropriate pool, riffle, run and glide lengths and
pool-to-pool spacing established from the reference reach
data.

Sources: Doll, B. A., Grabow, G. L., Hall, K. R., Halley, J., Harman, W. A., Jennings, G. D., & Wise, D. E. (2003)

27

Then plot the new longitudinal profile for the proposed


stream alignment, including the thalweg and bankfull
elevation using the feature stations. When constructing the
new profile, first set the bankfull elevation using pool riffle,
run and glide slopes from the reference reach data. Then
set the thalweg elevation using the maximum depths for
riffles, runs, pools and glides determined from the
reference reach data.
Overlay the new longitudinal profile with the existing
profile for comparison.

Sources: Doll, B. A., Grabow, G. L., Hall, K. R., Halley, J., Harman, W. A., Jennings, G. D., & Wise, D. E. (2003)

28

1. Overseas river restoration guidelines


2. Sediment supply and erosion issue
3. Natural stream design vs. flood control
29

(1)
United
States

(2)
Switzerland

(3)
Japan

Sources: Google; Doll, B. A., Grabow, G. L., Hall, K. R., Halley, J., Harman, W. A., Jennings, G. D., & Wise, D. E. (2003)

30

The natural channel design process is an iterative


approach to fitting proper dimension, pattern and profile
to the stream based on reference reach data, restoration
goals and the existing site constraints.
Three key steps in the natural channel design process:
Determining the new dimension

Re-patterning the stream

Developing the longitudinal profile

Sources: Google; Doll, B. A., Grabow, G. L., Hall, K. R., Halley, J., Harman, W. A., Jennings, G. D., & Wise, D. E. (2003)

31

Minimum
flow depth
to maintain
ecosystem?

All natural channel designs are based on the bankfull


discharge and corresponding floodplain elevation.
Bankfull discharge is assumed to be the effective
discharge, which is the flow that transports the bulk
of the sediment over a long period.

Sources: Philadelphia Water Department

32

Sources: Google; Wikipedia

Environmental flows describe the


quantity, timing, and quality of water
flows required to sustain freshwater
and estuarine ecosystems and the
human livelihoods and well being
that depend on these ecosystems.
Environmental flows ensure the
continued availability of the many
benefits that healthy river and
groundwater systems bring to
society.

33

Look-up
tables

This approach has been adopted for environmental flow setting


to determine simple operating rules for dams or off-take
structures where few or no local ecological data are available.

Desk-top analysis methods use existing data such as river flows


from gauging stations and/or fish data from regular surveys. In
Desk top
some cases, they may use data from hydrological models.
analysis
The third group of methods includes those that build an
understanding of the functional links between all aspects of the
Functional
hydrology and ecology of the river system.
analysis
Physical habitat modelling has been used to estimate the effects
of historical or future anticipated changes in flow caused by
Habitat
abstraction or dam construction.
modelling
Sources: Acreman, M. C., & Dunbar, M. J. (2004); Dyson, M., Bergkamp, G., & Scanlon, J. (2003)

34

Step1

Select Abkf and Qbkf

Step17

Validate sediment transport capacity II

Step2

Select a width-to-depth ratio

Step18

Calculate riffle slope

Step3

Calculate proposed bankfull width

Step19

Calculate pool slope

Step4

Calculate proposed bankfull mean depth

Step20

Calculate pool area

Step5

Select the design streams sinuosity

Step21

Calculate max pool depth

Step6

Calculate average slope

Step22

Calculate pool width

Step7

Validate sediment transport capacity I

Step23

Calculate pool length

Step8

Calculate mean bankfull velocity

Step24

Calculate sequence spacing

Step9

Calculate bankfull max depth at the riffle

Step25

Plot typical cross sections

Step10

Calculate flood-prone area width

Step26

Establish stations along the thalweg

Step11

Compute the flood-stage levels

Step27

Calculate earthwork volumes

Step12

Calculate meander wavelength

Step28

Select specific stabilization devices

Step13

Calculate radius of curvature

Step29

Develop detailed design drawings

Step14

Calculate belt width

Step30

Develop a planting plan

Step15

Sketch the proposed stream alignment

Step31

Develop a construction sequence

Step16

Calculate average slope

Step32

Produce hydraulic models

Sources: Doll, B. A., Grabow, G. L., Hall, K. R., Halley, J., Harman, W. A., Jennings, G. D., & Wise, D. E. (2003)

35

Incision of stream channels is caused by straightening


of channels, loss of riparian buffers, changes in
watershed land-use or changes in sediment supply.
Because incised streams typically are unstable and
function poorly, they are good candidates for streamrestoration projects. Rosgen (1997) presents four
priority options for restoring incised channels.

An incised stream has a bank


height ratio greater than 1.0
ft/ft, meaning that the bankfull
stage is at a lower elevation than
the top of either streambank.

Sources: Doll, B. A., Grabow, G. L., Hall, K. R., Halley, J., Harman, W. A., Jennings, G. D., & Wise, D. E. (2003)

36

Establish Bankfull Stage at the Historical


Floodplain Elevation.
The objective of a Priority 1 project is
to replace the incised channel with a
new, stable stream at a higher
elevation.
This is accomplished by excavating a
new channel with the appropriate
dimension, pattern and profile (based
on reference-reach data) to fit the
watershed and valley type.

Sources: Doll, B. A., Grabow, G. L., Hall, K. R., Halley, J., Harman, W. A., Jennings, G. D., & Wise, D. E. (2003)

37

Create a New Floodplain and Stream Pattern


with the Stream Bed Remaining at the Present
Elevation.
The objective of a Priority 2 project
is to create a new, stable stream and
floodplain at the existing channelbed elevation.
This is accomplished by excavating a
new floodplain and stream channel
at the elevation of the existing
incised stream.

Sources: Doll, B. A., Grabow, G. L., Hall, K. R., Halley, J., Harman, W. A., Jennings, G. D., & Wise, D. E. (2003)

38

Widen the Floodplain at the Existing Bankfull


Elevation.
Priority 3 is similar to Priority 2 in
its objective to widen the floodplain
at the existing channel elevation to
reduce shear stress.
This is accomplished by excavating
a floodplain bench on one or both
sides of the existing stream channel
at the elevation of the existing
bankfull stage.

Sources: Doll, B. A., Grabow, G. L., Hall, K. R., Halley, J., Harman, W. A., Jennings, G. D., & Wise, D. E. (2003)

39

Stabilize Existing Streambanks in Place.

Riprap

Gabion

Priority 4 projects use various stabilization techniques to


armor the bank in place. Projects may use riprap, concrete,
gabions, bioengineering or combinations of structures to
protect streambanks.
A Priority 4 project can stabilize streambanks if designed
and constructed properly, but inspection and maintenance
may be necessary to ensure long-term success.
Sources: Doll, B. A., Grabow, G. L., Hall, K. R., Halley, J., Harman, W. A., Jennings, G. D., & Wise, D. E. (2003)

40

The aim of rehabilitation projects is to recreate a condition


approximating the condition prior to impairment.

Near-natural flow regime


Morphological and hydraulic variability
Near-natural bedload regime
Near-natural temperature regime
Connectivity
Near-natural water quality
Near-natural abundance and diversity
of floodplain vegetation
Near-natural abundance and diversity
of fauna
Cycling of organic matter

Sources: Woolsey, S., Weber, C., Gonser, T., Hoehn, E., Hostmann, M., Junker, B., ... & Peter, A. (2005)

41

An ideal procedure of
rehabilitation projects;
strongly modified after
Holl & Cairns (1996).

Sources: Woolsey, S., Weber, C., Gonser, T., Hoehn, E., Hostmann, M., Junker, B., ... & Peter, A. (2005)

42

Improving the flow regime


Re-establishing a natural, dynamic flow regime
Increasing residual flow
Reducing hydropeaking

Restoration measures
frequently applied in
Switzerland, divided
according to their
scope of effect.

Increasing structural diversity/lateral connectivity


Widening the river bed
Opening culverts
Structuring the river bed / bank
Creating and reconnecting side channels
Reconnecting backwaters, oxbows and floodplains
Creating inundation areas

Re-establishing continuity of flow


Longitudinal connectivity

Improving bedload regime


Bedload rehabilitation
Sources: Woolsey, S., Weber, C., Gonser, T., Hoehn, E., Hostmann, M., Junker, B., ... & Peter, A. (2005)

43

Basic concepts for restoration in Japan

Conservation of
watershed, not
only the river

Adaptive
management

Conservation and
restoration of
proper and healthy
ecosystem

Sustainable
conservation and
restoration

Scientific approach

Cooperation
between
government,
scientist, and
citizens

Sources: http://urbanriver3.pbworks.com/f/riv_res_jp.pdf

44

Points 1:
Setting a restoration target
If a river is not preferable situation, we have to set the
target for restoration.
Former river
(Historical
understanding)

River with low


human impact

Understanding of former morphology


Historical value (natural or reclaimed)
Refer the old shoreline
Old maps, photos, books, papers, people
Adjacent river
Upper or lower river

Sources: http://urbanriver3.pbworks.com/f/riv_res_jp.pdf;
River rehabilitation Japan Experience

45

Points 2: Back to the nature

Restore the natural gradient of littoral zone


Use sand from the river, expect restoration from
seed bank (A effective way to restore the native
plants community)
Observe nature without prejudice

A schematic cross section of restored bank

Sources: http://urbanriver3.pbworks.com/f/riv_res_jp.pdf; Google

46

Points 3: Adaptive management

Maintenance according to the monitored results


Optimization by experimental approach

Adaptive management is a
structured, iterative process of
robust decision making in the
face of uncertainty, with an aim
to reducing uncertainty over
time via system monitoring.

Sources: Google; Doll, B. A., Grabow, G. L., Hall, K. R., Halley, J., Harman, W. A., Jennings, G. D., & Wise, D. E. (2003)

47

The Itachi River (a) before


restoration (1981) and (b)
after restoration (1993)

The Tama River (Tokyo) (a) before


major river incision (1974), (b) after
river incision (1996), and (c) after
restoration (2002)

Sources: http://bioscience.oxfordjournals.org/content/56/5/419.full

Lake Kasumigaura (a)


before and (b) three
months after restoration

48

A stable stream has the capacity to move its


sediment load without degradation or aggradation.

Silts
Suspended load

Fine
sands
Clay

Transported in
suspension

Sources: Google

Bedload

Rolling

Sliding
Hopping
(saltating)

49

Lanes Balance (Lane, 1955): A generalized


relationship of stream stability. The drawing
shows that the product of sediment load and
sediment size is proportional to the product of
stream slope and dischargeor stream power.
A change in any one of these variables causes a
rapid physical adjustment in the stream channel.

Sources: Doll, B. A., Grabow, G. L., Hall, K. R., Halley, J., Harman, W. A.,
Jennings, G. D., & Wise, D. E. (2003).

Channel Evolution Model


(Schumm, 1984)

50

Either sediment excess or sediment deficit in a river system


can result in fundamental changes to river form and process.

High-flow & Lacking sediment


inputs

Low-flow & Abundant


sediment supply

Channel down-cutting

Siltation of the streambed

Disconnection from the


floodplain

Loss of benthic and fish


habitat

Streambed coarsening

Altering hyporheic exchange

Loss of fish spawning habitat

Changing water chemistry


and thermal regime

Bank erosion
Loss of channelmargin
Loss of riparian habitat

Sources: Wohl, E., Bledsoe, B. P., Jacobson, R. B., Poff, N. L., Rathburn, S. L., Walters, D. M., & Wilcox, A. C. (2015)

51

Sediment

Excess

Cases

Fly River, Papua New Guinea

Effects

aggradation of the
streambed
increased flooding
accelerated delivery of
copper-rich sediment to the
floodplain
negative effects on fish
and floodplain vegetations

Deficit
Illinois River, Illinois

accelerated filling of
floodplain lakes
loss of aquatic habitat,
deposition along the
mainstem
continual dredging to
maintain navigational
pathways

Grand Canyon
loss of habitat
for endangered
native fish
recreational
sites for river
rafters

Therefore, it is clear that effective management


must include a consideration of the sediment
regime and not just of the flow regime.

52
Sources: Google; Wohl, E., Bledsoe, B. P., Jacobson, R. B., Poff, N. L., Rathburn, S. L., Walters, D. M., & Wilcox, A. C. (2015)

water

sediment

Water regimes
(1) The majority of water moves downstream
over timescales of less than a year.
(2) Water regimes have seasonal patterns which
are predictable because of the responsiveness
of river flow to the seasonal precipitation.

Sediment regimes
(1) Sediment introduced to a river is typically
stored for much longer than a year and can be
repeatedly exchanged.
(2) Sediment inputs tend to be nonuniformly
distributed through time and space and much
less predictable.

Sources: Wohl, E., Bledsoe, B. P., Jacobson, R. B., Poff, N. L., Rathburn, S. L., Walters, D. M., & Wilcox, A. C. (2015)

53

Challenges to integrating sediment regime into river management


Scales

Rivers respond to changes in water and sediment


inputs at varying temporal and spatial scales

Processes

Sand move via nonlinear and episodic processes

Data

The paucity of long-term data sets on sediment


makes it difficult to quantify sediment regime

Measurements

Direct measurements of bed-material load, which


may be important in shaping channels, are rare.

Alterations

Evaluating sediment regimes is complicated by the


magnitude and duration of human alterations.

Sources: Wohl, E., Bledsoe, B. P., Jacobson, R. B., Poff, N. L., Rathburn, S. L., Walters, D. M., & Wilcox, A. C. (2015)

54

Budget

Interactions

Framework

Two main parts:


(1) sediment budget
(2) water and sediment interactions

Sources: Wohl, E., Bledsoe, B. P., Jacobson, R. B., Poff, N. L., Rathburn, S. L., Walters, D. M., & Wilcox, A. C. (2015)

55

A sediment budget includes inputs and outputs of sediment


transported and exchanges between mobile sediment and sediment
stored in the bed, banks, bars and floodplain within a river system.

Sources: Wohl, E., Bledsoe, B. P., Jacobson, R. B., Poff, N. L., Rathburn, S. L., Walters, D. M., & Wilcox, A. C. (2015)

56

Interactions among variables govern where, how much, and for how
long sediment is transported and stored in a river system and,
therefore, the abundance, distribution, and stability of river habitat.

Sources: Wohl, E., Bledsoe, B. P., Jacobson, R. B., Poff, N. L., Rathburn, S. L., Walters, D. M., & Wilcox, A. C. (2015)

57

Natural stream design is a trend


for drainage works. But the
flood risks must be paid more
attention in the design.
2015926
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6k38l1FVbK0&ebc
=ANyPxKoVdvSResOMgJXDgdSvxTddLYhfOakOBsYVJDZlsn
itaqYjMkzr5NHois_w2TXoOnlIoElcuUPJALdQ1V5VTVHwY
o3G5w
201391
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6HW-NZGMVzQ
2010722
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Npf2t0TYoxQ
2010721
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kK0S9afg8TY

Sources: On.cc

58

When a new project is proposed, the designer must consider two


potential impacts.
(1) The first potential impact is the change in flood levels. During
flood flows, flooding may occur in areas that have never flooded.
(2) The second impact is any change in the floodway. A floodway
is the area around a stream in which development is prohibited.

After a natural channel design,


shear stress and flood studies
shall be evaluated as a design
check. These checks will ensure
that the design causes neither
erosion, excessive deposition of
sediment nor flooding of nearby
homes, businesses or roads.

Sources: Google; Doll, B. A., Grabow, G. L., Hall, K. R., Halley, J., Harman, W. A., Jennings, G. D., & Wise, D. E. (2003)

59

Results of recent restoration projects (e.g., the Tama River


project) confirm that there is little conflict between the
protection of people and property and the improvement of
environmental conditions.
In addition, various nonstructural measures such as the
development of flood hazard maps, local flood fighting corps,
and flood warning systems support risk management and
reduce excessive river engineering.
The new philosophy in river management, namely to reduce
flood risks by ecological restoration, has recently been
implemented in Switzerland and in many European countries.

Sources: Google; Nakamura, K., Tockner, K., & Amano, K. (2006)

60

1. Estimation of surface roughness


2. Modelling tools for eco-hydraulic analysis
3. Latest development of eco-hydraulics
61

Effects:
(1) increase the flow resistance
(2) change the retention time of flooding
(3) alter deposition trends of sediments

Vegetated embankment
in Yuen Long

In rivers, vegetation was historically


considered only as a source of flow
resistance, and vegetation was frequently
removed to enhance flow conveyance and
reduce flooding.

Channelized Tuen Mun River


Sources: Google; HK RIVER NET

62

In describing vegetation resistance the height of the vegetation


with respect to the water level is important because it influences
the flow velocity profile.
The flow velocity profile for submerged and emergent vegetation
is very different so these are treated separately.
Fast flow

logarithmic profile

constant over depth

Slow
flow

Flow over wellsubmerged vegetation


h >> 5k
Sources: Galema, A. (2009)

Flow through and over


submerged vegetation
5k > h > k

Flow through emergent


vegetation
h<k
63

In
both
submerged
and
emergent vegetation flexible
elements are distinguished from
that of rigid elements because
the drag coefficient of flexible
vegetation decreases when the
vegetation is bending.

k is the erected vegetation height


kd is the deflected plant height

It is less complex to describe a theoretical equation for the resistance


of rigid vegetation than for the resistance caused by flexible vegetation.
The behaviour of flexible vegetation depends on the flow conditions
making it more complex than rigid vegetation.

Sources: Galema, A. (2009)

64

Roughness coefficient represents the resistance to flood


flows in channels and floodplains. It is an important
parameter in describing flow through river systems.
Trees

Riparian
zone

Emergent
vegetation
Submerged
vegetation

Shrub/
bush
Flood
plain

Trees

Herbs

Mixed with
trees
River bed

There are many formulas available for describing vegetation


roughness in one or two dimensional flow, ranging from
simple wall roughness approximations to (semi-) empirical or
theoretically derived roughness descriptions that are a
function of flow and plant characteristics.

Sources: Google; Galema, A. (2009)

65

Chzy (1769)
Darcy-Weisbach (1845)
Traditional
descriptions

Strickler (1923)
Keulegan (1938)

Vegetation
roughness
description

De Bos and Bijkerk (1963)

New
approaches
Sources: Galema, A. (2009)

Manning (1889)

Rigid
vegetation
Flexible
vegetation

Emergent
vegetation
Submerged
vegetation
66

Chzy (1769)

U C R i

Darcy-Weisbach (1845) U 8g
f

Traditional
descriptions

1 2/3 1/2
R i
n

Manning (1889)

Strickler (1923)

C 25( R / k s )1/6

Keulegan (1938)

12 R
C 18log

k
N

De Bos and Bijkerk


(1963)
Sources: Galema, A. (2009)

Ri

n h1/3 /
67

Petryk and Bosmaijan (1975)


Emergent
vegetation

Stone and Shen (2002)


Hoffmann (2004)

New
approaches

Rigid
vegetation

Borovkov and Yurchuk


(1994)

Flexible
vegetation

Klopstra et al. (1997)


Submerged
vegetation

Stone and Shen (2002)


Van Velzen et al. (2003)
Baptist et al. (2006)
Huthoff (2007)

Sources: Galema, A. (2009)

68

Petryk and
Bosmaijan
(1975)

Emergent
vegetation

2g
i
CD m D

Stone and
2g
1
2

U
i
(1
D
m
)
1
m
D
v0

Shen (2002)
CD m D
4

Hoffmann
(2004)

Sources: Galema, A. (2009)

U v0

U v0

2g
1
i sh D 2
CD D
2

69

Borovkov and U 8g h i
f
Yurchuk (1994)
Klopstra et al. U k U h k U
v
s
h
h
(1997)

Submerged
vegetation

Stone and Shen


2g
h 1
h
U
i (1 D m ) D 2 m
(2002)
CD m D
k 4
k
Van Velzen et
2g
i
12(h k )
3/2
U
i
18(
h
k
)
log

al. (2003)
CD m D
h
kN
Baptist et al.
(2006)

g h
2g

U
ln hi
C mD
k
D

Huthoff (2007) U
Sources: Galema, A. (2009)

2g
2/3
h
i
4/3
CD m D s

70

State-of-the-art developments of eco-hydraulics are


attempting to address the gaps between physical
scientists (hydraulic engineers, hydrologists and
fluvial geomorphologists) and biological scientists
(e.g. aquatic biologists and ecologists) by integrating
hydraulic and biological tools to analyze and predict
ecological responses to hydrological and hydraulic
variability and change.
The basic knowledge on hydraulic modelling [mainly
focus on computational fluid dynamics (CFD)] and its
application in eco-hydraulics will be discussed in
detail.

Sources: Google; Maddock, I., Harby, A., Kemp, P., & Wood, P. J. (2013)

71

Fundamental
equations

Initial
conditions

Discretization

Modelling
tools

Boundary
conditions
Sources: Maddock, I., Harby, A., Kemp, P., & Wood, P. J. (2013)

Mesh

72

Massmomentum equations, known as NavierStokes (NS)


equations, and energy equations for uncompressible,
homogenous and Newtonian fluids with negligible Coriolis
forces are the mathematical basis for open channel CFD.
With these assumptions, the continuity and NS equations in
the Cartesian coordinate system have the following form:
u * v* w*

0
x y
z
u * u *2 u *v* u * w* 1 P*
2u * 2u * 2u *

gx 2 2 2 0
t
x
y
z
y
z
x
x
v* u *v* v*2 v* w* 1 P*
2 v* 2 v* 2 v*

gy 2 2 2 0
t
x
y
z
y
z
y
x
w* w*u * w*v* w*2 1 P*
2 w* 2 w* 2 w*

gz 2
2 0
2
t
x
y
z
y
z
x
z

Sources: Maddock, I., Harby, A., Kemp, P., & Wood, P. J. (2013)

73

After the application of the Reynolds decomposition and


performing the ensemble averaging, the NS equations
result in a new set of equations known as the Reynolds
averaged NavierStokes (RANS) equations:

u * v* w*

0
x y
z

2u 2u 2u uu u v uw
u u 2 uv uw 1 P

gx 2 2 2

0
x y z
t x
y
z x
x
y
z
2 v 2 v 2 v vu vv vw
v uv v 2 vw 1 P
0

gy 2 2 2

z
x y z
t x
y
z y
x
y
2 w 2 w 2 w wu wv ww
w wu wv w2 1 P

gz 2 2 2

0
x
t
x
y
z z
y
z
x
y
z

Sources: Maddock, I., Harby, A., Kemp, P., & Wood, P. J. (2013)

74

RANS equations present nine new terms, which symmetry


reduces to six new unknowns called Reynolds stresses:

xx u u
yy vv

zz ww
xy yx u v vu
xz zx u w wu
yz zy vw wv

These six terms are the dominant resistance factors in


turbulent flows and their study is the focus of the
turbulence closure problem, which models them via flow
ensemble quantities, which are u, v and w.

Sources: Maddock, I., Harby, A., Kemp, P., & Wood, P. J. (2013)

75

Many CFD models for eco-hydraulic applications adopt the


Boussinesq hypothesis, which models turbulence as if it
were a viscous process characterized by an eddy or
turbulent viscosity, vT:

ui u j 2

ij ui u j vT
k ij
x
j xi 3
2
vT Sij k ij
3

Several methods (e.g. zero-equation, k and k) are


available to quantify the value of vT and their performance
in predicting accurate flow fields depends on the type and
complexity of the flow field itself.

Sources: Maddock, I., Harby, A., Kemp, P., & Wood, P. J. (2013)

76

In eco-hydraulics, coupling vegetation model with a model


for flow and sediment dynamics, we can write momentum
balance, continuity for flow and sediment, and vegetation
dynamics in its dimensionless form as:

s
U
U
U 1 Y

U
V
2

Y
t
s
n F0 s s
n
1 Y
V
V
V
U
V
2

Y
t
s
n F0 n n
Y
(YV )
t

3
( V cos , sin )
t

2
v g (1 ) vD 2 vd Y V
t
Sources: Brenbold, F., Crouzy, B., & Perona, P. (2016)

77

Momentum equation in Saint-Venant equations


~

V
~

V
~

Y
~

gS f 0

Y: free-surface elevation

Use Chzy formula as closure relation:

Sf

~
~

V |V |

2
CChezy
Y

With total shear stress


~

{ s , n }

2
Chezy

|| V || {U , V }

Account for vegetation-induced friction CChezy

Sources: Brenbold, F., Crouzy, B., & Perona, P. (2016)

1
~ ~

1 cD d Y

2
xb
2g
78

Water continuity equation :

Y
- (YV)
t

Sediment continuity equation

We describe sediment transport in the form of a V

3
( V cos , sin )

The dimensionless parameter


~

Q 0 the sediment transport rate under normal


~

3 Q0
~

flow conditions

(1 p) U 0 Y0

Sources: Brenbold, F., Crouzy, B., & Perona, P. (2016)

the bed porosity

79

Vegetation~ dynamics:
~ ~
~
~
~
~
~

2
2
g ( m ) D d Y || V ||
~
t
The first term represents logistic growth; the second term
is a diffusion term; the third term represents uprooting.
Account for different period:

td

density remain constant

tv

grows and spreads

tf

uprooting takes place


~

'
g ~

~
~

tv
~

t d tv t f

DD

Sources: Brenbold, F., Crouzy, B., & Perona, P. (2016)

tv

'
~

t d tv t f

'
d ~

tf
~

td tv t f

80

Numerical modelling requires three types of


discretization
(2) physical
(1) equation
domain
(3) time
discretization (e.g. discretization (e.g.
discretization (e.g.
finite element,
structured,
implicit and
finite differences
unstructured and
explicit methods).
and finite volume)
block structured
meshes)

Sources: Maddock, I., Harby, A., Kemp, P., & Wood, P. J. (2013)

81

A set of points, called nodes, whose arrangement forms


a grid or mesh, defines the numerical domain, which is
an approximation of the physical domain.
Meshes or grids are at the heart of any CFD technique
regardless of the dimensionality of the problem.
Grids, which are grouped into structured and
unstructured meshes, are composed of nodes, edges or
nodal lines, faces or nodal planes, and cells or elements.

Sources: Maddock, I., Harby, A., Kemp, P., & Wood, P. J. (2013)

82

Structured (a) Cartesian, (b) curvilinear and (c) unstructured


triangular meshes for a natural reach. The averaged cell area is 1
m2 and the averaged topographic survey is resolution 0.25pt/m2.
The right column shows the topography and the mesh and the
left column the numerical domain for the three different mesh
types.

Most widely used cell shapes in CFD


Sources: Maddock, I., Harby, A., Kemp, P., & Wood, P. J. (2013)

83

All CFD models require information about the dependent


variables (e.g. flow properties) at the boundary of the
numerical domain. These values, called boundary conditions,
are used to predict the dependent values within the domain.
Boundary conditions are typically of three types:

(1) Dirichlet conditions

(2) Neumann
conditions

(3) Mixed Neumann


and Dirichlet conditions.

which specify the values


of the dependent
variables at the
boundary (e.g. water
depth and velocity);

which specify the


gradient perpendicular
to the boundary of the
dependent variables (e.g.
no flux for impermeable
boundary);

a combination of the
Neumann
and Dirichlet conditions.

Sources: Maddock, I., Harby, A., Kemp, P., & Wood, P. J. (2013)

84

Boundary data in rivers include:

(1) terrestrial
topography and
aquatic
bathymetry

(2) upstream flow


conditions

(3) downstream
flow conditions

(4) the water


surface elevation

which are usually


treated as
impervious
surfaces with
zero tangential
flow velocity

include discharge,
cross-channel
and vertical
velocity profiles,
and turbulence
properties of the
flow depending
on turbulence
modelling
complexity

typically specified
as a water surface
elevation across
the channel or as
fully developed
flows

which is
considered an
impervious
boundary with
zero resistance in
some cases for
3D simulations

Sources: Maddock, I., Harby, A., Kemp, P., & Wood, P. J. (2013)

85

Initial conditions specify the initial values of any dependent


variables for unsteady and steady state simulations at each
node within the numerical domain at the beginning of a
simulation.
The most critical variable is the specification of the water
surface elevation, which may be defined from values
measured in the field, predicted from a 1D simulation or
linearly interpolated between an upstream and downstream
elevation.
The values of the other dependent variables, like flow
velocity and depth, are then derived from the continuity or
the uniform flow equation once the water surface is known.

Sources: Maddock, I., Harby, A., Kemp, P., & Wood, P. J. (2013)

86

Some examples of hydraulic


models applied in eco-hydraulics
and their main features

Sources: Google; Maddock, I., Harby, A., Kemp, P., & Wood, P. J. (2013)

87

Software name

Discretization

Turbulence closure

SSIIM
(Sediment
Simulation in
Intakes with
Multiblock
Option)

Finite volume

k
k

3D,
2D

TELEMAC-3D
and 2D

Finite
element/3D
shallow water
equation with
an option for
dynamic
pressure

3D,
2D

ANSYS Fluent

3D,
2D

ANSYS CFX

3D

Mesh
SSIIM 1 uses
structured grid
SSIIM 2 uses
unstructured grid

Hydraulics, sediment transport


convectiondiffusion model,
water quality module including
temperature.

3D Constant eddy
viscosity, mixing length
(vertical) with several
variations, Smagorinsky
(horizontal) k model 2D
Constant, Elder, k
model and Smagorinsky

Unstructured mesh

Hydraulics, sediment transport


convectiondiffusion model,
water quality module including
temperature.

Finite volume

Several turbulence
closures

Several mesh types

Hydraulics, sediment transport


and water quality applications

Finite element

Several turbulence
closures

Several mesh types

Hydraulics, sediment transport


and water quality applications

Constant eddy viscosity,


Smagorinsky subgrid scale
model, k model, k
model, or a mixed
Smagorinsky/k model

3D: rectilinear grid, a


curvilinear grid, a
triangular element
mesh Structures 2D:
Cartesian (MIKE21),
Curvilinear (MIKE21c)
flexible mesh
(MIKE21fm)

Hydraulics, sediment transport


and water quality applications

Flow, sediment transport and


morphology, waves, water
quality and ecology
Hydraulics, sediment transport
88
and water quality applications

MIKE31,MIKE2
1 MIKE11
MIKEFLOOD
MIKE GIS

Finite difference

3D,
2D,
1D

Delft 3D

Finite
difference/
shallow water
approximation

Zero-equation and the


k model

Curvilinear and
rectilinear grids,
spherical grids,
domain
decomposition

3D,
2D

COMSOL

Finite element

Several turbulence
closures

Several mesh types

3D,
2D,
1D

Application

Software name

Discretization

Turbulence
closure

Mesh

Application

2D

iRIC FASTEMECH

Finite difference
/steady flow

Zero-equation

Curvilinear

Flow, sediment transport and


simple microhabitat computation

2D

iRIC
MORPHO2D

Finite difference/
vegetation model,
mixed-grain transport

Zero-equation

Structured

2D

iRIC NAYS

Finite difference/
vegetation model,
mixed-grain transport,
bank erosion model

Horizontal LES
and other
turbulence
closures

Structured

2D

iRIC STORM

Finite volume
fully unsteady

Zero-equation

Unstructured
triangular grid

2D

FESWMS-2DH

Finite element

Zero-equation

Flexible mesh

2D

RMA2

Finite element

Zero-equation

Flexible mesh

2D

SRH-2D

Finite volume/ no
Mesh generation

Zero-equation
and k model

Unstructured mesh

2D,
1D

Sobek2D, 1D
and
Sobek1D/2D
Channel
floodplain link

Finite difference

2D Zeroequation
and the k
model

Structured

Hydraulics

2D,
1D

TUFLOW

Finite difference

Smagorinsky

Orthogonal grid

Hydraulics

2D

RIVER2D

Finite element

Zero-equation

Unstructured mesh

Hydraulics

1D

FEQ

Implicit finite difference

Hydraulics, loops, structures

1D

SRH-1D

Finite difference

Hydraulics, sediment transport

1D

HEC-RAS

Implicit finite differences

Hydraulics, loops, structures,


89
sediment transport

Hydraulics

Hydraulics

InfoWorks RS includes full solution modeling of open channels,


floodplains, embankments and hydraulic structures.
Example Applications

An integrated software solution


for simulating flows in rivers, in
channels and on floodplains

Flood flow planning and management


Low flow assessments
Water quality assessments
Sedimentation and sediment control
Water resources management
Flood Forecasting System hydraulic
model development platform
Features & Benefits of InfoWorks RS
Workgroup Model Management
Model Building Tools
Results Interpretation
Powerful Hydraulic, Water Quality &
Sediment Transport Simulation
Dynamic Flood Mapping Model
Data Integration

90

Recent developments in eco-hydraulics


research and understanding have been
characterized by a shift in emphasis from
standard hydraulic variables (e.g. water
depth and mean column velocity) to more
complex parameters to assess higher
order turbulent flow properties and
advances in hydraulic modelling through
the use of two- and three dimensional
numerical models and fuzzy logic.
Undoubtedly, further advances in ecohydraulic modelling are likely to continue
at a rapid pace.

Sources: Google; Maddock, I., Harby, A., Kemp, P., & Wood, P. J. (2013)

91

Four key challenges need to be overcome if eco-hydraulics is to


be more widely accepted:
(1) A better understanding of the relationship between the
turbulent properties of flowing water and its influence on
individual organisms and ecological communities;
(2) How to effectively integrate hydraulically realistic
information with ecological data for an interdisciplinary and
applied end user community;
(3) How to improve the transferability of data, variables and
results in eco-hydraulics across temporal and spatial scales;
(4) The gap between scientific research and the development
and implementation of management recommendations (e.g. for
environmental flows or river restoration).

Sources: Google; Maddock, I., Harby, A., Kemp, P., & Wood, P. J. (2013)

92

Advances in hydraulic data collection


During the 1980s,
hydraulic data
collection for ecohydraulic research
utilized equipment
and sampling
techniques.

The 1990s saw the


introduction of
electromagnetic current
meters with the ability of
assess flow velocities
within macrophyte beds
and worked at low flow
velocities.

Sources: Maddock, I., Harby, A., Kemp, P., & Wood, P. J. (2013)

Since the start of the 21st


century, advances in
acoustic technology have led
to the use of acoustic
Doppler velocimeters (ADVs)
and acoustic Doppler current
profilers (ADCPs).

93

Advances in biological/ecological
data recording
In the 1970s, it
was impossible to
use telemetry to
survey fish
The development
movements for
of RFID (Radio
small or juvenile. Frequency
Identification)
technology during
the 1980s can
monitor fish
smaller than 6 cm.

Didson (Dual-frequency
identification sonar)
Current acoustic
acoustic cameras survey
telemetry can
fish and fish movements
provide threeeven in turbid waters and at
dimensional
night when conventional
fine-scale
cameras dont work.
trajectories of
fish movement.

Sources: Maddock, I., Harby, A., Kemp, P., & Wood, P. J. (2013)

94

Developments in eco-hydraulic research are linked to


technological advances in field and laboratory flume
measurement, computer processing and data storage
capabilities, and computer modelling.
However, since these instruments are developing
rapidly, their use to examine the influence of the
hydraulic properties on ecological communities or
individual species is still arguably.
There remains a gap between our knowledge of the
characterization of the hydraulic environment and how
these properties influence habitats, biotic communities
and individual species.

Sources: Google; Maddock, I., Harby, A., Kemp, P., & Wood, P. J. (2013)

95

Future developments within the field will undoubtedly require


greater interdisciplinary collaboration and co-operation
between engineers, hydrologists, ecologists, social, economic
and political scientists to address and provide solutions to
management which are centered on habitats, communities and
species-specific research questions.
This will ensure that the outputs are rigorous, widely applicable
and understood, and are of direct relevance and use to the
scientific, social science and end-user communities.

Sources: Google; Maddock, I., Harby, A., Kemp, P., & Wood, P. J. (2013)

96

Sources: Maddock, I., Harby, A., Kemp, P., & Wood, P. J. (2013)

97

The balance between fundamental understanding and the


advances in science and technology enabling us to undertake
our research is not always easily or readily transferable to the
management arena.
A number of challenges remain regarding:
(1) the eco-hydraulic properties we measure;
(2) the complexity, volume and relevance to end users of the
data collected;
(3) the transferability of models and flume investigations into
management solutions.

Sources: Google; Maddock, I., Harby, A., Kemp, P., & Wood, P. J. (2013)

98

Ecological
part

Hydraulic
part

Ecohydraulic
part

The common ecological features, such as pools, riffles, glides,


runs, etc. and their definition and characteristics.
The design guidelines for the pools and riffles.
The Rosgen Stream Classification System as a way to assess
natural rivers ecologically.
Overseas guidelines for a natural stream design.
Sediment supply and erosion issue including the sediment budget.
The linkage between natural stream design and flood risk
assessment.
Review of modelling tool and technique methods for ecohydraulic analysis.
Estimation of surface roughness due to the vegetation.
Latest development of eco-hydraulics and challenges for the
future study.
99


Acreman, M. C., & Dunbar, M. J. (2004). Defining environmental river flow requirements? A review. Hydrology and Earth
System Sciences Discussions,8(5), 861-876.

Augustijn, D. C. M., Huthoff, F., & Velzen, V. E. (2008). Comparison of vegetation roughness descriptions.

Azary, I. (1999). Application of the Rosgen Stream Classification System to Southern California Wilderness
Streams. Wildland Hydrology, TPS-99-3, DS Olsen and JP Potyondy (Editors). American Water Resources Association, Herndon,
Virginia, 237-244.

Brenbold, F., Crouzy, B., & Perona, P. (2016). Stability Analysis of Ecomorphodynamic Equations. Accepted Article,
doi: 10.1002/2015WR017492.

Dale, V. H., & Beyeler, S. C. (2001). Challenges in the development and use of ecological indicators. Ecological
indicators, 1(1), 3-10.

Doll, B. A., Grabow, G. L., Hall, K. R., Halley, J., Harman, W. A., Jennings, G. D., & Wise, D. E. (2003). Stream Restoration:
A Natural Channel Design Handbook. NC Stream Restoration Institute, NC State University, Raleigh, NC.

Dyson, M., Bergkamp, G., & Scanlon, J. (2003). Flow: The essentials of environmental flows. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland
and Cambridge, UK.

Galema, A. (2009). Evaluation of vegetation resistance descriptors for flood management (Doctoral dissertation, Master
Thesis, University of Twente).

Jrvel, J. (2004). Flow resistance in environmental channels: focus on vegetation. Helsinki University of Technology.

Maddock, I., Harby, A., Kemp, P., & Wood, P. J. (2013). Ecohydraulics: an integrated approach. John Wiley & Sons.

Nakamura, K., Tockner, K., & Amano, K. (2006). River and wetland restoration: lessons from Japan. BioScience, 56(5),
419-429.

Noack, M. (2012). Modelling approach for interstitial sediment dynamics and reproduction of gravel-spawning fish.

Pander, J., & Geist, J. (2013). Ecological indicators for stream restoration success. Ecological indicators, 30, 106-118.

Rosgen, D. L. (1994). A classification of natural rivers. Catena, 22(3), 169-199.

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