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Documentation for the byzantinemusic.sty


package.
Charalampos Milt. Cornaros*

2016/02/10

Abstract

The byzantinemusic package gives us the ability to directly type


Byzantine Ecclesiastical Music and traditional Panhellenic and eastern folk music using the machine XELATEX and BZ-fonts font family.

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Contents

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1 Introduction

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2 Basic commands

2016 Cornaros. Questions, commentary and bug reports to


please.

kornaros@aegean.gr

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3 Stacking objects
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3.1 Building brackets and positioning them . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.2 Construction of initial martyries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.3 An example of the construction of a tower. . . . . . . . . . 12

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4 Variable distances between characters

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5 Invisable vertical lines

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6 Basic parameters and the change commands

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Text coloring

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8 Some other commands


8.1 The formatting commands

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9 Writing polytonic texts

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10 Future plans

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11 Acknowledgments

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12 Two musical examples

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13 List of musical commands


13.1 Symbols for ascending and descending . . . . . .
13.2 Rests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.3 Qualitative signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.4 Aple(small dot) - diple - triple . . . . . . . . . . .
13.5 Small ison and music hyphen . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.6 Signs that add duration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.7 Signs that divide the beat . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.8 The argon(\arg), diargon(\dia) and triargon(\tri)
13.9 The cross, apostrophe (breaths) and corona . . . .
13.10 Measures and time signatures . . . . . . . . . . .
13.11 Sharps and ats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.12 Martyries and note signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.13 Some useful combinations of martyries . . . . . .
13.14 Initial martyries of tones . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Ne, na symbols and characters for isokratima . .


Tempo signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fthores(destroyers) and chroes(chromatic signs)
Polytonic texts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Introduction

The Byzantine Music(BM) is the ocial music of the Greek Orthodox


Church for its liturgical needs. Also, BM is used for recording traditional
music in Greece and Cyprus. But typing a musical text of BM is a very
dicult task. They have already appeared for many years wonderful
fonts for BM but there is no simple and free tool that could be used with
them. The reason is simple. There are hundreds of musical symbol combinations and is almost impossible to place together all the symbols of any
combination in the right order, distance or size. The LATEX engine with
the command \put enables us to place our symbols with absolute accuracy
at any point on the page without the need of further automations. This
command with the cooperation of the impressive package \stackengine
recently written by Mr. Steven B. Segletes (see ftp.dante.de/tex-archive/
macros/latex/contrib/stackengine/stackengine.pdf) for easy vertical placement of objects, has enabled us to realize our dream i.e. to make a handy
package for writing BM using XELATEX engine.
With this package, every musical symbol or combination of musical
symbols is a simple and easy memorable command (automation). After
one gives a simple name to each simple musical symbol then one could
start the construction of complex combinations using some simple commands and allowing more complex names for the new structures as in
chemistry with atoms and molecules. For example, the symbol of the
(ison) (
) has name \iso. The (gorgon) is an auxiliary
musical symbol ( ) with name \g. Using the letters g and iso we constructed the command \giso (
) where the is below the .
Of course, it is impossible not to forget some useful combination of some
musical symbols, but we believe that with each new version the package
will increasingly perfected.
Maybe, we could not be able to complete the construction of our
package without the existence of the beautiful font family BYZANTINA 1.1
(http://www.melodima.gr/index.php?pg=downloads&lg=gr). Our package does

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not correct (for now) spelling mistakes someone will likely make violating
the musical spelling rules of BM. But it provides the opportunity for
easily manual correction of those errors without the need of some extra
automation. It also oers many other possibilities such as easily typing
and interchange of musical documents among the users of the package
and the construction of a large electronic base with BM texts. It also
oers the possibility of notating all the instruments of a traditional folk
orchestra and the works of musicians from countries that have true roots
and tradition in BM, but now use the sta to note down. Generally, with
today's possibilities of TEX osprings any automation or other feature
that may already exist in a notation program for BM could be achieved
with our package and even with the most professional way and totally
free!

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Basic commands

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Each simple symbol of Byzantine music corresponds to a command with


a simple name usually up to three letters. Simple symbols are divided into
two categories: main and auxiliary. Ancillary symbols usually have at
the right of their names some additional indications marked with capital
letters. The most common signs are the M, D, A, P, K and DD. These are
always assigned in relation to the normal position of the auxiliary symbol
when is placed over or under the main symbol \iso of the BZ-fonts family
exactly as designed by the manufacturer of BZ-fonts. The M, for example,
means that its position is just below the . The K sign is as M but
in even lower position than that. The D stands for the rightwards side
of the and A for the leftwards. The P means far above the center
of the , while the DD means far rightwards. The construction of a
composite combination is usually starts from a main musical symbol(i.e.
command) and placing one or more auxiliary symbols to the right.

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Example

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Within the font BZByzantina.otf there are many forms of the auxiliary

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symbol \g. The positions relatively to the \iso are: \gPA

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, \gPD

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, \gMD , \gDD , \gM , \gKD

, \gK , \gD , \gMD

and \g .

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The auxiliary symbols ending in D e.g. KD, PD are commonly used in


combination with medium width BM symbols such as \apo (apostrophe)
and auxiliary symbols ending in DD are used with short main symbols
such as \ypo (ypporoe). Maybe, it is not needed to know all these signs.
When we make a complex combination from simpler symbols, the new
name will almost never have all these additional indicators(with a few
exceptions). Each musical combination is read out and typed down
from left to right and top to bottom. With this simple mnemonic rule all
(composite) names of the new combinations actually have a very simple
construction.

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Example

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Instead of writing \isogM we write simply \isog to get

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change the order of g and iso we will take the \giso

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If we

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We have built many such new commands to combine simple symbols.


But even if we forgot a combination, then we can dene it with some single name in the preface (preamble) of our TEX le using the command
\newcommand of LATEX and some commands like those described below. By the way, we should mention for those who do not know the
LATEX programming language, that LATEX is completely dierent from ordinary editors. Rather than pressing buttons e.g. to change the font
of the text we use a specic command to make this job. Commands
are much better than buttons! They do not change color or position or
function to any possible improved version of LATEX! They give us full
control over our work and they could be combined with many others for
incredible automation and typographic perfection! To make possible the
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easier handling of our \byzantinemusic package to anyone who decides


to use it and does not suciently know XELATEX and also for easy formatting of our text using the facilities provided by the fontspec package,
we additional constructed some useful commands described below. All
these commands are taking some arguments in square brackets [ and ]
or braces {}. Each command has some simple syntax rules that we must
respect. If the argument is mandatory then it must be put in braces,
otherwise in brackets [ ]. E.g. we will describe the basic command of
BM that takes some syllable and the corresponding musical notes exactly
above it. This is the \th. It contains only two arguments and has the
syntax \th{musical symbols}[syllable]. We used { and } to enclose the
musical symbols and the [ ] brackets for the syllable. We constructed it
in this way because a music note may exist in a sta without a syllable,
but the opposite does not happens. There is no syllable without a note
or multiple notes above it! So we chose the { } pair for the mandatory
arguments and the brackets for the non mandatory! This structural rule
applies to all commands we built! Generally some knowledge of XELATEX
is needed before trying to write BM in order to avoid any disappointments!
As already mentioned, the basic musical symbols placement of BM
command is \th{ }[]. th is derived from the letter of the greek word
i.e. put, insert characters in the current line. Within the brackets
[] we usually insert the syllables of the text that follows the musical
line above it. But we can leave it empty because it is not a mandatory
argument. Within the pair of {} we put what we usually put over the
syllables like notes and isokratema above notes.
With the help of \th we also produced auxiliary commands \barth,
\LIIbarth, \LIIIbarth, \LIVbarth, \LVbarth, \LVIbarth, \LVIIbarth,
\LVIIIbarth, \lth, \Lth , \LIIth, \LIIIth , \LIVth, \LVth, \LVIth, \LVIIth. \LVIIIth and \syn (the latter for the construction of the
).

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Example:

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With \th{\iso}[\ne ] we take

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. Similarly, using the other commands we take respectively:

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,
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and
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(The latest result is typed as \syn{\ela}[\ne ] )

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. Using the command \ne we take

The \bm is the most useful command for placing a character or multiple
characters or a generally any composite object to a specic point on the
page. It gives us the opportunity to feel like typographers that we could
place our symbols (metallic movable types) on any point of the matrix
as it is used in the good old days ... Its syntax is
\bm[object1, horizontal - displacement1 ,
vertical-displacement1][object2, horizontal-displacement2 , vertical
displacement2] etc...
The horizontal and vertical displacements are determined by small decimal numbers related to the length and height of the (\iso) symbol
of BM. ero value (0) in any direction simply does not move the object
in this direction.

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Example:

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The petaste \pet(

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) from the left of \ypsypskypsoli(

and below

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\bm[\pet,0.12,-0.28] \ypsypskypsoli
The number 0.12 is positive which means a horizontal movement to
the right while -0.28 is negative which means vertically downwards. All
in all petaste was moved downwards and to the right of \ypsypskypsoli
as we would do by hand if we wanted to place the petaste under it.

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Another example: the

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is not correctly placed because the


(=sharp) \dMD ( ) is crossing the \eteKDD (
). The com
bination is written more correctly with proper movement of the

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upwards and leftmost of its normal position.

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\gapot\bm[\dMD,-0.05,0.1]\eteKDD

Stacking objects

The \bm command requires some test and trial to nd the proper shifts
values in order to place our objects to the desired position. If we are
interested only to stack an object above or below another then it is more
preferable to use some other LATEX commands or commands of stackengine
package. For this reason we created some additional auxiliary commands
for the vertical positioning of isokratima, martyries and other symbols.
For placing isokratema over notes we use the command \s. The name
s is derived from the rst letter of the \stackengine command to remind
us the use of this command in the construction of \s. The \marts command is similar to \s but is used in the construction of martyries and
nally the \xrs command is used when we want to introduce time sig-

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natures in our musical texts at some the appropriate height. To construct


rhythmic patterns(meters) with \arsi ( ), \thesi ( ) and \makra ( ), we
use the command \stackon of stackengine package. The \stackon command is a simplication of the command \stackengine. In \stackon the
rst argument is non-mandatory and is included in []. Two optional
arguments are following and they are included in {}. In the rst nonmandatory argument we insert the intermediate distance of the stacked
objects using some proper measurement unit lengths like 0.2em or 10pt
while at the next two arguments we put the bottom object (located at 0
level) and the object above it (located on the rst level, rst oor of the
stack). The syntax of \s, \marts, and \xrs is the same.

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Example:

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()

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\s[()][\iso]

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\marts[\padiaa][\dik]

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\xrs[\bbbmchi][\dibm]

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\stackon[0.2em]{\arsh}{\red\makra\makra\makra} . The \red


command is used when we want to give the red color to an object. For
colors we will give more details below.

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3.1

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Building brackets and positioning them

We can properly use the \bsline to put braces, brackets, parentheses etc.
of variable height and width directly on the (horizontal) line. Brackets
of variable height are easily constructed with the help of the command
\agkylh. Let us note the dierence:
{

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\agkylh[1]{\{}

and \bsline{\agkylh[1]{\{}} .

The symbols {and } are used exclusively for the construction of LATEX
commands and not for inserting in the text. If we want to introduce
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the braces somewhere in the text then we have to use the backslash \
and type \{ and \}. For this reason we used the symbol \{ inside the
command \agkylh[...]{ ... }. Also, instead of \{ we can alternatively insert some other commands (constructing mathematical gures) or other
simple brackets like (, ), \Vert, \rangle, \langle, \}, \| (but excluding
the brackets ] and [ ). The \bsline{object} is the abbreviation of the
\stackon[0ex]{ }{object } command. The main disadvantage of \agkylh
is that accepts only mathematical shapes of TEX and not something else
such as a letter. All symbols and commands mentioned above are considered mathematical shapes and for this reason can be used as an argument
of \agkylh.
{

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Example: \agkylh[1]{\{}

and \bsline{\agkylh[1]{\{}} .

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The 1 inside the command sets the amount of the left parenthesis (as
a percentage of the total height of the musical character \iso, ie. 1 = 100
% of the height of \iso) and could be changed to any integer or decimal
value we like.
Instead of \agkylh command there are also \leftbracket[number] and
\rightbracket[number] commands to take the [ and ] with a variable
height.
]
Example: \rightbracket[1]

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There are also their starred versions eg. \agkylh*[number] {gure }


and \leftbracket*[number] to put our brackets horizontally.
If we want to change at the same time the thickness of our braces we
made the \thickshape command with syntax
\thickshape[! or a thickness unit eg. 10 pt][a number for the
enlargement] {any shape }.
The ! is the normal thickness of the shape for this specic enlargement.
Otherwise, we must insert a number in some typographic unit of the
measurement of the thickness eg. the pt (point). The \thickshape is
much more general than \agkylh because the latter can not accept as
its argument any brace-like shape or other shape other than those already mentioned while the \thickshape command accepts everything!
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Of course, we could integrate in the command \thickshape any other


command like the \bsline so the nal result will be set on the line.

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Example:

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\thickshape[!][2]{[}

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\thickshape[10pt][1.5]{\bsline{(}}

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and \thickshape*[10pt][1]{)}

and

and \thickshape[!][1]{A}

Construction of initial martyries

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Martyries show the starting note of the melody from which we begin to
chant. They are not interval signs so they are not chanted. Martyries
are divided in three groups: diatonics, chromatics and enharmnics.
We can use the \stackengine command to achieve our own beautiful
combinations of initial martyries using any text font.

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Eg. we could place the

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\bm[\nhdiafMD,0.4,0.1]\mbox{}

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over with the command

or with the command

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\stackengine{0.5ex}{}{\nhdiafMD}{O}{r}{F}{\useanchorwidth}{L}

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to take . Also with

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\stackengine{1.2ex}{}{}{O}{c}{F}{\useanchorwidth}{L}

we take ( the 1.2ex determines the vertical distance between the letters
and . We may reduce or increase the 1.2 value depending on the
desired distance). The last example can also be written more simpler by
means of \stackon command as follows: \stackon :

\stackon[0.2ex]{}{}
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We could also construct some other commands like these above to


build new initial martyries. Our opinion is to use exclusively the BZByzantine.otf font and the rest fonts of BZ-fonts package so our musical text
has a robust and consistent view throughout its length. Also most of the
complex initial martyries have already been built by us with the help of
commands described (see table below), so there is no need to build a
new initial martyria.

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3.3

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An example of the construction of a tower.

The \stackenginepackage gives us in addition of the basic \stackengine


command and auxiliary command \stackon many other auxiliary commands, even for the building of an entire tower of stacked objects.
Without willing to expand on details of the package, we will simply give
here an idea how we could write a musical text with many musical parallel lines (eg. when we want to build russian or other easter church
polyphonic music or use two lines, the above line is with the pre-reform
of 1814 AD writing style and on the other line its reformed style after
1814 AD). We will use the \Longstack command of the above package
to construct the tower. Its general form is
\Longstack[r or c or l] {top oor all the previous oors each oor of
them enclosed in separate pair of {} and nally the ground oor
without braces }.
the r, c, l denote right, central and left aligned stack.
With the help of \rbox * (see details below) we can have absolute control
of the intermediate distance between oors of the tower.
Eg. using
\Longstack[r]{ \rbox*[4.3]{} {\rbox*[4]{}}
{\rbox*[3] { }} {\rbox*[2]{}}
{\rbox*[1]{}} }
we take:

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We met the above example in the of the


book New Anthology of Emm. Vamvoudaki.

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Variable distances between characters

To separate (or rather to get closer) horizontally two characters there


are several ways. We constructed three commands for this purpose. The
rst \p separates two characters to a constant distance as the width of
the Latin letter i, the second command \keno could be used to join or to
separate two characters at some distance and nally the \met (from the
initials of the greek word = move) which has similar syntax
with \keno. The \met moves the character or object on its right in
a positive or negative percentage. Each of these commands has its own
advantages and disadvantages. The \p is essentially the i but transparent,
so we have the impression of empty space between the two characters.
The \p does not get any argument so if you want to have a wider gap
then we must repeat the command \p \p ... several times to achieve the
desired space. In practice, we usually use the \keno to control the exact
space between two musical syllables except some rare cases (in which a
visual problem arises in the nal result, so we have to choose the \p or
\met commands or perhaps some other of the dozens of the TEX). The
\keno uses internally the command \hspace which is a command for
making horizontal gaps. The \met is using the command \kern for the
leftwards or rightwards shift of the character after the \met. Of course,
there are many other commands for this purpose. The \met and \keno
may cause problems when using large negative values because they could
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move to the left all the characters on their right hand side)

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Example:

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\th{\apo}[]\keno\th{\kediam}

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\th{\apo}[]\keno[0.5]\th{\kediam}

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\th{\apo}[]\th{\kediam} (the \th commands without \keno


and without intermediate space )

(the \th commands without \keno

\th{\apo}[] \th{\kediam}
and with an intermediate space)

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\th{\apo}[]\keno[-0.1]\th{\kediam} (negative \keno)

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\th{\apo}[]\p\p\p\th{\kediam}

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\iso\met\iso

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(tree \p in line)

(a small displacement )
\iso\met[0.5]\iso (a bigger one)

\iso\met[-1.5]\iso\apo
(a problem with negative met: the second equal red iso is shifted too far to the left so the apostrophe is aected
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and fall on the rst iso!)


Using the command \bm (see above) we solve this problem:

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\iso\bm[\iso, -1.5]\apo
The \bm command always moves
its objects without aecting the other objects around her! Example:

noindent \iso\bm[\padiafD,0.3]\kekediam\iso

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For exact vertical movement of our musical characters or combinations of characters as well as any kind of objects we also created the
command \rbox with syntax

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\rbox[+ or - number] {character (to be moved) }

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which is derived from the initials leters r and box of the LATEX command
\raisebox with the help of which the \rbox command is dened. It can
be combined with any other commands such as the \s command.

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Example:

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\s[\rbox[-0.8]{()}][]

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()

()

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\s[()][oh!] oh! (without the \rbox the isokratema () is much


higher than the oh! and almost touching the top line!)

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\th{\rbox[0.3]{\iso}}[up] up , and without \rbox: \th{\iso}[up]

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up .

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Lowering with a negative value \rbox[-1.3]{\iso}

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The use of \rbox has a drawback. When we move a character too high

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or too low it will fall into the previous line or the next line. This eect
is not always desirable. For this reason we created a command similar
to the \rbox. The command \rbox* helps us to enlarge the distance
between consecutive lines so that the letters does not cross. This is the
main reason we used the \rbox* rather than \rbox for the construction
of levels in the example above. Of course, for small displacements it is
not preferable to change the distance between consecutive lines, so in this
cases it is better to use the \rbox.

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Invisable vertical lines

To construct the commands \th \agkylh, towers etc it is needed to have


some transparent vertical lines (of zero thickness) of a xed or some variable height so that we could control the overall height of the shape or
of the stack regardless of the height of objects stacked. For example,
the command \rul is constructed to be used exclusively with the \th
command. If we are not satised with the total amount of \th then we
could change it using the command \changethheight, eg. \changethheight[1.7]. We have selected 1.9 as the predetermined \rul height but
with \changethheight we could give any value to it.
With the command \katheth[number] we take a transparent vertical line
of variable height which is determined by the number, eg

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\katheth[2] (in this example we reveled the \katheth[2] just to see


the actual height and thus the greater distance we achieved have between
the line in which the \katheth is palced and the line above it.)

416

413
414

417
418
419
420

Basic parameters and the change commands

There are some additional parameters and commands that determine


the nal appearance of our musical text. The \ypsosisokrathmatos has
a default value 1.3 (% percentage of the height of \iso symbol) and aects
the command \s i.e. it sets the height of isokratema over the musical
16

430

line. The \ypsosmartyrias (with a default value 0.02 % of the value of


\iso) is similar to \ypsosisokrathmatos but aects the command \marts
and nally the \ypsosxronou (with default value 1.02 % of the \iso's
height) is used in \xrs. The command \changemusictextgap is used to
change the gap between a musical character and syllable located exactly
below it. The default value has chosen 0.27 (i.e. the gap is 0.27 % of
the total height of the \iso symbol in our music font). If we do not like
this distance then we can decrease or increase it depending on the visual
eect we want to achieve. We can compare the distances in the following
example.

431

Example:

432

\changemusictextgap[0.87] \th{\iso}[one] one and

421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429

440

\changemusictextgap[0.27] \th{\iso}[two] two


Of course, it is not good idea to change this value unnecessarily in
order to have always a uniform gap between notes and syllables for the
whole song. We could also change the default values of the parameters mentioned above with similar change commands like \changeypsosisokrathmatos, \changeypsosmartyrias and \changeypsosxronou respectively. There are other some commands with prex \change.
The \changetextfont with syntax

441

\changetextfont[font name]

433
434
435
436
437
438
439

444

is naturally designed to change the text-font i.e. the font of the text.
Currently there is no option to change the music font because most BM
well-designed musical fonts are not free.

445

Example:

442
443

446
447

\changetextfont[GFS Artemisia] I am written using GFS Artemisia


font while \changetextfont[GFS Neohellenic] I am written using GFS
17

462

Neohellenic font!
Of course we can return to the default font i.e. our main text font using the command
\normalfont or the \changetextfont[] command with no arguments.
Also, the fonts must have already installed in our computer or TEX distribution or otherwise exists in the same folder of the current music le,
so that the \fontspec package could be able to identify them when the
\changetextfont command is used! It is surprising that we can have hundreds and maybe thousands of fonts ready for use with XETEX without
even the need to be installed! Note that the font name must be correctly
typed and never put space before or after that. So, for example, \changetextfont[ Arial ] could cause a serious problem! Our fonts must be of .ttf
or .oft type.
Another useful and relevant command is \changetextscale that gives
us the ability to change the font size of the text by a percentage and
\changetextcolor that change the text color from black to anything else.

463

Example:

464

\changetextscale[1.5]

448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461

465
466

I have grown taller 1.5 times


and my color is now \changetextcolor[red]
red! To return to the default color i.e. black we could write simply

468

\changetextcolor[] . We can dene our own mycolor color with the


command \denecolor and color with it any text!

469

Example:

467

470
471
472

\denecolor{mycolor}{RGB}{50,150,220}Then we can use our color to


change the text color:
\changetextcolor[mycolor] Do you like this color?

473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480

Here we should note that the is not a character of our current font
but a mathematical shape (an arrow dened by the command \Rightarrow) and has been designated exclusively
in TEX. There are hundreds of

such symbols as the square root (


) or \Vert command encountered
above. This is the reason that has not changed its size or color. The
\agkylh as designed can accept only mathematical symbols of TEX in
its arguments, as already mentioned, and therefore is also not aected
18

489

with text commands like the \changetextcolor. To change the color of a


mathematical TEX shape we should use the command \color with syntax \color {a color } while to change the size of it we could use other
appropriate commands such as \thickshape. It should also be noted that
when we intend to insert a eld (i.e. a string) of mathematical symbols
in our text, then we must use some special characters at the beginning
and at the end of the eld to inform the TEX engine about our intention.
The most common character for mathematics elds is the dollar sign $
and it is inserted at the beginning and the end of the eld.

490

Example:

491

$\color{red} \Rightarrow$ to and

492

\thickshape[!][0.5]{$\color{red}\Rightarrow $} to

481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488

494

\color{red} \thickshape[!][0.5]{$\Rightarrow $} to
I am colored red!} to I am colored red! I am not!

495

493

496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509

and
and {\color{red}

Text coloring

As can be seen from the above examples, the command \color can be used
both to color a mathematical eld and any other text! If we enclose the
\color inside the braces {} then we limit the specic color to those objects
enclosed by these braces. So in the last example, I'm not! remained
black because is outside the braces. If there were no braces around the
\color{red} command then everything after this command would be red!
The command \color could take any of ordinary colors names such
as black, red, green, blue, cyan, magenta, yellow and so on. We could use
thousands of dierent colors (for details see http://texdoc.net/texmf-dist/
doc/latex/xcolor/xcolor.pdf) Due to the great practical usefulness of the
colors we have made two more auxiliary commands using the \color.
One is the \red and the other is \R with dierent syntax each. H \R is
used mostly when we color a character or even a few e.g. some characters
inside the \th command.

19

510

Example:

514

{\red a very long text } a very large text and \R {\oli }


.
We could change the default color (that is red) of the \R command with
the help of the \changeRcolor with syntax \changeRcolor[name of the
new color]

515

Example:

516

\changeRcolor[mycolor] and \R {\oli }

511
512
513

517
518
519
520
521

522
523
524

Each of the quality or time musical characters have a predened color.


We could change these default colors according to our own preferences.
So for example, the color of the characters of gorgon() series is
determined by the command \gcolor which has red as its default value.
Red is also given to the following parameters:
\trocolor, \parcolor, \etecolor, \argcolor, \edocolor, \ekscolor,
\piacolor, \ydcolor, \lygcolor, \metracolor, \martcolor, \fthcolor,
\isokrthmacolor

531

corresponding to tromikon, paraklitiki, eteron, argon, endofono, ekstrepto,


piasma, at and sharps, lygisma, meters, martyries, fthores and isokratema
respectively. The antikenoma has color parameter \antcolor in black
color and the color parameter for anapnoi \anacolor, stayros \stayroscolor and corona \korwnacolor have blue as their default value. To
change these default values we can use their corresponding change commands.

532

Example:

525
526
527
528
529
530

533
534
535

\changestayroscolor[mycolor] . We could come back to the predened


color, if it is desired, simply by typing the command with an empty
argument eg. \changestayroscolor[].

20

536

Some other commands

543

Besides the above \change commands we could also use \changemusicscale to re-size our musical symbols by a percentage and the \changemusicsize command to change the size of musical symbols. Their default
values are 1 and 22 respectively, but we could give any other value. 1
means 100% i.e. no zooming in or out while 22 means 22 pt (points).
We also concerned of isokratema symbol. The \changeisokrathmasize
command changes the size of the isokratema font.

544

Example:

537
538
539
540
541
542

545

546
547
548
549
550
551
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
560

\changemusicscale[0.8]
! and

\changemusicsize[40] \changeisokrathmasize[30]

()

To return to the default size of the musical fonts (ie. to 22pt or to


100 %) we simply write \changemusicsize[] and \changemusicscale[] respectively. 40 in \changemusicsize[40] means music font size of 40 pt.
We never write the pt next to the number in the \changemusicsize eg.
\changemusicsize[40pt] because it will create a problem! It should also
be noted that when we make these changes of sizes then the distance
\rul (see above) is automatically changed and thus all the visual eect
we get with the command \th. There is no need to simultaneously
change the \changemusicscale and \changemusicsize. The basic dierence is that \changemusicscale will simultaneously change the size of
isokratema font while \changemusicsize will not. If we prefer to use the
\changemusicsize command and we want to make a change in the size of
the isokratema font, then we should use the command \changeisokrathmasize at the same time. \changeisokrathmasize.

21

561

562
563
564

565
566
567
568

569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588

589
590

591
592
593
594
595

Changetolerance and changespaceskip commands


Sometimes our musical syllables are not well aligned to the right margin
and come out of it. In such cases it is advisable to use the auxiliary
command changetolerance with syntax
\begin {changetolerance }[number][a number in a typographical unit
length]
text ...
\end {changetolerance }
With appropriate changes of the values of the two arguments we can
have very good alignment of our music text no matter how big or small
\changemusicscale we use.
After we write our whole paragraph we should nalize with \end
{changetolerance } The commands starting with \begin and end with the
\end{name of the command} are called environments in the terminology
of LATEX. We found the above command in the http://tex.stackexchange.
com/questions/84510. Its syntax needs some attention. We should not omit
the pair of brackets [] even if we have empty arguments. So for example,
the \begin {changetolerance }[2em] will generate an error while \begin
{changetolerance }[][2em] will not. In other cases we would like the
notes to be as shrink as possible so that to t more at the same line and
sometimes more spanned for reasons of taste. For these cases we made
the changespaceskip environment. So, for example, \begin {changespaceskip }[0][][] notes ... \end {changespaceskip } will put the notes
... to zero (0) apart. We could even put a negative value eg. -0.2 for
even greater economy on ... paper! The changespaceskip environment
not only arranges the gap (space) between words but the additional percentage that can spread (stretch) or shrink (shrink). Consequently it has
three arguments for space, stretch and shrink. Its syntax is
\begin {changespaceskip }[a number for the space][a number for the
stretch][and one for shrink] our text ... \end {changespaceskip }
The command (not environment) \changeletterspace is similar to changespaceskip and is built with the help of a command of \fontespec package.
This command gives very good results when we have some text in capitals (like titles, headers etc. ) and we want to spread it. Below we give
the same text in many dierent ways to see the dierence.
22

596

Example:

597

\\\changeletterspace[20]

598
599
600
601
602
603
604
605

After we write our whole paragraph we should nalize with \end {changetolerance } The commands starting with \begin and end with the \end{name of the
command} are called environments in the terminology of
LATEX . \ \
\changeletterspace[]
\begin{changespaceskip}[0][-1][1]

606
607
608
609
610
611

Afterwewriteourwholeparagraphweshouldnalizewith\end{changetolerance}Thecommandsstartingwith\beginandendwiththe\end{nameofthecommand}arecalledenvironmentsintheterminologyofLATEX.\\
\end{changespaceskip}
\begin{changespaceskip}[5][][]\\

612
613
614
615
616
617
618
619

After we write our whole paragraph we should nalize with \end {changetolerance } The commands starting with \begin and end with the \end{name of the
command} are called environments in the terminology of
LATEX. \\
\end{changespaceskip}
\begin{changespaceskip}[][5][] \\

620
621
622
623
624
625

After we write our whole paragraph we should nalize with \end


{changetolerance } The commands starting with \begin and end with the
\end{name of the command} are called environments in the terminology
of LATEX. \\
\end{changespaceskip} \begin{changespaceskip}[][][8]\\

626
627
628
629
630
631

Afterwewriteourwholeparagraphweshouldnalizewith\end{changetolerance
} The commands starting with \begin and end with the \end{name of the
command} are called environments in the terminology of LATEX. \\
\end{changespaceskip}
And nally the original text:

632

23

637

After we write our whole paragraph we should nalize with \end


{changetolerance } The commands starting with \begin and end with the
\end{name of the command} are called environments in the terminology
of LATEX. \\
\end{changespaceskip}

638

8.1

633
634
635
636

The formatting commands

650

Sometimes, we have not at our disposal a whole range of the fonts of a


family ready for use. So, for example, we may need a specic font and
we have not it or its author did not care to design the thick (bold) or
slanted version of it. In such cases there are appropriate commands in the
fontspec package to help us. We have built three more auxiliary text formatting commands for the needs of our package. Of course, we can use
many other command of fontspec or another package to get exactly the
desired result in the appearance of our letters. The new formatting commands are \changetextbold, \changetextslant and \changetextstretch.
The last command has nothing to do with the stretch of empty space
mentioned above and the changespaceskip environment. It just deforms
our font letters by a percentage.

651

Example:

639
640
641
642
643
644
645
646
647
648
649

661

We could use the \changetextbold[0.6] command to make our letters


thicker. We can put an even greater number for even better results:
\changetextbold[1.5] Using the command \changetextbold[] we return
to the normal thickness. Also we can also slant in our text with the command \changetextslant[0.3] and come back to its normal sloping position with the command \changetextslant[] . Of course, if we like experimentation we could use the \changetextstretch[1.3] command but
the use of large values could give \changetextstretch[2]
undesirable results!
We come back
typing simply \changetextstretch[].

662

652
653
654
655
656
657
658
659
660

663
664

Writing polytonic texts

To easily write polytonic texts we should insert in our preamble an


appropriate package using the command \usepackage {greektonoi }
24

665

(for information

666

greektonoi/greektonoi.pdf)

http://ctan.sharelatex.com/tex-archive/language/greek/

681

to introduce accents and breathings in large


polytonic texts in which there are no LATEX commands in-between we
should use some proper combinations of keyboard letters without the use
of any additional commands. But if we going to write only few polytonic
words in a (musical) paragraph that contains several LATEX commands
(such as those we have dened here), then we should denitely use some
specic commands of greektonoi package. These commands are designed
with letters of the Greek alphabet and quite memorable. We can use
letters (, grave accent), (smooth breathing), (acute accent),
(circumex), (rough breathing), (diaeresis), (iota subdcript),
(long vowel) (short vowel) and many other commands to achieve
any (ancient or not) letter or number of polytonic and monotonic greek
orthographic system. For example, to get we can simply type or .
Warning: if our word comprises more than one syllable then we should
give the XELATEX to recognize where just ends our tonal command from
the next syllable. This is done by double {} braces eg. we write

682

667
668
669
670
671
672
673
674
675
676
677
678
679
680

683
684
685
686
687
688
689
690
691
692
693
694
695
696

697

698
699

to get . We should note here that acute (\) does not coincide
with the (acute) of the monotonic system in some polytonic fonts.
So the letter with acute does not coincide with letter with tonos. But
this dierence will only be visible if we have a well-designed polytonic
font in our computer. Finally, if the use of the pair of braces {} between
the syllables looks embarrassing then we can put somewhere in the text
before we start writing polytonic the \tildeON command which causes
the tilde (tilde) ~to play the role of double {}. For example, the word
is easily converted to polytonic by typing the appropriate command . Due to this particular use of ~ after the \tildeON, if
we need to explicitly insert somewhere the tilde symbol then we could
to use the command \char plus its hex value: \char"007E. We should
insert \tildeOFF immediately after the end of the polytonic text to return
to the normal use of the tilde in TEX.

10

Future plans

It would be very useful to build a base of musical BM texts written in


XELATEX. Also it is necessary to built an OCR tool that converts printed
25

709

musical text in XELATEX in order to this database be developed quickly. It


would also be very useful to make a program for converting the musical
text to Midi les. For the latter we have already progressed somewhat
with the help of the abcnotation program. Details are on our website
http://samosweb.aegean.gr/mathmusic/. Finally, it should be designed all
the other ancient symbols of BM or even of the ancient Greek music
and nd a simple way of inserting the sta in byzantinemusic package
in order to have at our disposal a fully powerful tool for studying the
Greek music from the ancient times. We would be grateful to anyone
who would volunteer and help our eorts.

710

11

711

If there was not the BZ-fonts of Fr.

712

www.stanthonysmonastery.org/music/ByzMusicFonts.html)

700
701
702
703
704
705
706
707
708

Acknowledgments

723

Ephraim of Arizona (https://


and Mr. Souldatos
(BYZANTINA 1.1) then we could not design our package becaause we
could not create from scratch all musical symbols. I thank them warmly.
I would like also to thank the assistant rprofessor Tsolomitis Antonios of
our mathematics department for his valuable help on the uploading the
package contents at TUG and other issues related to fonts, and Messrs.
Vamvaka John and Kotopouli Panagiotis for creating BYZLATEX the rst
BM package in LATEX (https://www.tug.org/TUGboat/tb26-3/tb84vamvakas.
pdf). Also the Samian professor of BM Mr. Angelinaras George who
gave us the manuscript (it is the second example below) and my family for the patience that showed on me at the endless hours of package
design). This package is dedicated to the memory of my mother Sophia.

724

12

713
714
715
716
717
718
719
720
721
722

725
726
727
728
729
730
731
732

Two musical examples

We will give two simple examples using several commands from our
package. The rst example is the Lord Have mercy for 5 voices
of Emmanuel Vamvoudaki. This is a translation and adaptation of
Vamvoudakis from the Russian original song and it is in the book "New
Anthology" Emmanuel Vamvoudaki - Samos 1921. We used the command \Longstack[r] to create the command \pyrgos for the construction of oors. This command is not in byzantinemusic package but in the
preface of byzantinemusic.tex. Each oor usually gets a single note and
26

733
734
735
736
737
738
739
740
741
742
743
744
745
746
747
748
749
750
751
752
753
754
755
756
757
758
759
760
761
762
763
764
765

its syllables. We did this so that each tower is not very wide and consequently our musical text can be suciently well aligned in TEX without
going out from the right margin. We used the command \agkylh[6.5]
{\{} to insert the large brace at the beginning of the musical text. Also for
the construction of the small hyphens, we used the command \agkylh
* (eg \agkylh *[0.5] {) }) although we could also use the commands
\yfa, \yfk (see below in the list of symbols) that is made from BZ-fonts
without using any mathematical commands. Certainly \agkylh * is the
recommended command in case of very large hyphen because it gives a
uniform thickness throughout the length of the hyphen (irrespective of
its size and regardless of the font used). The musical measure 44 of the is
written using the mathematical command \frac that has the capacity
to make fractions: $ \frac {4 } { 4 } $. We zoomed this fraction a bit
with the command \thickshape[!][1]. We could, if we wanted, made a
dierent construction of the oor that gives us the ability to put many
musical notes at the same level of the stack. This command is called
\pyrgosh. In this way the notes of each voice is more condensed but we
must be careful how many notes we are going to insert at each level of
the stack because otherwise there is a great chance to fall out the margin!
Below, we wrote only the rst measure of the hymn using this tower to
see the dierence.
The second example is an old traditional and well-known song from
the Lydia province of the unforgettable Greek Asia Minor. It uses
the changespaceskip environment with zero width between the musical
words throughout its extent ie. it starts with \begin {changespaceskip
}[0][][]. In the title of the piece we used each of the \changetextbold,
\changeletterspace, \changetextslant commands for better appearance.
Also we used \changetextscale[1.5] command to increase letters' size by
a percentage and came back soon after, once we nished the construction of the song's title, in the default size using the command \changetextscale[1] or simply \changetextscale[]. We easily centered the title with
the command \kentro. The remaining verses after the track are placed
using the environment \begin {verse } ... \end {verse } of LATEX.

27

766

4
4

4
4

767

28

768

769
770
771

772

A dierent construction of the tower using the command \pyrgosh


(each level contains more than one notes).

29

773

774

( )

776

777

778

779

780

781

782

775

783

784




;
30

!
,
,
,
!



.

785
786
787
788
789
790
791
792
793

794

795
796
797
798
799
800
801
802
803
804
805
806
807
808
809
810
811
812
813
814

13

List of musical commands

.
.
, o iso , oxe , oli
, pet , k , xk
, yps ( ypsD)
, yps ( ypsA) ,
kk , g , gg
., t , tt ., p
g, gg, ggg ., synela ,
apo , xapo
oli, ela , ypo
and xam .
and anw(=)
and kat(=)
(.. Xanw= 10
) . p
g pg and
gp. ,
and \syn
\th.

31

815

Example:

816

\th{\synela}[\ne e]

817

\syn{\ela }[\ne e]

818

13.1

and

Symbols for ascending and descending


Command

Result

Command

Result

Symbols for ascending

\isopet

\pet

\olipet

\kpet

\ypspet and
\ypsDpet

\iso

\oli

\olixk

\koli

\ypsoli and
\ypsDoli

32

\olixkantt and
\olixkantapl

\oxe

\k

\gkkoli

\olikkantt

\kk

\olikkD

\kkoli

\ypskkoli

\ypsAoli and
\Vanwoli

\VIanwpet and
\kypspet

\VIIanwpet and
\ypskpet

\VIIIanwpet and
\ypsypspet

\kkypsoli

\Vanwoli and
\ypsAoli

\VIanwoli and
\kypsoli

\VIIIanwoli and
\ypsypsoli

\IXanwpet and
\ypskkypspet

33

\XIanwpet and
\ypsypskpet

\XIIanwpet and
\ypsypsypspet

\XIIIanwpet and
\ypsypskkypspet

\XIVanwpet and
\ypsypskypspet

\IXanwoli and
\ypskkypsoli

\Xanwoli and
\ypskypsoli

\XIanwoli and
\ypsypskoli

\XIIanwoli and
\ypsypsypsoli

\XIIIanwoli and
\ypsypskkypsoli

\XIVanwoli and
\ypsypskypsoli

\XVanwk

\kkypsolik

\XVanwpet

\isokkoli

\isokkoxe

\olixkant

\ggkkoli

\Xanwpet and
\ypskypspet

34

\olik

\kkolik

\ypskkolik

\ypsAoxe

\VIanwoxe and
\kypsoxe

\VIIanwoxe and
\ypskoxe

\VIIIanwoxe and
\ypsypsoxe

\isooxe

\oxexk

\oxek

\koxe

\ypsoxe and
\ypsDoxe

\ypskkoxe

\oxexkant

\ggkkoxe

\gkkoxe

\XIanwoxe and
\ypsypskoxe

\XIIanwoxe and
\ypsypsypsoxe

35

\kkypsoxe

\oxekkD

\kkoxe

\IXanwoxe and
\ypskkypsoxe

\Xanwoxe and
\ypskypsoxe

\isooli

Symbols for descending

\isoapo and
\isoxapo

\apokkoli

\apoapo and
\apoxapo

\synelapet

\apopet

\elapet

\elaapopet

\gypo

\ypopet

\synela

\apo

\ela

36

\elaapo

\xam

\ypo

\apooli

\ypooli

\xamoli

\elaoli

\elaapooli

\synelakkoli

\xamkkoli

\elakkoli

\elaapokkoli

\gpypo

\pgypo

\pggypo

\ggypo

\pgggypo

\gggypo

37

\gypokkoli

\ypokkoli

\gggypokkoli

\gggypokkoli

\gpypokkoli

\pgypokkoli

\ggpypokkoli

\pggypokkoli

\gggpypokkoli

\pgggypokkoli

\xampet

\Vkatpet and
\xamapopet

\xamapo

\VIkatpet and
\xamelapet

\xamela

\xamelaapopet

\xamelaapo

\xamxampet

38

\xamxam

\xamxamapopet

\xamxamapo

\xamxamela

\XIkat and
\xamxamelaapo

\XIIkat and
\xamxamxam

\XIIIkat and
\xamxamxamapo

\XIVkat and
\xamxamxamela

\XVkat and
\xamxamxamelaapo

\gypokkoxe

\pggypokkoxe

\pgggypokkoxe

\ypokkoxe

\ggypokkoxe

\gggypokkoxe

\synelaoxe

\apokkoxe

39

819

820
821
822

13.2

\elakkoxe

\elaapokkoxe

\xamkkoxe

\gypooxe

\synelaoxe

\apooxe

\elaapooxe

\xamoxe

\ypooxe

\oliapo

Rests

(bar) (t)
. bart and pay
. .
Command

Result Command

Result

\bart and
\pay

\bartt

\barttt

\bartttt

40

823

13.3

\bartg and
\bargt

\bartgp and
\bargpt

\bartpg and
\barpgt

Qualitative signs

837


.
ete(ete), oma(oma), lyg(lyg), tro (tro),
eks (eks), pia (pia), par (par), ant (
ant), anm ( m an), psh (psh) and
psa (ps a ).
,
\bm and
.
M, MD, K
. , , \etepsaKD
ete and psa (K) and
(D) iso (
iso). .

838

Example:

839

\oli\eteMD \iso

824
825
826
827
828
829
830
831
832
833
834
835
836

840

841

842

843

and \oli\eteMDD \iso


\iso\eteM
\iso\ttM\eteKDD\iso \isotteteKDD\iso
\apot\eteKD\iso

\oli\ttM\eteK\iso and \olitt\eteK\iso

41

844

845

846

847

848

\olikk\omaKDD and \olikkomaKDD

\oli\omaMDD\iso and \oliomaMDD\iso


\oli\eteMDD\iso\psaM and \olieteMDD \iso \psaM
\isopet\eteMDD\apogkkoli and \isopeteteMDD \apogkkoli

\olikk\eteKDD\isokkoli\psaK and \olikketeKDD\isokkoli\psaK


Command

Example

Command

Example

+\eteMDD

\eteKDD

\eteMD

\eteM

\eteD

\ete

\omaK

\omaM

\omaMDD

\omaMD

\omaKD

\omaKDD

42

\lygMDD

\lygMD

\lygM

\troM

\troMD

\eksMD

\eksM

\piaMD

\parP

\parPD

\edoKD

\eteMDD

\pshM

\pshMD


\psaM

\psaK

\antM

anmMD

43

\antK

\antK

\anmM

\antK

\anttM

\anmtMD

\anmtM

\anttK

\olieteMDD
.
\bm.

\isopeteteMDD

\apoete

\olikketeKDD

\petant

\olikant and
\oliantk

\petantt

\olikantt and
\olianttk

\etepsaKD

\etepsaKDD

44

849

850
851
852
853
854
855

13.4

Aple(small dot) - diple - triple

, and t, tt
and ttt .
\t ( and )
\bm
.
.
Command

Example Command

Example

\oli\tM

\iso\ttM

\iso\tttM

\apo\tMD

\apo\ttMD

\apo\tttMD

\ypo\tMD

\ypo\ttMD

\ypo\tttMD

\apoapo\tKD

\apoapo\ttKD

\apoapo\tttKD

\oxe\tM

\xamoli \tM

45

Dicult cases

\xamxamapot and
\IXkatt

\Xkatt and
\xamxamelat

\isoapot

\oliapot

\elat

\elaapot

\pett

\olitk and
\olikt

\xamt

\olixkt

\XVkatt

\xamxamapopett and
\IXkatpett

856

857
858
859
860
861
862
863
864
865

13.5

Small ison and music hyphen

To : \isa and
\isk. (D )

(
). and
\agkylh
. , ,

. \yfma(

46

871

), \yfmk(
) \iso \yfa and
\yfk and
.
,
\bm .

872

Example:

873

\iso\isaA

874

\apo\isaD

866
867
868
869
870

875

876


\isa\iso \iso\yfmk\iso
\iso\iso\yfa[3.5]\iso\iso

Command

Example

Command

Example

\isk


\isaA


\isaD

\isa


\yfma


\yfmk

\yfk

.
\yfa

47

877

13.6

Signs that add duration

892

H kla ().

. kla, klaA, klaD
, , klaM, klaMD,
klaKD, ,
.


. \iso\kla
\klaiso. \iso\kla
\isokla ( ,
M,D, DD .
and
). \tsa ()
\kla.

893

Example:

894

\pet\tsaKD

895

\synela\kla

896

\klaapoolipsh

878
879
880
881
882
883
884
885
886
887
888
889
890
891

Command

Example Command

Example

\klaM

\iso\tsaM

\iso\kla

\oli\tsa

48

897

898
899
900

13.7

\apo\tsaD

\ypsoli\klaA

\pet\tsaK

\pet\klaKD

\ela\klaK

\elaapo\klaK

\synela\kla

\ela\kla

\isopet \klaK

\xamapo\klaD

\xamela\klaPD

\klaP

Signs that divide the beat

p p. T g \g
\bm
.
Command

Example Command

Example

\iso\g
and \giso

apo\gD
\and \gapo

49

\ypo\gDD
\gypo

\ypokkoli\gPA

\kkoli\gP and
\gkkoli

\oli\gM
and \olig

\isokkoli\gPD

\xamkkoli\gPD

\apokkoli\gPD

\elakkoli\gPD

\isoapo\gDD

\oli\g\k and
\golik

\ela\g
and \gela

\apo\gMD
and \apog

\kk\gMD
and \kkg

\xam\gD
and \gxam

\xam\gMD
and \xamg

\gapo and t
\gapo\tMD
and \gapot

and

\kkoli\ggP

\kkoli\gggP

50

\ypo\pggDD

\ypo\ggDD

\ypo\pgggDD

\ypo\gggDD

\ypokkoli\gggPA

\ypo\ggpDD

\ypo\gggpDD

\ypokkoxe\gPA

\ypokkoxe\ggPA

\ypokkoxe\gggPA

\gIV

\gVI

\gV

\gVII

Dicult cases

\apoapog and
\apogapo

\elag

\elaapog

\elaapogp and
\elaapopg

51

and

901

\xamelaapog

\gkkypsoli

\gxamelaapo

\ypog

\synelagkkoli

13.8

The argon(\arg), diargon(\dia) and triargon(\tri)


Command

Example Command

Example

\arg

\diaD

\tri

\dia

\parg

\argp

\diap

\pdia

\trip

\ptri

52

902

13.9

903

904

905
906
907
908
909
910
911
912
913
914
915

The cross, apostrophe (breaths) and corona

Command

Example Command

Example

\sta

\staP and
\staD

\ana

\kor

\korD

\korP

\korPD

13.10

Measures and time signatures

l L .
syn
( syn
).
.. \VII. I
l . L
.
and A(= \iso).
\th and

.. \LIIIth

53

916

Example:

917

\iso\l\VIII

Command

Example Command

Example

\lA

and

\lMD

\llA

\l

\ll

\lsyn

\lsynA

\V

\VI

\VII

\VIII

\L

\LL

54

918

919
920

\Lsyn

\II

\IIA

\III

\IIIA

\IV

\IVA

\VA

\VIA

\VIIA

\VIIIA

13.11

Sharps and flats

(\d) and (\y) (l), (ll)


and (lll). .
Command

Example Command

Example

\y

\yD

55

\yl

\ylD

\yll

\yllD

\ylll

\yllD

\dM

\dMD

\dlM

\dlMD

\dllM

\dllMD

\dlllM

\dlllMD

Dicult cases

\elad

921

922
923

13.12

Martyries and note signs

and
. a(=)
56

930

\marts
k(=) . b
and plab
. dia
and ton .

\marts.

931

Example:

932

\marts[\pa][\paplab]

924
925
926
927
928
929

\marts[\nhdia][\gak]

935

936

933

934

\marts[\di][\rbox[-0.8]{\yD}]

Command

Example

Command

Example

\pa

( )

\boy

\ga

\di

\ke

\zw

\nh


\paton

57

\boyton

\gaton

\diton

\keton

\dik

( )

\kek

( )

\gak

( )

\boydiaa

( )

\paplaba

()

\paplabk and
\paplab

\nhdiak and
\nhdia

( )

\nhdiaa

\padiaa

( )

\padiak and
\padia

( )

\gadiak and
\gadia

\boydia and
\boydiak

( )

gadiaa

\didia

58

)
)

)

\diplaba

( )

\dibk, \nhbk and


\dib


\tha

\diplabk and
\diplab

( )

\zwdiak
and \zwdia

\kedia and
\kediak

( )

\kebk, \nhtonbk,
and \pab, \keb,
\nhtonb

( )

\gaD

\diD

\keD

\zwD

\nhD

\paD

\boyD

\paMA

\diMA

\gaA

59

937

938
939
940
941
942

\diA

\keA

\zwA

\nhA

\paA

\boyA

13.13

Some useful combinations of martyries


. , \nhdiam
\nhnhdiam.
m
m.
Command

Example Command

Example

\nhdiam

\padiam

\zwdiam (
\zwzwdiam)

\boydiam

\gadiam

\didiam

\kediam

\zwtondiam (
\zwtonboydiam)

60

\nhtondiam(
\nhtongadiam)

\patondiam

\boytondiam

\gatondiam

\ditondiam

\ketondiam

\zwtontondiam

\nhtontondiam

.
\kekdiam
( \padiakem)

.
\gakdiam
( \gadiagam)

.
\pakdiam
( \padiapam)

.
\dikdiam
( \nhdiadim)
.

\boykdiam ( and
\boydiaboym)
.
\nhkdiam
( and
\nhdianhm)

. '
\paplabm

. '
\boyplabm

. '
\gaplabm

. '
\diplabm

61

. '
' \zwtonplabm

. '
\nhtonplabm

. '
' \patonplabm

\digadiam

'
\nhbm

' .
\pabm

' .
\boybm

' .
\gabm

' .
\dibm

' .
\kebm

' .
' \zwtonbm

' .
' \nhtonbm

\nhtondiplabm

. .
\nhgadiam

. .
\panhdiam

. .
\boypadiam

. .
' \zwtongadiam

. '
\keplabm

62

. .
' \nhtondidiam

943

13.14

. .
' \boytongadiam

Initial martyries of tones

950

h .
, , , and
\ahxo, \bhxo, \ghxo, \dhxo and \barhxo.
'
.
\tesh and
.

951

Example:

952

\kediah\tesh

953

\synelah\gaboydiah\tosh

944
945
946
947
948
949

954

\lph\kediah\rbox[-0.2]{\kediaypsolikeh}

955

\zwh\ypskolizwdiah

956

\teskediah\kediakeh

957

\padiaypsolih \keh

958

\synelah\boyh

, \boydiah\tosh

, \pah\paplabfPD
63

Command

Example

Command

Example

\plah

\hxoh and
\hxosh

\atonh

\btonh

\gtonh

\dtonh

\amtonh

\bmtonh

\gmtonh

\dmtonh

\barysh

\tosh

\dhxoh

\didiah

\ahxoh

\kediah

64

\bhxoh

\dibh

\barhxoh

\ttghxoh

\ghxoh

\olikkh

\paplabpahxoh

\tesh

\dibdihxoh

\boybboyhxoh and
\dibboyhxoh

\gah

\dih

\keh

\zwh

\nhh

\pah

\boyh

Some useful combinations

65

\nhdianhh

\nhdiagah

\didiadih

\tesdidiah

\dibdih

\diplabtesdidiah

\dibboyh and
\boybboyh

\gaboydiah

\kediaypsolikeh

\ypskolizwyh

\padiapah

\pah\paplabfPD and
\paplabpah

\kolinhdiah

\ypskolizwdiah

\kediakeh

\kolidiplabh

\dibdididiah

\barhxozwyh

66

\dibdidibh

\padiaypsolih

\dibkolih

\ypskoligadiah

\boydiah

\koligadiah

\koligadiadiplabh
and
\kolidiplabgadiah

\synelah

\gagadiah

\ypskdidiah

959

13.15

\ypsk

\ypskkediah

Ne, na symbols and characters for isokratima

962

(\ne), (\n), (\bela)


(\belk) and (\oy)
\s .

963

Example:

960
961

()

964
965

\th{\s[(M)][\iso]}[]
\belk , \bela

67

966
967

968

(-)

(
\oy)
\n and \ne

13.16

Tempo signatures

973

( b),
and (x). P and mchi
m. P
.
. mchi \xrs.

974

Example:

969
970
971
972

975
976
977

978

\th{\xrs[\bbbmchi][\dibm]}[]
P
:

\dibm\bbbP

Command

Example Command

Example

\bbbP

\bbb

\bb

\bP

\b

\bxP

68

979

980
981
982

\bx

\xP

\x

\xxP

\xx

\xxxP

\xxx

\bbP

\bbbmchi

\bbmchi

\bmchi

\bxmchi

\xmchi

\xxmchi

\xxxmchi

13.17

Fthores(destroyers) and chroes(chromatic signs)

f
. .
'
69

983
984
985
986

M, MD and .

.
and \iso.
Command

Example

Command

Example

. '
\paplabfD
and \keplabfD

'
\dibfD and
\nhbfD and
\boybfD

( ') '
\kebfD,
\nhanwbfD
and \pabfD

. '
\diplabfD


\gyfD, \gyD


\zygfD,\zygD


\klifD,\kliD


\gdfD,\gdD

',

\zwyfD,\zwyD,
\gayfD, gayD


\thaf


\thafM,\thaM


\nhdiafD


\padiafD


\boydiafD


\gadiafD


\spafD, \spaD

70

987

988
989
990
991
992
993
994
995
996
997
998
999
1000
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006


\kediafD

'
\zwdiafD

'
\nhanwdiafD

' .

\nhanwdiaf

' .

\nhanwdiafMD


\didiafD

13.18

Polytonic texts

"''
Junicode (https://www.ctan.org/tex-archive/fonts/junicode)
and .
Arial .

(?) .

\changetextfont[Junicode]. , '
~ \tildeON greektonoi
( ). ~

. ( \tildeON
~ {}). and
greektonoi documentation
.
. .. \ .
(.. ) and
(.. ).
Junicode.
Command

Example

Command

71

Example

\;


\>>

.

\<<

\ .

\~

\~

\~

\~

\~

\~

72

1007

\~

\~

73