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10.

DISTINGUISH BETWEEN THE FOLLOWING TYPES OF MOOD


DISORDERS
a.)

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)

MDD is a depressive disorder that tends to recur in the same person, and is
not related to age. It is a characterized by only the major depressive
episodes or symptoms. There may be single or recurrent episodes. MDD may
be triggered by traumatic life events or it may have a seasonal onset. There
is a total lost of interest or pleasure in lifes activities. There are no manic
symptoms or mood swings.
b.)

Dysthymic Depressive Disorder

Dysthymic depressive disorder is a mild, but persistent or chronic form of


depression. It may last for longer periods of time. Onset can be before or
after the age of 21. To be diagnosed, the condition must be present more or
less daily for up to 2 years. Typical symptoms are depressed mood, poor
appetite, insomnia, low energy, fatigue, low self-esteem and poor
concentration.
c.)

Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder is characterized by alternating manic and depressive


episodes. The diverse emotions often fluctuate. In other cases the patient
may be depressive or manic for long periods, with occasional normal periods
in between. The manic- depressive disorder lasts normally shorter than the
major-depressive disorder. Some people experience recurrent episodes.
Bipolar disorders may be of 2 types: Bipolar 1 and Bipolar 2 disorders

Bipolar 1 disorder is characterized by one or more manic


episodes and usually one or more major depressive episodes.
Bipolar 2 disorders has at least one hypomanic episode and one
or more major depressive episodes, but no manic or cyclothymic
disorder.

DISCUSS THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF THE


FOLLOWING EMPLOYEE ASSISTANCE PROGRAMME (EAP)/ HEALTH
PROMOTION PROGRAMME (HPP) SERVICE DELIVERY SYSTEMS
(a.)

In-House Programs

In-house EAPs have the advantages of a centralized location and


management. Service to clients can therefore be quicker and more direct.
Necessary information is quick and direct available because of staff and
professionals who know and have quick access to the organizations culture
and possible transformations and changes.
In-house EAPs disadvantages are related to cultural issues. Confidentiality
and the fact that counselors are known to the employees may influence the
trust relationships.
The counseling relationship, commitment and objectivity may be influenced
because the practitioners, counselors and clients may experience the same
organizational stressors.
In-house programs are nonprofit programs and can be expensive for the
employer. Limited budgets can result into limited and labor-intensive
programs. These multiple roles for EAP counselors can cause slow service
delivery to employees. The fact that EAP managers form part of
management may threaten their EAP roles in participation and management.
(b.)

External/Contract-Based Models

These programs are practical for small companies or decentralized


organizations. An advantage is that EAP firm functions as an independent
business with all the associated responsibilities. Contracted programs may
provide a very broad service. There are great confidentiality advantages
because they can offer services away from the work site by counselors not
known to the employees.
The greatest disadvantage is that contracted programs are often more
expensive than in-house programs. Some of these programs provide specific

services that do no accommodate the needs and culture of the organization.


Many organizations view these EAPs as profit enhancing.
(c.)

Union Based EAP/HPP Models

In many cases unions form part of the EAP management. Union management
of EAPs negotiates and cater for more on-site health and other services. It
may demand that EAP services be provided on a nonprofit basis and see
health care as an employee right, and a compulsive responsibility of
management. Such attitudes may influence health-care relationships
negatively. It is also very expensive to employers.
EXAMPLE OF A COMBINED EAP/HPP MODEL
The use of consortiums in which a number of companies share facilities,
services, staff and management.

EXPLAIN PATTERNS OF OVERCOMMITMENT IN EMPLOYEES


Over commitment is an intense over involvement in a very strong
identification with work and work values. Over commitment often results in
physical and psychological health problems. Although these employees
mostly achieve, over commitment must be seen as a problem. The individuals
coping resources is often being overtaxed and his work performance
eventually becomes impaired.
Behavioral patterns of over commitment are:

Low self-esteem and dysfunctional family-of-origin dynamics


may cause neurotic success compulsions.
Positive striving behaviors as a result of too ambitious and/or
high energy levels.
Obsessive-compulsive personality traits of doing things to
defend against anxieties and satisfy neurotic needs.
Unsuccessful accomplishment of life goals, which may lead to
unbalanced work and non-work activities.
High levels of abilities, which are purposefully aimed at working
productively.
Avoidance of unwanted or more stressful life roles, like
intimacy in close relationships.
Compensating for mistreatment or shame experienced during
childhood.
Excessive work as a defense against feelings of inadequacy.

Over commitment behaviors are related to obsessiveness and


compulsiveness.
UNDERCOMMITMENT TO WORK ROLES
Under committed employees fail to fulfill their potential and neglect their
work roles.
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CRITICALLY DISCUSS THE ETHICAL ISSUES THAT NEED TO BE


CONSIDERED IN THE PLANNING, DEVELOPMENT,
IMPLEMENTATION AND MAINTENANCE OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH
PROMOTION ACTIVITIES AND PROGRAMMES.
Ethical issues to keep in mind when planning, developing, implementing and
maintaining of health promotion activities are:

Individual rights vs Employer prerogatives.

It is essential that all procedures, from planning right through to


maintenance, must meet the standards for fair labor practices and for
reliability and validity of measurements.

Identified patient or blaming the victim.

Systematic diagnosed problems are often only an indication of other


problems in the system. This may result in treating the wrong person or
issue. Many people blame others for their misfortunes which make it easy
for organizations to blame problems on individuals and expect them to
improve their health.

Paternalism and Coercion.

Health matters like dieting, smoking, drinking and drug use are very
personal. Even if employees are dissatisfied with health management about
these issues, they often feel forced to participate in the programs because
of the employers powerful position and the scarcity of jobs. For these
reasons it is important that well-planned health promotion programs must
involve all parties with planning, development, implementation and
maintenance of health programs.

Unfulfilled expectations and unintended consequences.

Further problems which may arise are:


1. Programs do not meet expectations. Programs may not
be implemented, employee needs may not be fulfilled
and employees may not be motivated.
2. Ad hoc issues. Issues like validity and reliability of
assessment techniques, confidentiality and privacy and
evaluation of programs can give rise to problems. Such
problems need to be managed well and seen as part of
feedback.
3. Conflict of interests. Human resource management
have to try to match employee and employer attributes,
provide employee contracts which specify mutual
expectations. Unions and employer bodies must
negotiate the best deal for all parties.
4. Professional ethics and job security. There is a need
for training models to make EAP practitioners multiskilled.

5. Health care for Health-care workers. Debriefing


sessions must be offered to health-care practitioners
about psychological burnout. Professionals may manage
other peoples problems. As a result they may neglect
to manage their own resources and experience health
problems themselves.

DISCUSS 5 TYPES OF DYSFUNCTIONAL ORGANISATIONAL


CULTURES.
There are 5 neurotic styles that manifest in 5 types of organizations:
1. Paranoid or Survivor organization.
It is based on the fantasy of mistrust of others. This organization has a
neurotic style of suspicion and defensive attitudes. Careful analysis and
strict control, cautious decision making, centralized control and reactive
actions are characteristic. They focus on diversification during marketing.
There is a lack of consistent strategy, no outstanding skills and uncertain
actions towards employees and clients.
2. Compulsive or Conscientious organization.
Is based on the fantasy of dependence, mastery and control. It can result
in perfectionism. They function according to definite routines and
processes, with emphasis on thoroughness, completeness and conformity.
Formal control, standardization and hierarchical structures are important.
Management is centralized and rational. Excessive planning leads to fixation
and delay in growth and decision making. Positive characteristics are sound
control, skilled action and clearly defined goals. Negative characteristics
are rigidity, over structuring and inhibition of responsibility and decision
making.
3. Histrionic/Dramatic or Confident organization.
Based on a fantasy of attracting attention and impressing. The result is a
neurotic style of narcissism. Managers may be ambitious, greedy, impulsive
and risky in decisions. Risk factors are artificiality, risky behavior and
overreaction. Culture and strategy are based on boldness, risky action and
diversification. The result is uncontrolled pro-actively with mobility in
transactions. Positive characteristics are potential for growth and
creativity. Negative characteristics are inconsistent, risky and uncontrolled
action.

4. Depressive or sedentary Organization


Based on a fantasy of hopelessness. Associated with feelings of guilt,
uselessness and ineffectiveness. Pessimism can inhibits action and decision
making. Activities and structures are extremely conservative and
autocratic. Characterized by poor leadership, passiveness, lack of selfconfidence, aimlessness in planning and decision making. Lack of importance
and an internal focus of control exists. Strategy, planning and goals are
limited. Positive characteristics are effectiveness of internal processes and
clearly outlined strategies. Negative characteristics are stagnation, limited
growth, poor competitive ability and passiveness.
5. Schizoid or Solitary Organization
Based on the fantasy of failure and withdrawal. Neurotic style of alienation,
uninvolvement and lack of interest in clients and employees. This
organization is characterized by absenteeism and uninvolvement of leaders,
internal conflict and aggression between leadership and management. To
achieve goals, they manipulate and change coalitions. Individual goals are
more important. It can result in passiveness, lack of control, poor
communication and impulsive decision making. Positive characteristic is that
they can facilitate participation by all employees. Negative characteristics
are inconsistent strategy, hidden motives, lack of leadership, and climate of
suspicion and mistrust.

BRIEFLY DISCUSS 5 ASPECTS IN THE CONTINUOUS MANAGEMENT


OF EMPLOYEE HEALTH PROMOTION PROGRAMMES.
1. Human Resource Management
HR management involves the effective utilization of all staff in health
promotion programs. This includes resource planning and establishment of
job descriptions and responsibilities for all staff members.
2. Ongoing Program Management
It refers to all the processes involved in the effective planning design and
daily running and maintenance of program activities to ensure that health
promotion is responsive to employee, corporate and environmental demands.
3.

Health Program Marketing Management

It is conceived with strategies to be used to communicate all aspects of


health promotion to the interest parties. This is to ensure that employees
get what they want. Marketing management also does research on needs,
types of activities and ways to provide these services.
4. Marketing Health Promotion Programs
The success of employee and organizational health promotion will be
determined by how well all parties are informed on an ongoing basis about
health promotion. They need to be encouraged to support and participate in
health promotion activities. All should be informed about how to get access
to internal and external health promotion activities.
5. Financial and Budget Management
It includes the projection of all costs involvement, the effective allocation
of funds, financial record keeping, audit of cost effectiveness of health
promotion programs, considering budget growth and reporting on budgets.

6. Equipment and Facility Management


This involves looking after all program materials, facilities and equipment and
business machines. The use of equipment must be coordinated and
implemented for specific purposes by well-trained staff. Facilities and
equipment must be evaluated for effectiveness on a regular basis.