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fracture mechanics problems

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1. (20 pts) Read part 4 (experimental verification) of Griffths original paper

(available on canvas) and answer the following questions.

(a) What is surface tension? How is it measured experimentally? How does it

depend on temperature?

(b) From the results in Table II and III, what are the main conclusions? How

does fracture depend on stress and defect size? Which equation is verified

from these experiments?

ASNWER:

surface tension:

When Materials are considered as a bulk, atoms are evenly surrounded (without

considering defects) and the cohesive forces between the atoms tend to balance

among each other. However, on the surface atoms do not have neighbors on the

sides (free surface). As a result, there is a net inward cohesive force, which creates

a force on the surface that tries to minimize its area. When such summation is

contemplated as a force is called "surface tension.

How is it measured experimentally?

When a crack body is subjected to tensile forces, it forms a "double cantilever"

beam. The work done by the applied force is equal to the potential energy of the

"leaf springs" and the surface energy. Solving for the surface energy it yields.:

Where E= Young's modulus lengths x, y and d, are shown in the above picture

How does it depend on temperature?

lowers the cohesive force between atoms, since it depends on the inverse of the

distance between them.

The surface energy depends on the sum total of forces pulling (from inside the

body). So surface energy decreases with increasing temperature.

The following table shows the comparison between Crack Length vs Diameter for

spheres and tubes as reported by A. A. Griffith. It can be seen that larger bodies

exhibit longer cracks.

0.4

0.35

0.3

Tube

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.5

0.7

0.9

1.1

1.3

1.5

1.7

1.9

2.1

D [mm]

Figure 1.

2. (20 points) The distance between point A and B is increased from L 0 to L0 +

2 when opposing loads P are applied (see Figure 2(a)), load-deflection (P-)

curves for the specimen for crack lengths a and a + a (a << a) are shown

in Figure 2(b) by straight lines OB and OC, respectively. Express in terms of

different areas of Figure 2(b) the following parameters:

(a) The strain energy stored in the material with crack length a, load P, and

deflection .

(b) If the crack length is increased from a to a + a, keeping P fixed, which area

does represent the change in strain energy in the material? Does it give an

increase or decrease in the strain energy?

(c) If the crack length is increased a to a + a, keeping fixed, which area does

represent the change in strain energy in the material? Does it give an

increase or decrease in the strain energy?

(d) What is the change in the potential energy for case (b) and (c)?

Does the potential energy increase or decrease in case (b) and (c)?

A

B

a

Figure 2(a)

Figure

2(b)

Answers:

On the provided figure, the line ABC represents a loading case with constant

force (i.e. a mass hanging), whereas the line BDF represents a loading case

with constant displacement. In both cases the energy (U) is the same. This is

proven because in both loading cases the triangle BCF has the same area.

That triangle is the extra energy (U) used by either method the resulting

crack grows .

In figure 2. For the case of load control (2a), a crack extension da results in a

net increase in strain energy because of the contribution of the external force

P:

dU PPd- Pd/2= Pd/2

When displacement is fixed, dF = 0 and the strain energy decreases:

dU dP/2

where dP is negative. As can be seen in Figure Figure 2 (a). and Figure 2 (b).

the values (absolute actually) of these energies differ by dPd/2, which is

negligible. Therefore:

(dU) P = -(dU)

Proving that the area of triangle BCF is equal in both loading cases.

3. (20 points) As a failure expert, you have been called to resolve a dispute

between a customer and the manufacturer of a crane hook that failed in

service. The customer contends that the hook failed because of a flaw and

offers as proof the fact that the fracture surface of the failed part has an

obvious crack with an area of 2.3 cm 2(see Figure 3(a)). The manufacturer

counters that damage tolerant design concepts were used in the design of

the hook, and a crack of this size would not lead to failure. The manufacturer

counterclaims that the customer exceeded the maximum load rating of the

hook of 18 kN. To aid in the analysis, you conduct compliance tests with

machined flaws of 2 and 2.6 cm2. The rest results are shown in Figure 3(b).

The hook is made of steel (E = 207 GPa and Poissons ratio v =0.29) and has

a plane-strain fracture toughness of 44 MPam. Using this information, who is

correct? Justify your answer. (Hint: from the experiments, estimate the

fracture stress for crack area of 2.3 cm2 and compare it with 18 kN.)

Figure 3 (a) Cartoon of hook, (b) Load-deflection curve for two flaws.

4. (20 points) (a) Determine the energy release rate for the following beam. The

beam is made from copper, total specimen thickness B = 1 m, h = 5 cm, a =

15 cm. The applied load P = 10 kN.

(b) Evaluate the relative stability of this beam under load control and

displacement control.

5. (20 pts) Take a long piece of chalk or any cylindrical brittle material and make

three surface cracks with a razor blade as shown below. All cracks should

have same length and depth. Position them as far as possible from one

another so that there is no interaction effect.

(a) If a torque T is applied to the chalk as shown, identify the stress mode (I,

II, III, or mixed) for each crack.

(b) Which is the critical crack for this applied load-in other words, which crack

will fail first and why? Break the chalk and see whether your prediction is

right or wrong.

The applied torque creates shear Stresses. They are the highest at a 45 o from the

perpendicular plane.

Mode I: It is not present

Mode II: Creates the crack that produces failure

Mode III: Not present

The following pictures (see reference) show a tube loaded in alternating torsion. IT

can be seen the 45o cracks (1-3) or 2-4 for the torque actuating in opposite

direction.

Hos, Y., Freire, J. L., & Vormwald, M. (2015). Measurement and simulation of strain fields around crack tips under

mixed-mode fatigue loading. Frattura Ed Integrit Strutturale, 33, 4255. http://doi.org/10.3221/IGFESIS.33.06

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