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20 September 2016

# WTW 158 Exams

Unit 1.2 – Absolute Values – A7..............................................................................5 Unit 1.3 – What is a function?................................................................................5 Four ways to represent a function......................................................................5 Domain and Range.............................................................................................5

Domain............................................................................................................5

Range..............................................................................................................5

Vertical Line Test.................................................................................................5 Even and Odd Functions.....................................................................................5 Even Functions................................................................................................5 Odd Function...................................................................................................6 Increasing and decreasing functions..................................................................6 Rational Function................................................................................................6 Unit 1.4 – Radian Measure and trigonometric functions........................................7

Identities.............................................................................................................7

Unit 1.5 – A catalog of essential functions.............................................................7 Unit 1.6 – New Functions From Old Functions – Pg. 36...........................................7 Vertical and Horizontal Shifts..............................................................................7 Vertical and Horizontal Stretching and Reflecting...............................................8 Unit 1.7 – Exponential Functions – Pg. 51..............................................................8

Form...................................................................................................................8

Laws...................................................................................................................8

Graphs................................................................................................................8

Unit 1.8 - Inverse Functions – Pg. 58....................................................................10 Horizontal Line test...........................................................................................10 Unit 1.9 – Logarithmic Functions – Pg. 62............................................................10

Definition..........................................................................................................10

Laws.................................................................................................................10

Natural Logarithms...........................................................................................11

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20 September 2016

Graphs..............................................................................................................11

Unit 1.10 – Inverse Trigonometric Functions – Pg. 67...........................................11 Cancellation Property.......................................................................................12

Graphs..............................................................................................................12

Unit 2.2 – The limit of a Function – Pg. 87............................................................13 Definition of a limit...........................................................................................13 One sided limits................................................................................................13 Infinite Limits....................................................................................................13 Unit 2.3 – Calculating Limits Using the Limit Laws – Pg. 99.................................13

Laws.................................................................................................................13

Squeeze Theorem.............................................................................................14 Infinite Limits – Pg. 115....................................................................................14 Special Limits...................................................................................................14 Unit 2.4 – Continuity – Pg. 118.............................................................................15 Three requirements..........................................................................................15 Side continuity..................................................................................................15

Definition.......................................................................................................15

Theorem........................................................................................................15

Intermediate Value Theorem.........................................................................15 Unit 2.5 – Limits at Infinity: Horizontal Asymptotes – Pg. 130..............................16 Tangent Limits..................................................................................................16 Unit 2.6 – Derivatives and rates of change – Pg. 143..........................................16 Unit 2.7 – The Derivative as a function – Pg. 157................................................16 Unit 3.2 – Product and Quotient Rule – Pg. 184....................................................16 Product Rule.....................................................................................................16 Quotient Rule....................................................................................................17 Unit 3.3 – Derivatives of trigonometric functions – Pg. 191.................................17 Unit 3.4 – Chain Rule – Pg. 199............................................................................17 Unit 3.5 – Implicit Differentiation – Pg. 213..........................................................17 Derivatives of Inverse Trig Functions................................................................17 Unit 3.6 – Derivatives of logarithmic functions – Pg. 218.....................................18 Unit 3.7 – Hyperbolic Functions...........................................................................18

Identities...........................................................................................................19

Derivatives.......................................................................................................19

Unit 4.1 – Maximum and Minimum Values...........................................................19

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20 September 2016

Min or Max values.............................................................................................19 Extreme Value Theorem...................................................................................19 Fermat’s Theorem.............................................................................................19 Critical Numbers...............................................................................................20 Closed interval Method.....................................................................................20 Unit 4.3 – How derivatives affect the shape of a graph – Pg. 291........................20 Increasing/Decreasing test...............................................................................20 First Derivative Test..........................................................................................20 Concavity Test..................................................................................................20 Point of Inflection..............................................................................................20 Second Derivative Test.....................................................................................21 Unit 4.4 – Indeterminate form sand L’Hospitals Rule – Pg. 301............................21 L’Hospitals Rule................................................................................................21

Forms............................................................................................................21

Indeterminate Forms........................................................................................21 Unit 4.5 – Curve Sketching – Pg. 310...................................................................21

Steps................................................................................................................21

Unit 5.2 – The Area Problem – Pg. 3360...............................................................22 Riemann’s Sum.................................................................................................22 Right End Points............................................................................................22 Left End Points...............................................................................................22

Definition..........................................................................................................23

Unit 5.4 – The Fundamental theorem of Calculus................................................23 Unit 5.5 – Indefinite Integrals – Pg. 397...............................................................23 List of Integrals.............................................................................................23 Unit 6.1 – Three-Dimensional Coordinate Systems – Pg. 786...............................23

Definitions........................................................................................................23

Coordinate Planes.............................................................................................24

Distance...........................................................................................................24

Equation of a Sphere........................................................................................24 Unit 6.2 – Vectors – Pg. 791.................................................................................24

Definition..........................................................................................................24

Vector Addition.................................................................................................24 Scalar Multiplication.........................................................................................24 Parallel Vectors.................................................................................................24

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Unit Vector........................................................................................................25 Finding Angles..................................................................................................25 Perpendicular Vectors.......................................................................................25

Orthogonal........................................................................................................25

Unit 6.3 – The Dot Product – Pg. 800....................................................................25

Definition..........................................................................................................25

Unit 6.4 – The Cross Product – Pg.808.................................................................25

Definition..........................................................................................................25

Theorems..........................................................................................................26

Parallel Cross Products......................................................................................26 Standard Derivatives...........................................................................................26 Standard Integrals...............................................................................................27

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### Unit 1.2 – Absolute Values – A7

 | x |  a  x   a | x |  a  x  a or x   a | x |  a  a  x  a

### Unit 1.3 – What is a function?

Four ways to represent a function

• 1. Verbally [By descriptive words]

• 2. Numerically [By a table of values]

• 3. Visually [Using a graph]

• 4. Algebraically [By an explicit equation]

Domain and Range

Domain

x values

Range

y values

Vertical Line Test

A curve in the

xy

-plane is the graph of a function of

x

if and only if no vertical line intersects the curve more than once

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Even and Odd Functions

Even Functions

f (a) f (-a)

Odd Function

f (a) f (-a)

Increasing and decreasing functions

A function

f

is called increasing on an interval

I

if

f x

(

1

)

f x

(

2

)

whenever

x

1

x

2

in

I

It is called decreasing on

I

if

f x

(

1

)

f x

(

2

)

whenever

x

1

x

2

in

I

Rational Function

(

P x

)

f x

(

)

(

g x

)

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20 September 2016

### Unit 1.4 – Radian Measure and trigonometric functions

Identities

 sin 2 x  cos 2 x  1 1  tan 2 x  sec 2 x 1  cot 2 x  csc 2 x sin x tan x  cos x cos x cot x  sin x 1 csc x  sin x 1 sec x  cos x

Double angles

sin(2

x

)

2sin

cos

• x x

cos(2

x

)

cos

2

x

sin

2

x

2cos

2

x

1

1

2sin

2

x

tan(2

x

)

2 tan x

1

tan

2

x

 sin( A  B )  cos( A  B ) tan( A  B ) 
 sin A cos B  sin B cos A  cos A cos B sin m A sin tan A  tan B 1 tan m A tan B

B

### Unit 1.6 – New Functions From Old Functions – Pg. 36

Vertical and Horizontal Shifts

 y  f x ( )  c ,Shifts the graph upwards y  f x ( )  c ,Shifts the graph downwards y  f x (  c ),Shifts the graph to the left y  f x (  c ),Shifts the graph to the right
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Vertical and Horizontal Stretching and Reflecting

y

cf x

( ),Stretch the graph vertically

y

f x

(

) ,Shrink the graph vertically

c

y

f cx

(

),Shrink the graph horizontally

y

f (

• x ),Stretch the graph horizontally

c

y

 

( ),Reflect the graph about the

f x

x axis

-

y

f

(

x

),Refl

ect

the graph about the y - axis

### Unit 1.7 – Exponential Functions – Pg. 51

 Form x y  a Laws a x  y  x a a y x a x  y  a a y ( a x ) y  a xy ( ab ) x  x a b Graphs x y  a for x

y a

x

x 1

0 x 1

for

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20 September 2016

 x
y
a
x 1

for

 x
y
a
0  x 1

for

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20 September 2016

x
x
x
x
y
e
and
y
e
and
y
 
e
and
y
 
e

### Unit 1.8 - Inverse Functions – Pg. 58

Definition

 A function f is called a f x ( 1 ) Let f  f x ( 2 ) f  1 ( y )  x  f x ( )  y for any y in B The graph of f  1

Then its inverse function

one -to - one function

2

if it never takes on the same value twice; that is

whenever x x

1

be a one-to-one function with domain A and range B.

f

1

a domain B and a range A and is defined by

is obtained by reflecting the graph of f about the line y

x

Horizontal Line test

A function is one-to-one if and only if no horizontal line intersects its graph more than once.

### Unit 1.9 – Logarithmic Functions – Pg. 62

Definition

log a x y a

y

x

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Laws

 log a ( xy )  log a ( x )  log a ( y ) log a ( x )  log a ( x )  log a ( y ) y log a ( r x )  r log a ( x ) log a ( x )  ln x ln x  y  e y  x ln( e x )  x for x  ¡ e ln x  x for x  0 ln e  1 ln x log a ( x )  ln a

Natural Logarithms

Graphs

### Unit 1.10 – Inverse Trigonometric Functions – Pg. 67

Can only be done in an interval

sin

1

(

x

) = y

sin

y

x

and

2

y

2

and

1

x

1

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20 September 2016

 cos  1 (x) = y  cos y  x and 0  y  ,and  1  x  1  tan  1 ( x ) = y  tan y  x and   2  y   2 ,and    x    csc  1 ( x ) = y  csc y  x and y  (0,  2 ]  (  3  , 2 ]  sec   1 ( x ) = y  sec y  x and y  [0,  2 )  [  , 3  2 ) cot  1 (x) = y  cot y  x and y  (0,)  Cancellation Property sin(sin  1 x )  x for  1  x  1 sin  1 (sin x )  x for   2  y   2 o cos(cos  1 x )  x for  1  x  1 cos  1 (cos x )  x for 0   y  o Graphs f (x)  sin  1 (x) f (x)  cos  1 (x)
WTW 158
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 1
f (x)
tan
(x)

### Unit 2.2 – The limit of a Function – Pg. 87

Definition of a limit

Suppose f(x) is defined when x is near the number a. Then

lim L

x
a
One sided limits
lim
f x
(
)
L
and
lim
f x
(
)
L
x
a
x
a
lim
f x
(
)
L
lim
f x
(
)
L
and lim
f x
(
)
L
x
a
x
a
x
a
Infinite Limits
Let f be a function defined on both sides of a, except possibly at a itself.
Then
lim
f x
(
)  
lim
f x
(
)  
x
a
x
a

And

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20 September 2016

### 99

Laws

The line x=a is called a vertical asymptote of the curve y=f(x) if at least one of the following statements are true:

lim
f x
(
)  
x
a
lim
f x
(
)  
x
a
lim
f x
(
)  
x
a
lim
f x
(
)  
x
a
lim
f x
(
)  
x
a
lim
f x
(
)  
x
a
lim
f x
(
)
and lim
g x
(
) exist, then
x
a
x
a
1.
lim
f x
(
)
g x
(
)
lim
f x
(
)
lim
g x
(
)
x
a
x
a
x
a
2.
lim
f x
(
)
g x
(
)
lim
f x
(
)
lim
g x
(
)
x
a
x
a
x
a
3.
lim
cf x
(
)
c
lim
f x
(
)
x
 a
x
a
4.
lim
f x g x
(
)
(
)
lim
f x
(
).lim
g x
(
)
x
a
x
a
x
a
lim
f x
(
)
f x
(
)
x
a
5.
lim
 
if lim
g x 
(
)
0
x
a
g x )
(
lim
g x
(
)
x
a
x
a
n
n
6.
lim
f x
(
)
lim
f x
(
)
if
n
is a positive integer
x
a
x
a
n
n
7.
lim
x
a
if
n
is a positive integer and
x
a
n
n
8.
lim
x
a
where
n
is a positive
integer. (if
n
is even, we assume that
a 
0)
x
a
9.
lim
n
f x
(
)
lim
f x
(
) where
n
is a positive integer. (if
n
is even, we assume that
lim
f x
(
)
0.)
n
x
a
x
a
x
a

Squeeze Theorem

 f (x)  g(x)  h(x) x a a If when is near (except possibly at ) and lim f ( x )  lim h x ( )  L x  a x  a Then WTW 158 Page 14 of 27

20 September 2016

lim
g x
(
) 
L
x
a
Infinite Limits – Pg. 115
Let
f
be a function defined on some open interval that contains the number
a
itself except possibly at
a
itself
Then
lim
f x
(
)
 
or lim
f x
(
)
 
x
a
x
a
Special Limits
sin x
lim
1
x
 0
x
cos
x 
1
lim
0
x
 0
x
tan x
lim
1
x
 0
x
x
e
 1
lim
1
x
 0
x
Unit 2.4 – Continuity – Pg. 118
A function
f
is continuous at a number
a
if
lim
f x
(
)
f a
(
)
x
a
Three requirements
1)
f a
(
) is defined (that is, a is in the domian of
f
)
2)lim
f x
(
) exists
x
a
3)lim
f x
(
)
f a
(
)
x
a
Side continuity
Definition
A function
f
is continuous from the right at a number
a
if
lim
f x
(
)
f a
(
)
x
a
A function
f
is continuous from the left at a number
a
if
lim
f x
(
)
f a
(
)
x
a
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A function f is continuous on an interval if it is continuous at every number in the interval

Theorem

1.
If
f
and
g
are continuous at
a
. And
c
is a constant. Then the following functions are also continuous:
f
g
f
g
cf
fg
f
if g a 
(
)
0
g
a)
Any polynomial is continuous everywhere. x (,)
2.
b)
Any rational function is continuous on its domain
If f is continuous at b and lim
g x
(
)
b
, then lim
f g x
(
(
))
f b
(
)
x
a
x
a
In other words: lim
f g x
(
(
))
f
(lim
g x
(
))
x
a
x
a
3.

Intermediate Value Theorem

Suppose that

f

is continuous on the closed interval [ , ] and

a b

let

N

be any number between

f a

(

) and

f b

(

), where

f a

(

)

f b

(

).

Then there exists a number c in ( ,

a b

) such that

f c

(

)

N

### 130

The line

y

L

is called a horizontal asyptote of the curve

f

f x

(

) if:

lim

x



f x

(

)

L or

lim

x



f x

(

)

L

Tangent Limits

lim tan

1

x



x  

2

lim tan

1

• x 

x

2

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20 September 2016

### Unit 2.6 – Derivatives and rates of change – Pg. 143

The tangent line to the curve

y

f x

(

) at the point

P a f a

(

,

( )) is the line through P with slope

m lim

f x

(

)

f a

(

)

x

a

x

a

provided that the limit exists

m

lim

h 0

f a

(

h

)

f a

(

)

h

Derivative of a function

### Unit 2.7 – The Derivative as a function – Pg. 157

 A function f is differentiable at a if f '( a ) exists. It is differentiable on an open interval ( , ) if it is differentiable at every number in the interval a b

If f is differentiable at a, then f is continuous at a

f

'(

x

)

lim

h 0

f x

(

h

)

f x

(

)

h

Not differentiable at a:

 o Corner o Discontinuity o Vertical Tangent

### Unit 3.2 – Product and Quotient Rule – Pg. 184

Product Rule

If f x

(

)

f x g x

(

).

(

)

Then

,

df x

(

)

dx

f

'(

x g x

).

(

)

f x g

(

).

'(

x

)

Quotient Rule

If f x

(

)

f x

(

)

(

g x

)

Then ,

df x

(

)

dx

f

'(

x g x

).

(

)

f x g

(

).

'(

x

)

[

(

g x

)]

2

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### 191

Functi
Derivative
on
cos x
sin x
cos x
-sin x
tan x
2
x
sec x tan x
-csc x cot x
sec
secx
csc
x
cot x
2
-csc x
Unit 3.4 – Chain Rule – Pg. 199
If
g
is differentiable at
x
and
f
is differentiable at
g x
(
), then
the composite function
F
f
o
g
defined as
F x
(
)
f g x
(
(
)) is defined at
x
and
F
' is given by the product
F
'(
x
)
f
'(
g x
(
)).
g
'(
x
)

### Unit 3.5 – Implicit Differentiation – Pg. 213

Derivatives of Inverse Trig Functions

y

y

sin

1

(

x

)

tan

1

(

x

)

 1  2 1  x 1 

1 x

2

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d

dx

(log

a

x

)

1

x

ln

a

d

dx

(ln

x

)

1

x

d

dx

(ln[

(

g x

)])

'

g

(

x

)

(

g x

)

d

dx

(ln |

x

|)

1

x

### Unit 3.7 – Hyperbolic Functions

 sinh x  e x  e  x 2 cosh x  e x  e  x 2 x x  tanh x  e  e e x  e  x csc hx  1 sinh x sec hx  1 cosh x cot hx  cosh x sinh x
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Identities

 sinh(  x )  sinh x cosh(  x )  cosh( ) x cosh 2 x  sinh 2 x  1 1  tanh 2 x  sec 2 h x sinh( x  y )  sinh x cosh y  cosh x sinh y cosh( x  y )  cosh x cosh y  sinh x sinh y Derivatives d (sinh x )  cosh x dx d (cosh x )  sinh x dx d (tanh x )  sec 2 h x dx d (csc hx )   csc hx coth x dx d (sec hx )   sec hx tanh x dx d (coth x )   csc 2 hx dx

### Unit 4.1 – Maximum and Minimum Values

Min or Max values

Let
c
be a number in the domain
D
of a function
f
. Then
f c
(
) is the
1) Absolute maximum value of
f
on
D
if
f c
(
)
f x
(
) for all
x
in
D
2) Absolute minimum value of
f
on
D
if
f c
(
)
f x
(
) for all
x
in
D
The num ber
f c
(
) is a
1) Local maximum value of
f
if
f c
(
)
f x
(
) when x is near
c
2) Local minimum value of
f
if
f c
(
)
f x
(
) when x is near
c
Extreme Value Theorem
If
f
is continuous on a closed interval [ , ], then
a b
f
attains an absolute maximum value
f c
(
)
and an absolute minimum
f d
( ) at some numbers
c
and
d
in [
a b
,
]
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Fermat’s Theorem

If f has a local maximum or minimum at c, and if f (c) exists, then f (c) 0

'

'

Critical Numbers

A critical number of a function f is a number c in the domain of f such that

either f '(c) 0 or f '(c) does not exist

Closed interval Method

To find the absolute maximum and minimum values of a

continuous function

f

on a closed interval [ ,

a b

]

1) Find the values of

f

at the ciritcal numbers of

f

in (

a b

,

)

2) Find the critical values of

f

at th

e endpoints of the interval. I.E.

f

at

a

and

f

at

b

Find the

x

values and for each

x

value find the corresponding

f x

(

) value

3) Largest value will be absolute maximum and smallest will be absoulte mini mum

Evaluate the f (x) values of each of the critical numbers and decide which is smallest and largest

### Unit 4.3 – How derivatives affect the shape of a graph – Pg. 291

Increasing/Decreasing test

 1)If f '( x )  0 on an interval, then f is increasing on that interval 2)If f '( x )  0 on an interval, then f is decreasing on that interval   Find first derivative Factorise and find critical points  Use table to indicate signs at intervals  Write down decreasing and increasing intervals

First Derivative Test

 Suppose that c is a critical number of a continuous function f . 1) If f ' changes from positive to negative at c , then f has a local maximum at c 2) If f ' changes from negative to positive at c , then f h as a local minimum at c 3) If f ' does not change at c , then f has a neither a local maximum or local minimum at c

Concavity Test

 1) If 2) If f f ''( x ''( x ) )   0 for all 0 for all x x in in I , then the graph of I , then the graph of f f is concave upward on I . is concave downward on I . WTW 158 Page 21 of 27

20 September 2016

Point of Inflection

A point

P

on a curve

y

f

( ) is called an inflection point if

x

f

is continuous there and the curve

changes from concave up to concave down vice versa at P

Second Derivative Test

 Suppose f '' is continuous near c . 1) If f '( c )  0 and f ''( x )  0 f has a local minimum at c. 2) If f '( c )  0 and f ''( x )  0 f has a local maximum at c.

### 301

L’Hospitals Rule

 Suppose f and g are differentiable and g '( x )  0 on an open interval I that contains a (except possibly at a ). Suppose that lim f x ( )  0 and lim ( g x )  0 x  a x  a or that lim f x ( )   and lim ( g x )   x  a x  a Then lim x  a f x ( )  lim x  a f '( x ) ( g x ) g '( x )

if the limit on the right side exists or is

 

Write down form and L’Hos next to step

Forms





,

  

0

,0 ,

0

,1

,

0

0

,0



Indeterminate Forms

fg

f

1

or

g

fg

g

1

f

 WTW 158 Page 22 of 27

20 September 2016

### Unit 4.5 – Curve Sketching – Pg. 310

Steps

Use table with intervals for tests

• 1. Get the domain of the function

x values

o

• 2. Get critical values and intercepts

f '(x) 0 or where the function is not defined

o

• 3. Is the function even, odd or periodic

• 4. Get horizontal asymptotes

o

Limit at infinity of the function

• 5. Get vertical asymptotes

o

Denominator equals zero

• 6. Intervals on which function is increasing or decreasing

 f '( ) x  0, increasing on interval f '( ) x  0, decreasing on interval

o

• 7. Local Extremes First Derivative Test. Page 21

o

• 8. Intervals on which the function is concave up and concave down

o

Concavity Test. Page 21

• 9. Get inflection points Concavity changes between intervals

o

### Unit 5.2 – The Area Problem – Pg. 360

Riemann’s Sum

Right End Points

Upper Sum

Left End Points

Lower Sum

 WTW 158 Page 23 of 27

20 September 2016

Definition

A

lim



R

n

lim



## 

f x

(

). 

n

x

n

b

a

Where

n

### Unit 5.4 – The Fundamental theorem of Calculus

If
f
is continuous on [
a b
,
], then
b
f x dx
(
)
F b
(
)
F a
(
)
a
Where
F
is any antiderivative of
f
, that is, a function such that
F
' 
f
Unit 5.5 – Indefinite Integrals – Pg. 397
List of Integrals
n  1
cf (x)dx  c f (x)dx
x
n
x dx
C n
(
1)
n  1
x
x
e dx  e
sin xdx  cos x  C
2
cos xdx  sin x  C
csc xdx  cot x C
2
sec xdx  tan x C
sec x tan xdx  sec x C
WTW 158
Page 24
of 27

20 September 2016

x
a
1 dx
ln | x |
C
x
a dx
C
x
ln a

### 

csc x cot xdx  csc x C

1

2

• x 1

• dx

tan

1

x

C

1

2
1  x

dx

sin

1

x

C

### 

sinh xdx cosh x C

### 

cosh xdx sinh x C

### 786

Definitions

1
¡
or
¡
One dimensional Space
Line
2
¡
Two Dimensional Space
Plane
(
3
¡
Three Dimensional Space
Space
Coordinate Planes
yz
plane
x
0
xz 
plane
y
0
xy 
plane
z
0
Distance
2
2
2
| PP |
(x
 x )
 ( y
 y )
 (z
 z )
1
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
 x y , ) coordinates ( x y z , , ) coordinates
 WTW 158 Page 25 of 27

20 September 2016

Equation of a Sphere

Equation of sphere with center

C h k l

(

,

,

r

:

(

x

h

)

2

(

y

k

)

2

(

z

l

)

2

r

2

If center is origin equation is:

2

x

y

2

2

z

r

2

### Unit 6.2 – Vectors – Pg. 791

Definition

A vector is an object that has direction and magnitude but not a fixed position

If u and v are vectors positioned so that the initial point of v is at the terminal point of u, the sum u+v is the vector from the initial point of u to the terminal point v.

Scalar Multiplication

If c is a scalar and v is a vector, then the scalar multiple cv is the vector whose length |c| times the length of v and whose direction is the same as v if c>0 and is opposite to v if c<0. If c=0 or v=0, then cv=0.

Parallel Vectors

a cb, c¡

A vector is parallel if

a b

.

a

.

b

Unit Vector

A vector with length 1

1
b
x y z
,
,
a
or
a
b 
a

Finding Angles

a b

.

a

.

b

.cos