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The guide is a research work of the author that he had

done throughout his career which allowed him to share
his experience and knowledge with all the fellow
recruitment professionals across the globe and in India
within Information Technology recruitment.
The book contains information about IT departments,
IT roles & responsibilities, technologies & Implications,
Staffing trends, Sourcing sites, Tech dictionary,
Boolean searches, Technical terms, Operating systems,
US Tax terms, Staffing glossary & etc.

I hope the readers will enjoy the Book and become

more confident about recruiting IT professionals.


About the Author

Syed Ayaz has 7+ years experience working with
corporate consulting companies like Wipro, TCS, iGATE,
Syntel, Infosys, Geometrics, Polaris, Capegemini and
many in United States & India. He is a MBA graduate
from Osmania University focused on Finance,
Marketing and Human Resources. His expertise caters
in human resources, staffing, marketing, social media,
advertising, corporate communications, branding,
digital marketing and on advising startups, mid-size
and entrepreneurs on kick starting their social media
awareness and branding in the digital age.
He was a speaker at the LinkedIn event held in
Hyderabad for LinkedIn talent solutions for companies
in Hyderabad and have been guest lecturing in
colleges for Social Media, Marketing, Employer
Branding, Business Management, Entrepreneurship
and on Human resource management.

ds Syed
(Syed Ayaz) Email:


Table of content





..1 CHAPTER 2 Different IT

Roles & Responsibilities....7 CHAPTER





17 CHAPTER 4 Desktop & Mobile Operating

Systems & its type..35
CHAPTER 5 Learning How to Break Down Job
Descriptions .38 CHAPTER 6 Technical Glossary
for IT Staffing Terms .56 CHAPTER 7





..62 CHAPTER 8 Sourcing Tips, Sites &









CHAPTER 10 Recruitment Process, Mode of Hiring &
Etc .


In todays world where world is digitizing so rapidly

and boundaries are fading the more challenging it is
becoming for recruitment professionals to find talent
easily via the traditional way of sourcing and
approaching candidates. Gone are the days when
candidates would approach you for job placements
now everyone is Googling everything they are
looking for hence the competition and challenges.

Artist: Matchmaker, Marketer & The

Scientist: Data Nerd,

Introduction to IT Departments
& Roles
Recruiting for technical roles can feel like being in a
strange place and not speaking the language; the
acronyms and jargon can make it challenging to
navigate a candidates qualifications beyond matching
buzzwords on their resume to a job description. This
Technical Hiring Guide explains different tech roles and
how they relate to one another in plain English. Before
we get into specifics, lets take a top-down approach to
the roles.
Step 1: Understand Technical
First, it helps to understand the departments within a
company, as different divisions have different goals
and responsibilities. Most technical hires fall into one of
two camps: Building Software or Operations and
Support. Building Software encompasses all the roles
related to creating software. Software could mean
desktop applications, mobile apps, websites, and other
tools. Basically, the output or result from writing
code. Operations and Support represents the logistics
needed to keep things running. Things could be
software, hardware, or processes in a business or
organization. A great example is IT or tech support
teams their primary job is to keep things running
smoothly, rather than writing code or building
software. One big difference between these two
categories is that Building Software often (though not
always) generates products, features, or revenue,

while Operations and Support is generally a cost center

to a business. Both groups are essential, so it is
important to know how their different goals fit into

the overall organization. Since job descriptions dont

always paint the whole picture, dig deeper into what
the hiring manager is actually looking for in a new hire
by asking key questions:
What is their technology stack?
What skills are their teams missing?
What technologies or tools will this new hire use
on the job?

Will the person be able to learn any of these on

the job, or do they need to come with a mastery
of one or several of those skills?

If a candidate doesnt have all the requisite

skills, what other technologies or comparable
skills might still make them qualified?

If so, what are they? What are the skill sets and
backgrounds of the current team?
What are the skills, experiences, and traits of your
most successful team members?
Step 2: Know the team & tools
Once you understand the technical areas of the
business, the next step is to gain a deeper
understanding of the team and the open position. Get
a solid handle on the technologies in use and the
desired skill set of any new hire Not all hiring managers
will be able to answer all of these questions, but this
line of questioning will help you understand how
eligible they consider different candidates, and help
you identify the true must haves in the position

Step 3: Match resumes to roles


Now for the tricky part matching candidates to roles.

One easy way to match a candidate with a job is to see
if the candidate has a requisite skill on his or her
resume. However, that doesnt necessarily guarantee a
good fit. For example, a person may not have mobile
programming experience, but may have a strong C++
background, a deep desire to work in iOS, and a great
attitude that could easily fit into the role of iOS
engineer. To see this potential match, you have to
understand the open role and all the candidates
previous positions. In the appendix of this Guide, you
will find some common technical job titles, overviews
of what each job entails, along with sample interview
questions and answers for each role. These will help
you dive deeper into understanding what each position
requires and better screen and filter candidates for the
hiring manager.
Database Administrator
Quality Assurance

Software Engineer in


Step 4: Ask good questions

Regardless of the resume or role you are hiring for,
remember that every candidate is just a person with a
collection of skills and strengths. Therefore, the best
things you can do is ask lots of questions and try to
hone in on what makes each person special.
Consider some of the following questions when youre
meeting with a candidate:
Could you put them in front of customers?
Do they explain things well enough to talk to a
Are they curious and have a strong desire to
understand how things work?
Have they ever been on-call before and would
you rely on them?
For each role, dig into the must-haves versus what can
be learned. Then devise specific questions to help draw
that out from a resume. Try to create questions that
specifically target the key aspects of the role the
candidate is applying for. Rather than asking everyone
if they are detail-oriented, focus those kinds of
questions on QA candidates and other people for whom
being detail-oriented is a critical part of their position.
For example, you can still be an excellent software
engineer even if you arent detail-oriented. For those
candidates, you would be better off asking how they
approach problems or collaborate with a team.
Although it takes extra time to customize your
interview questions for every candidate based on the
role, it will help you make better, long-lasting
placements and hires. And that is what excellent
recruiting is all about.


Conclusion: Since every role is different, and each

candidate unique, the best thing you can do is to be
great at understanding those differences and
communicating them effectively. By doing the work
many other recruiters wont be willing to do, youll
increase your ability to make outstanding placements
and hires. That deep understanding of the roles,
technologies and teams will help you make the best
matches with the best candidates

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Different Its Roles &
Software Engineer: This is the most common job
title, and it can mean all sorts of things. Generally,
these include: writing code, fixing bugs, writing tests
for code, and participating in design discussions
(usually technical design, but in smaller teams or
senior roles it could be product design). If the engineer
has worked on a large software application, it is
possible that they may be specialized in a particular
area of that application: the back-end, middle, or front.
Questions for Software Engineers:
Q What part of the system do you prefer to work
in? Front, middle, or back? Why?
A If someone is inexperienced or hasnt worked on a
sophisticated system, they may give a generic answer
or tell you they can work in any part. While that may
be true of some folks, most experienced engineers will
have a preference and likely strength in one.
Q What are the components of a great software
development process?
A Here, look for someone to mention things like
product and technology definition, source control, build
systems (continuous integration), deployments, along
documentation. There isnt a right answer, but
experienced engineers will definitely have opinions. If
you arent

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sure of the response, ask about processes they didnt

care for and how they would have made them better.
Q What is the best way for people to collaborate
on a complex coding project?
A There are a lot of challenges when it comes to
having two people work on the same piece of software.
There can be conflicts in implementations (both people
modifying the same code) or dependency issues (one
person needs something from the other, but it hasnt
been built yet or needs to be built in tandem). Good
candidates will have ideas and suggest things like clear
definitions, lots of communication and pre-established
Back-End Engineer: While the word back-end is
certainly amusing in a job title, it describes the role
well. These engineers typically work in what might be
the back room of a store, but for software. The work
they do (namely, the code they write) doesnt touch
the users or customers; it isnt the user interface or
part of the software you can see. More often, back-end
engineers are writing code in the form of APIs or
interfaces that then get consumed by others (such as
middle or front-end engineers). These engineers
typically interface with the data (stored in files or in
databases) or APIs to transform it and make it usable
by other parts of the system. These engineers are
often closest to the systems, web services (such as in
the cloud), or hardware.

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Questions for Back-End Engineers:

Q What are some strategies that connect the
backend of a system to the front-end?
A This question has no right answer, but look for a
sensible, clear response. For example, a valid answer
might be APIs. Another person might say callbacks. If
you dont know what these terms mean, ask for an
example or analogy. This way you can see their
communication skills and get your head around their
solution. Then ask about pros and cons of their
solution, and if they have seen any good or bad
examples in their careers. Most candidates will have
some thoughts and ideas, and even examples from
their own experience.
Q How do you choose which database to use for
a project?
A Dont be surprised if a candidate says it depends on
the project. If that is the case, you can either give
them an example, such as a website you like and use,
or you can ask them for different criteria and
examples. If they tell you something you dont quite
understand, ask them to expand. The real key is that
they are thinking critically about how the data will be
used and consumed by the customer in the website or
application. .
Middle-Tier Engineer: Middle-tier engineer roles are
less common (it is much more common to have backend engineers that work in the middle tier), but can be
found in larger companies or teams working with largescale software. Like back-end engineers, they also
dont work on the user interface and instead are
focused on being the glue between the backend and

front-end parts of the system. Typically middle-tier

engineers are responsible for the core
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of the business logic. If software were a grocery store,

backend engineers would get the stock off the trucks,
and middle-tier engineers would make sure that the
right amount of items were put in the right place. That
middle-end logic makes it not just a room full of
groceries, but a system of groceries organized to make
a proper grocery store. Generally the skills required for
a middle-tier engineer overlap most with a back-end
engineer, but the backend engineer may have a bit
more responsibility for the system or data storage of
an application.
Questions for Middle-Tier Engineers:
Q In your experience, what have been the
responsibilities that separated back, middle, and front?
A By diving into their own experience, you gain insight
into how work was separated, and how they interfaced
with other workers. This is also a great way to
understand if they ever more toward a back-end or
front-end role, since most people in middle roles tend
to lean one way or the other. Expand your questions to
see how they worked with other engineers and
collaborated on projects.
Q What is a cache? What are some examples of caches
you have used?
A This is a great technical question that is easy for
recruiters to ask. A cache is simply a place to store
data that is faster to retrieve than the source. For
example, your fridge is a cache for the goods at the
grocery store. You cant store as much, but it is much
faster to retrieve items from the fridge than from the
grocery store. Hopefully candidates give you their own
examples so the more times you ask this, the better

you understand it.

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Front-End Engineer: Using our grocery store

analogy, frontend engineers are like the cashiers
serving the customers. They work on the most visible
pieces of the system, often called the presentation
layer. This role requires good communication with
designers and product people since they translate the
overall vision into something people can actually see.
Depending on the software being built, the front-end
engineer can also be considered a User Interface (UI)
Engineer, or if the software is web-based, a Web
Questions for Front-End Engineers:
Q Explain MVC in simple terms.
A MVC is a programming methodology that is widely
used for separating logic and business concerns to
make implementation easier. M (Model) is the part of
the code that represents data, or objects. V (View) is
the part of the code that shows the things inside the
Model. The actual views of the data composing the
user interface. C (Controller) is the part of the code
that gets commands from the user and tells the View
what to show, gluing the Model and View together. To
use an analogy, MVC is like a TV. The View is what you
see on the screen. Your cable provider is the Model
supplying the data and the channels, and your remote
control changing what is in the View is the Controller.
Q What are some ways to optimize website assets or
A There are lots of examples but a few right answers
include: file concatenation, file minification, leveraging
a control delivery network (CDN), caching, gzip or

resolution or sizes, creating image sprites, etc. You

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can also ask about challenges on mobile versus

standard web performance. Good candidates will have
lots of ideas and suggestions and be able to break
things down into analogies or examples to explain how
they work. If it sounds like they might be reading the
answers from a document, ask for specific examples
from their experience. Good candidates will be able to
provide a lot more detail.
Web Developer: Also sometimes called a User
Interface (UI) developer or User Interface (UI) engineer
in larger teams, the primary focus of this role is often
the front-end part of a website. In smaller teams or
simple applications, the role can encompass all aspects
of the website (including responsibilities that might
otherwise fall to back-end or middle-tier roles).
Generally though, this role is focused on making a
website look and behave as dictated by the design.
People in this role typically have a handle on client-side
technologies like HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. The role
can also include other presentation layer technologies
such as Ruby (usually Rails, which is a framework built
using the programming language Ruby), Django, and
PHP. Many web developers have light graphic design
skills and are more than capable of manipulating
images and graphics using tools like Adobe Photoshop
or Illustrator. It is possible to encounter web developers
that dont work in the details of the presentation layer,
or are less skilled in layout (such as HTML and CSS). In
that case, they would have a strong grasp of other
client-side technologies, like JavaScript, as well as
strong middle-tier engineer skills.

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Questions for Web Developers:

Q Can you describe your workflow when you
create a web page?
A When it comes to creating webpages, most
developers break things up into pieces. They should be
able to tell you how much
design they need to get started (comps, wireframes,
etc.) but mostly you are listening for thoughtful
reasoning and planning.
Q What is responsive design, and have you ever
implemented any mobile specific layouts?
A Responsive design is about creating sites to provide
an optimal viewing experience depending on the
client. All web developer candidates should understand
the concept, although not all will have utilized it. For
those who have experience with responsive design,
ask about the techniques they have used. It is likely
they will mention flexible or fluid grids, media queries,
or flexible images. Another great follow-up is to ask
about the challenges with responsive images, since
there is no right way and there are some good pros
and cons with each.
Database Administrator (DBA): This role is all about
data, and more specifically, databases. A DBA may be
responsible for database and data schema design
(which can be critical in large scale computing
environments) as well as database installation and
maintenance. Many of these roles also encompass an
operational piece, which can include simpler tasks like
setting up servers and maintaining backups or more
complex tasks, like performance tuning. Unlike many
other technical roles, this is one where certifications
actually matter, or at least help to pin down a DBA

candidates expertise. While many skills translate

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technologies, most DBAs tend to specialize in one

particular type of database (e.g. Oracle, Microsoft SQL
Server, MySQL). However, it is possible to have a DBA
generalist that can navigate several different types of
databases. Typically, you dont see many DBAs
specializing in NoSQL-type databases (most of which
dont have specific certifications), since those
technologies are still very new and require big-picture
system knowledge. In most organizations, you see
NoSQL databases administered by software engineers
or DevOps types.
Questions for DBAs:
Q When it comes to creating a new schema for a
database, what is your process? In your
experience, what works well and what doesnt?
A Look for a thoughtful process, ideally one that
focuses on really understanding the requirements of
the users. It is especially useful to drill into their past
experiences designing schemas and working with
others to bring that data to life.
Q What is a database?
A This is a basic question, but it can be a great place
to start because database is such a generic term.
You can even ask them about the different types of
databases and the criteria for choosing one over
another. Hopefully they have good ideas and can break
things down in a way that makes it easy for you to
DevOps Engineer: This is a newer role and
represents the bridge between the worlds of building
software and the operations required to support it. As
more organizations move into the cloud,

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and running systems becomes more about writing

code than about configuring hardware, youll see more
of these roles and responsibilities being created. This
role requires a candidate who understands the
operational best practices of a website, but who also
has the programming skills (or at a minimum strong
scripting skills) of a software engineer. It is very hard
for someone to fill this role without at least some
experience running a production website, unless the
role is in a bigger company with a larger support staff
to properly train new hires. Software engineers are
usually great fits for DevOps positions; excellent
candidates will have a great passion for debugging and
knowledge. DevOps candidates can also come from
system administrator roles who have a strong software
and coding background, but with a solid handle on the
operations required to deploy and release software. In
general, this role usually requires a decent amount of
programming, so it is more common to see an
engineer moving into a DevOps role than a system
administrator, because of the programming knowledge
required going in.
Questions for DevOps Engineers:
Q Have you ever been on-call? Do you mind it?
Why or why not?
A First and foremost, look for someone with some basic
operations experience. Most operational engineers can
tell you stories until the cows come home. Ask about
the worst time they were ever on call. What happened?
How did they get things resolved? Great candidates
will give you confidence in their abilities.
Q What are some attributes of a great post-

mortem meeting?

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A Post-mortems are key in a DevOps role, since they

are the meetings that usually follow an incident or
issue, and are focused on understanding what went
wrong and how to prevent it in the future. Most
operational engineers will have opinions be able to
offer format and agendas that would make sense.
Q How do you know what to monitor in a
A Some engineers will tell you that you can never have
too much monitoring. However, there are always
metrics that matter more than others. For example, up
time (is the website up or not?) is one of the most
important, along with number of transactions per
second, and system health (memory usage, central
processing unit [CPU], input output processors [IOPs],
etc.). As they rattle off ideas, ask why and how
frequently these metrics should be watched. Great
candidates will have tons of examples.
System Administrator: System administrators, often
referred to as sysadmins, are in the operational side
software. They help set up servers and hardware for
the software to run on, and they make sure things stay
up and running. This can include being on-call to be
alerted when there is a problem with the system. Many
system administrators specialize in specific areas or
technologies. For example, one might be an expert in
mail servers (called a postmaster), security, or even
internal IT (making sure your phones and internet work
as expected at the office, or removing the virus from
that email you knew you shouldnt have clicked on).
Some of these specialties have training and
certificates, and while there arent necessarily degrees
in system administration, many trade schools and
information technology programs specialize in this type

of role. If you are hiring for this role, it is really

important to
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understand the responsibilities this specific company

will need covered, since this position can be so varied.
A person required to monitor and operate systems
needs to be willing to be on call, and should have a
strong track record of being accountable and
responsible. Whereas a person in an internal IT support
role should have customer service skills. Some of these
roles are expected to do light coding or scripting
(which is a lot like programming, but with one off
pieces of code, versus more traditional programming,
which is like building pieces into a larger puzzle).
Questions for System Administrators:
Q What is an example of a script you wrote?
A Make sure they have written a script at some point
(even most good entry-level candidates have written a
script before). Ask what it did and why they wrote it.
Did they share it with anyone? If they were to share it,
what would they change? Insightful changes might be
adding comments or documentation, or making it
environment agnostic.
Q Someone tells you his or her computer is slow.
How do you diagnose their problem?
A This question has no right answer, but look for
basic problem-solving skills. What sort of questions do
they ask? How do they diagnose the problem? If they
mention a step youre unfamiliar with, ask them to
expand so you can see how they would work with a
real customer that may have a similar issue.
Network Administrator: Network administrators, like
their system counterparts, are also in the operations
and support side of an

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organization. Network admins dont typically get

involved directly with user or customers, but work
closely with sysadmins and other engineers. This roles
main focus is on the network components of the
technology and software infrastructure. It is unlikely to
see network admins in an organization that has a cloud
platform setup, since their main responsibility is to
make sure that hardware is set up correctly and that
important systems have enough bandwidth and
redundancy to serve requests quickly. In other words,
this role involves understanding and setting up
hardware and the topology of how that hardware is
connected. In the cloud, all of that hardware is
obscured, which is why you dont see this role at cloudbased companies. This role also has some certifications
for different types of hardware, like configuring routers
and switches, but many of these are not required since
most network administrators dont specialize in one
organizations, this role can also encompass sysadmin
responsibilities, like setting up and maintaining
printers, firewalls, WANs, IP phones, and mobile
Questions for Network Administrators:
Q What is a network?
A It never hurts to start with the basics. If the answer
is satisfactory, follow up with
what is a router?
A router is like the air traffic control at the airport; it
routes planes to the right terminal.

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Q How does DNS work?

A DNS is core to how the Internet works. It stands for
Domain Name System and is the primary mechanism
(like ends up in the right place so that
the site shows up in the web browser.
Q What are some important considerations when
designing an office network?
A A good candidate will ask questions and mention
things like making sure everyone has the resources
they need to do their job. Ask about past experiences
and mistakes, and what they learned from those
Data Scientist: Data scientist is not a new role.
However, with computing resources becoming more
affordable and technology advancing more rapidly,
more and more organizations are employing people in
these roles to help them understand their data. A
major goal of data science is to make it easier for
others to discern meaningful conclusions from data
sets. And depending on the organization, the
customers can change. Sometimes data scientists are
responsible for R&D, trying to research new business
opportunities. Other times they can be a part of
marketing teams
(usually called analysts) and are responsible for
providing insights into strategy, such as product
positioning or segmenting existing customers. This role
can require a versatile skillet, depending on the needs
of the organization. Some roles require a thorough
understanding of the challenges of processing very
large data sets
(i.e. Big Data). Others require practical applications

of exploratory data analysis, statistics, machine

learning, and data visualization. Data scientists may
have computer science backgrounds, but they
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can also come from math or analyst backgrounds.

When hiring for this role, be sure to understand the
amount of programming required (and in what
languages), since coding abilities can vary among
candidates, and may not always be necessary to be
successful. Data scientists can also be more
specialized, depending on the needs of the
organization or a candidates background. For
example: data miners specialize in mining data looking
for patterns or insights, and machine learning
specialists focus on building and training models for
repeatable analysis like artificial intelligence.
Questions for Data Scientists:
Q Tell me a success story from one of your data
analysis projects.
A Try to understand what made the project a success.
Ask about the size of the data set, and how long they
had to analyze it. What were the results, and how were
they used? Then, ask about a project that was less
successful and the surrounding details.
Q How do you know when your results are good
A One of the challenges with data science is that there
isnt necessarily a right answer. Sometimes there are
lots of ways to solve a problem, and new algorithms
and approaches can make results slightly better.
However, it is hard to verify whether those results are
correct, so ask for examples of how to verify
correctness in their findings. Some strategies involve
creating golden sets of data that you know are
definitely correct and testing your algorithm against
those, or sampling some of the data and verifying
those results are correct.

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Q What types of clients or customers have you

worked with in the past? How long did your
projects normally take?
A Because these roles can vary so much, make sure
the nature of their experience translates well to the
position. You can also ask about working on a team
and collaborating to share their results with others.
Quality Assurance Engineer: QA engineers are
almost always on the software-building side of the
organization, and are responsible for making sure that
software meets the quality bar. Their responsibilities
include testing software by using it (like you do when
you visit a website and click around), and writing
programs to automate various tasks or tests for the
system. Some of these roles may require very little
coding or scripting knowledge, and others may require
a lot it really depends on the organization and
software they are testing. Regardless, strong attention
to detail is important. Many QA engineers are
responsible for coming up with test plans and test
cases (imagine a big list of everything you would need
to test to make sure something worked), as well as
executing these plans. People in this role should know
how to break things, and be rigorous and thorough.
This role tends to involve a lot of communication with
engineers, designs, and product people to verify
functionality, so they should also be a good team
player with strong written and verbal skills.
Questions for Quality Assurance Engineers:
Q What is your process for creating a test plan?
A A good candidate will offer a thoughtful process.
Then follow up by asking about the components of a
good test plan. Feature

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definition and individual test cases are typical, but

some test plans can include variants for operating
systems, different browsers, and even different data
Software Engineer in Test These roles are similar to QA
engineers in that they tend to have a lot of the same
responsibilities around test cases, planning, and quality
testing. One key difference though, is that software
development engineers in test (or SDETs) are also
responsible for building and creating programs to help
with testing and quality. Depending on the specifics of
the role, this can mean more QA or more coding. The
coding in the role is seldom on the product itself, but
instead on other programs to help increase the quality
of the product. Sometimes SDETs can be responsible
for developer tools like a software build system code
repository or deployment tools that can help other
engineers write better, higher quality code. Even
though the title is different, a good SDET could easily
be a software engineer; they just think differently or
have a passion for developer productivity. This is
different than a QA engineer, who usually doesnt have
the programming chops required to succeed as a full
software engineer.
Questions for Software Engineers in Test:
Q Why an SDET role over an SDE role?
A Theoretically the roles should be similar in skill
around coding, but different in the way they think and
what the candidate is passionate about. Asking why
they love testing and what draws them to that role is
an insightful way to understand the candidates
passion and what makes them tick.

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Q Tell me about a tool you built. How was it

used? What was the impact to the team?
A role is often focused on building tools to support and
improve their team and process, so its important they
think about their work in this context. How was the
work defined? How long did it take?
Q Do automated testing tools make testing
A Possibly. For small projects, the time needed to learn
and implement them may not be worth it. However, for
larger or ongoing projects, they can be valuable. Follow
up by asking for examples of common test automation
tools. These include code analyzers, code coverage,
recorders, load and performance tools, and many
more. You can also ask the candidate about what each
tool does.
Q What is an example of a great bug you have
A Dive into their example. Was the bug on the test
plan? What made it great? Was it fixed in a timely
manner? Ask lots of details about it and why they
considered it an achievement.
Q What is regression testing?
A When bugs are fixed in software, the changes can
have unintended consequences, including new bugs.
Regression testing is making sure that new issues
havent arisen from a change that was made. To follow
up, ask for an example of a regression they have seen
and the conditions under which they found it.

27 | P a g e

Technical Lead: The many different flavors of this role

can be called Development Lead, Technical Lead, Lead
Software Engineer, Software Engineer Lead, Software
Manager, or Lead Developer. While the responsibilities
differ from company to company, this position is
usually held by someone with a software engineer or
developer background, who is responsible for the work
(and often the people management) of several team
members. Typically this person is senior and more
experienced (in years, or in legacy system knowledge
for that organization) than many of the other team
members. They go to meetings and represent the
technical team to other teams in the organization. This
role may also include a project management role,
working with the design and product teams to create
requirements, or supervising system operations and
quality (QA). Technical leads are often responsible for
assigning and delegating work among their team, and
for reporting progress against deadlines. Many leads
serve as technical advisors to management and other
business functions, acting as a bridge to the nontechnical functions in the organization. This role
requires strong technical skills, but also an aptitude for
leadership and communication.
Questions for Technical Leads:
Q How do you divvy up work to your team?
A There are no right answers, but they should mention
balancing skill-sets with personal preferences, and
what is needed from the business in terms of results.
You can drill into the specifics, or you can ask how to
handle assigning work items to someone that they
know wont like the work. How do they break the
news? Has this ever happened to them?

28 | P a g e

Q What is the best way to integrate and onboard

people onto a technical team?
A Most good tech leads have experienced new hires
starting at their company, or have been a new hire
themselves. Ask what works well and what doesnt.
Most good leads will mention mentors, regular
checkpoints with clear goals, and/or starting with small
work items like a bug and progressing to larger tasks.

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Technologies &
Lets get started with understanding of one of the
easiest IT i.e. ERP,
(Enterprise Resource Planning) is business process
management software that allows an organization to
use a system of integrated applications to manage the
business and automate many back office functions
related to technology, services and human resources.
ERP software integrates all facets of an operation,
manufacturing, sales and marketing.
ERP software is considered an enterprise application as
it is designed to be used by larger businesses and
often requires dedicated teams to customize and
analyze the data and to handle upgrades and
deployment. In contrast, Small business ERP
applications are lightweight business management
software solutions, customized for the business
industry you work in.
Enterprise resource planning software, or ERP, doesn't
live up to its acronym. Forget about planningit
doesn't do much of thatand forget about resource, a
throwaway term. But remember the enterprise part.
This is ERP's true ambition. It attempts to integrate all
departments and functions across a company onto a
single computer system that can serve all those
different departments' particular needs. That is a tall
order, building a single software program that serves
the needs of people in finance as well as it does the
people in human resources and in the warehouse. Each
of those departments typically has its own computer
system optimized for the particular ways that the

department does its work. But ERP combines them all

together into a single, integrated software program
that runs off a single database
30 | P a g e

so that the various departments can more easily share

information and communicate with each other. That
integrated approach can have a tremendous payback if
companies install the software correctly. Take a
customer order, for example. Typically, when a
customer places an order, that order begins a mostly
paper-based journey from in-basket to in-basket around
the company, often being keyed and rekeyed into
different departments' computer systems along the
way. All that lounging around in inbaskets causes
delays and lost orders, and all the keying into different
computer systems invites errors. Meanwhile, no one in
the company truly knows what the status of the order
is at any given point because there is no way for the
finance department, for example, to get into the
warehouse's computer system to see whether the item
has been shipped. "You'll have to call the warehouse"
is the familiar refrain heard by frustrated customers.
ERP vanquishes the old standalone computer systems
in finance, HR, manufacturing and the warehouse,
and replaces them with a single unified software
program divided into software modules that roughly
approximate the old standalone systems. Finance,
manufacturing and the warehouse all still get their own
Software, except now the software is linked together so
that someone in finance can look into the warehouse
software to see if an order has been shipped. Most
vendors' ERP software is flexible enough
that you can install some modules without buying the
whole package. Many companies, for example, will
just install an ERP finance or HR module and leave the
rest of the functions for another day.

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What is an ERP system used for - and

what can it do for my
With the right enterprise resource planning software,
all your business processes come together for easy
collaboration and rapid decision-making to enhance
your teams overall productivity.
Leverage integrated systems for:
Financial management: Gain control over your
assets, cash flow, and accounting.
Supply chain and operations management:
Streamline your purchasing, manufacturing, inventory,
and sales order processing.
Customer relationship management: Improve
customer service, and increase cross-sell and up sell
Project management: Get what you need to deliver
work on time and on budget with better billing and
project monitoring.
Human resources management: Get help attracting
and retaining good employees with tools to help hire,
manage, and pay your team.
Business intelligence: Make smart decisions with
intelligence tools.

32 | P a g e

(Software Package)
Big ERPs

Small ERPs

Oracle Apps




JD Edwards




ERP module - Enterprise Resource

Planning module
In software a module is a part of a program, and
programs are composed of one or more
independently developed modules that are not
combined until the program is linked.
ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) software typically

consists of multiple enterprise software modules that

are individually purchased, based on what best
meets the specific needs and technical capabilities of
the organization.
33 | P a g e

Each ERP module is focused on one area of business

processes, such as product development or marketing.
Some of the more common ERP modules include those
for product planning, material purchasing, inventory
control, distribution, accounting, marketing, finance
and HR.

Participants in ERP
In every ERP we have different people like one who
are developing it and one who is administering it and
lastly one who is using it. In technical term we
describe them as follows.
Functional Consultant
Technical / Developer
ERP Administrators

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Functional Consultant
Consultant Administrator
1) Who will do the AS
Development Oracle Apps
IS Study
Existing system ( Actual

n of

performing on

study of Legacy system,

which can be in

the forms &



any form viz. Manual

System or using


any technology)
Cloning is
for testing

To Prepare the flow chart

Who can
work on

Backup ,




35 | P a g e

Oracle DBA



Gap Analysis,
He should
gathering ,
, Design a
work flow
Define Setup
( How does a

will work )

on for future
reference &
for end user

36 | P a g e

Overview of SAP





(Basis Administrator)


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Glossary for SAP

ABAP: Advance Business Application Programming
FI-CO: FI = Finance, CO = Controlling
MM: Material Management
SD: Sales & Distribution
PP: Production Planning
PM: Plant Maintenance
PS: Project System
HR: Human Resource
QM: Quality Management
WM: Warehouse Management
SM/CS: Service Management/Customer Services

Responsibilities of Technical &

Consultant in SAP
What does an ABAPer do (Technical Consultant
in SAP)?
ABAP is an programming language which is used be
SAP to develop the programs. So a programmer
(ABAPer) develops software package by using various
technologies like ALE, IDOC, BAPI, BDC, LSMW, Dialog
Programming, Module Pool Programming, Reports, SAP
Scripts etc.
ALE - Application Link Enabling
IDOC - Interfacing Documents
BAPI - Batch Application Programming Interfaces
BDC - Batch Data Communication
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What does an Functional Consultant do

(Functional Consultant in SAP)
_ AS-IS-Study.
_ TO-BE-Analysis
_ User Interaction
_ Preparing user manuals for end
user training _ Training end users and
Power users

SAP New Dimension Modules

For specific industries SAP AG, Germany has developed
new customized product under the brand name of SAP.
These New Dimension Products are different from SAP
Standard version that is SAP R3 & in each new
dimension module there is Technical as well as
Functional Professionals like SAP R3.
For Supply Chain Industry: APO:- Advanced Planning &
Optimization DP : - Demand
SNMP : - Supply network management
planning. PPDS : - Production Planning &
Detailed Scheduling. GATP : - Global
available to promise.

Oil Industry: - IS-OIL

Automobile Industry: - IS-Auto
Media Industry: - IS-Media
retail Industry: - IS-Retail
Customer Care Industry: - ISU-CCS
CRM Industry: - SAP CRM
Business Warehousing: - SAP BW/BIW

39 | P a g e

Brief about different ERPs

Different Versions :- R2, R3 (4.6B, 4.6c), CIN (Country
India Version)
Technical :- ABAP (Advanced Business Application
Functional :- HR, FI-CO, SD, MM, PP, PS, PM, QM
Oracle Apps
Different Versions :- Oracle Applications 11i
Technical :- PL/SQL, Forms, Reports, Interfaces,
Extensions (RICE Components)
Functional :- HRMS (Payroll, Advanced Benefits), MFG
DBA/Administrator :- Apps DBA
Different Versions :Technical :- Peoplecode, People tools, PS Query
Functional :- HRMS, MFG, FIN
DBA/Administrator :- PeopleSoft Admin/DBA
Different Versions :- World Soft, One World, One World
Technical :- JDEdwards Programmer
Functional :- HR, MFG, FIN
DBA/Administrators :- CNC Administrator
Different Versions :Technical :- BAAN Tools
Functional :- FIN, MFG
DBA/Administrators :- BAAN Administrators

40 | P a g e

Oracle Applications
Oracle Applications comprise the applications
software or business software of the Oracle
Corporation. The term refers to the non-database and
non-middleware parts of Oracle's software portfolio.
Oracle sells many functional modules which use the
Oracle RDBMS as a back-end, notably Oracle
Financials, Oracle HRMS, Oracle SCM, Oracle Projects,
Oracle CRM, Oracle Procurement,
Oracle initially launched its application suite with
financials software in the late 1980s. The offering as of
2009 extends to supply-chain management, humanresource
services, product-lifecycle management, and many
other areas. Both in-house expansion and the
acquisition of other companies have vastly expanded
Oracle's application software business.
Oracle released Oracle E-Business Suite (EBS/ e-BS)
Release 12 (R12)
a bundling of several Oracle Applications in
February 2007. The release date coincided with new
releases of other Oracle-owned products: JD Edwards
Enterprise One, Siebel Systems and PeopleSoft.

Oracle ERP
Lets take an example. Suppose you are running a
small grocery shop named Ajanta Grocery?, so the
typical operation as a shop owner is you basically buy
groceries from some big seller and stock it in your
shop. Now people come to your shop for day-to-day
needs and buy stuff from your shop at a slightly
higher price than what you originally bought and

stocked it in your shop. Occasionally you may not be

carrying items or run out of stock that
41 | P a g e

people ask for so you make a note of it and promise

the person to come back tomorrow and they will get
their item. So far so good, now lets name some
entities before we proceed and things get complicated.
The big seller from whom you buy stock is called as
Vendor, the people who come to your shop to buy
things are known as customers, the stock in your
shop is known as inventory.
So far we have identified few entities that play an
active role in your day-to-day operations. As time goes
by, your business expands and now you take orders
over the phone and provide service to deliver the
items to your customers, so you hire people to help
you out in maintaining the inventory, do the delivery
part and all the necessary stuff to keep the business
running smoothly. The people you hire are known as
employees. So in this small shop, you typically
manage the bookkeeping activities by hand using a
notepad or something similar. Now imagine the same
setup on a larger scale where you have more than
10,000 customers, have more than 1000 vendors, have
more than 1000 employees and have a huge
warehouse to maintain your inventory. Do you think
you can manage all that information using pen and
paper? Absolutely no way! Your business will come to a
sudden stop sign.

To facilitate big businesses, companies like Oracle

Corporation have created huge software known in the
category of ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) as
Oracle Applications. Now coming to think of it, Oracle
Apps is not one huge software, instead it is a
collection of software known as modules that are
integrated and talk to each other.
Now what is meant by integrated? First let us identify
the modules
by entities.
e.g. Purchasing and Account
Payables deal

the vendors

you typically purchase from

to pay the dues. Oracle Purchasing
handles all

42 | P a g e

the requisitions and purchase orders to the vendors

whereas Oracle Accounts Payables handles all the
payments to the vendors.
Similarly Oracle Inventory deals with the items you
maintain in stock, warehouse etc. Dealing with
customers is handled collectively with the help of
Management. Order Management helps you collect
all the information that your customer is ordering over
the phone or web store etc whereas Receivables help
you collect the money for the orders that are delivered
to the customers.
Now who maintains the paychecks, benefits of the
1000 employees? right! it is managed by Oracle
Human Resources. So you get the idea by now that
for each logical function there is a separate module
that helps to execute and maintain that function.
So all the individual functions are being taken care but
how do I know if I am making profit or loss? Thats
where integration comes into play. There is another
module known as Oracle General Ledger. This
module receives information from all the different
transaction modules and summarizes them in order to
help you create profit and loss statements, reports for
paying Taxes etc.
Just to simplify the explanation, when you pay your
employees that payment is reported back to General
Ledgers as cost i.e. money going out, when you
purchase inventory items the information is transferred
to GL as money going out, and so is the case when you
pay your vendors. Similarly when you receive items in
your inventory it is transferred to GL as money coming
in, when your customer sends payment it is transferred
to GL as money coming in. So all the different
transaction modules report to GL (General Ledger) as
either money going in? Or money going out?, the net
result will tell you if you are making a profit or loss.

43 | P a g e

All the equipment, shops, warehouses, computers can

be termed as Assets and they are managed by Oracle
Fixed Assets. Initially Oracle Applications started as
bunch of modules and as time passed by they added
new modules for different and new functions growing
out of the need for todays internet world.
So if you come across a module that you are trying to
learn and work on, first try to understand what
business need it is trying to fulfill and then try to
understand what the immediate modules that it
interacts with. For e.g. lets say you come across
Oracle Cost Management module, you will learn that it
helps to maintain the costs of items in your inventory
and the immediate modules that it interacts with are
Oracle Inventory (of course), Oracle Bills of Material,
Order Management and so on..

Oracle Applications Releases

Oracle 11i is the release version.
Current Version of Oracle is Oracle
Current available Versions are 11.5.7 , 11.5.9 and Oracle 6i, 8i, 9i these are all the databases
(where we can store the data)
1) Front End - forms to enter the data, reports
to create various type of reports
2) Back End - tables (8i, 9i, 6i) to feed (store) the data

44 | P a g e

Between a Programmer and a

Technical Consultant
in Oracle Apps.
He will write the code in pl/sql

Technical consultant
He will involve in the
development of Forms
and RICE Components to ensure
the business

Between D2K and 11i?

D2K (Developer 2000)
He has to develop all form and

Lot of code to be written for the


ERP has standard forms and
(Built in)
In built business functionality

Not recommended for large

Designed to manage large




45 | P a g e

Major players of Oracle Apps
are :
Oracle NAIO, Intelligroup, Delloitte, Infosys, IBM,
TCS, GE, HCL, Sapient, Rapidgm, Xansa, Birla
Soft, Alliance Consulting, Bahav-one Cyber Tech,
Sierra Atlantic, Solix, Satyam

Oracle DBA
Major differences between DBA
Development and DBA
DBA Developer Development

DBA - Production

Who work on Stored Procedures

Back-up, recovery, Performance



Migration, Up gradation,

User creation management

Table space Management
Designing Table
Writing code in pl/sql

46 | P a g e

Regular Maintenance

Major differences between Oracle

DBA and Oracle Apps
Oracle DBA

Oracle Apps DBA

Installation ,Back-up, recovery,

Installation, Cloning, Migration,



tuning, Migration, Upgradation,


Work on Backend Database

Work on Application side

DBA Responsibilities
The job of the DBA seems to be everything that
everyone else either doesn't want to do, or doesn't
have the ability to do. DBAs get the enviable task of
figuring out all of the things no one else can figure out.
More seriously though, here is a list of typical DBA
Installation, configuration and upgrading of Oracle
server software and related products
Evaluate Oracle features and Oracle related
products Establish and maintain sound backup and
recovery policies and procedures
Take care of the Database design and
implementation Implement and maintain database
security (create and maintain users and roles, assign
Perform database tuning and performance monitoring
47 | P a g e

Perform application tuning and performance

Setup and maintain documentation and
standards Plan growth and changes
(capacity planning)
Work as part of a team and provide 7x24 supports
when required Perform general technical trouble
shooting and give consultation to development teams
Interface with Oracle Corporation for technical

Sun Technologies: JAVA / J2EE

Java is a general purpose, high-level programming
language developed by Sun Microsystems. A small
team of engineers, known as the Green Team, initiated
the language in 1991. Java was originally called OAK,
and was designed for handheld devices and set-top
boxes. Oak was unsuccessful, so in 1995 Sun changed
the name to Java and modified the language to take
advantage of the burgeoning World Wide Web. Later, in
2009, Oracle Corporation acquired Sun Microsystems
and took ownership of two key Sun software assets:
Java and Solaris.
Java Today
Today Java is a commonly used foundation for
developing and delivering content on the Web.
According to Oracle, there are more than 9 million
Java developers worldwide and more than 3 billion
mobile phones run Java.
In 2014 one of the most significant changes to the Java
language was launched with Java SE 8. Changes
included additional functional programming features,
parallel processing using streams and improved
integration with JavaScript. The 20th anniversary of
commercial Java was celebrated in 2015.

48 | P a g e

Java: An Object-Oriented Language

Java is an object-oriented language similar to C++, but
simplified to eliminate language features that cause
common programming errors. Java source code files
(files with a .java extension) are compiled into a
format called bytecode (files with a .class extension),
which can then be executed by a Java interpreter.
Compiled Java code can run on most computers
because Java interpreters and runtime environments,
known as Java Virtual Machines (VMs), exist for most
operating systems, including UNIX, the Macintosh OS,
and Windows. Bytecode can also be converted directly
into machine language instructions by a just-in-time
compiler (JIT). In 2007, most Java technologies were
released under the GNU General Public License.
Java on the Web
Java is a general purpose programming language
with a number of features that make the language
well suited for use on the World Wide Web. Small Java
applications are called Java applets and can be
downloaded from a Web server and run on your
computer by a Java-compatible Web browser.
Applications and websites using Java will not work
unless Java is installed on your device. When you
download Java, the software contains the Java Runtime
Environment (JRE) which is needed to run in a Web
browser. A component of the JRE, the Java Plug-in
software allows Java applets to run inside various
Three different Versions of JAVA 2
J2EE(Java 2
Enterprise Edition)

J2SE ( Java 2
Standard Edition )

J2ME ( Java 2
Micro Edition)

Web based & Desktop

For Online gaming

For Mobile

49 | P a g e


Difference between Core JAVA & J2EE

Core Java
Swings Writing the forms

Only to design the desktop


JSP( Java Server
Pages),EJB(Enterprise Java
Distributed enterprises application
It is Web based and Desktop
based applications

Microsoft Technologies
Introduction to .NET
A programming infrastructure created by Microsoft for
deploying, and running applications and services that
use .NET
technologies, such as desktop applications and Web
The .NET Framework contains three major parts:
the Common Language Runtime
the Framework Class Library
Short for Common Language Runtime, a runtime
environment that manages the execution of .NET
program code and provides services such as memory
and exception management, debugging and profiling,
and security. The CLR is a major component of the
.NET framework.
CLR also is known as the Virtual Execution System

50 | P a g e

Short for framework class library, the collective name

for the thousands of classes that compose the .NET
Framework. The services provided by the FCL include
runtime core functionality (basic types and collections,
file and network I/O, accessing system services, etc.),
interaction with databases, consuming and producing
XML, and support for building Web-based and desktopbased client applications, and SOAP-based XML Web
A Microsoft server-side Web technology. ASP.NET takes
an object-oriented programming approach to Web
page execution. Every element in an ASP.NET page is
treated as an object and run on the server. An ASP.NET
page gets compiled into an intermediate language by a
.NET Common Language Runtime-compliant compiler.
Then a JIT compiler turns the intermediate code to
native machine code, and that machine code is
eventually run on the processor. Because the code is
run straight from the processor, pages load much
faster than classic ASP pages, where embedded
VBScript or JScript had to be continuously interpreted
and cached.
ASP.NET is used to create Web pages and Web
services and is an integral part of Microsoft's .NET

Microsoft.NET is a Framework
Microsoft .NET is a Framework which provides a
common platform to Execute or, Run the applications
developed in various programming languages.
Microsoft announced the .NET initiative in July 2000.
The main intention was to bridge the gap in
interoperability between services of various
programming languages.

.NET Framework Objectives

The .NET Framework is designed to fulfill the following





51 | P a g e

Provide environment for developing various

types of applications, such as Windows-based
applications and Web-based applications
To ensure that code based on the .NET
Framework can integrate with any other

Windows development
The .NET Framework is a comprehensive
programming model for building mobile, desktop
and web applications that run on Windows.
Cross-platform apps
.NET Core and ASP.NET Core give you a blazing fast
and modular platform for creating server
applications that run on Windows, Linux and Mac.
Mobile apps
Xamarin brings the power and productivity of .NET
to iOS and Android, reusing skills and code while
getting access to the native APIs and performance.

IBM Technologies
IBM manufactures and markets computer hardware,
middleware and software and offers infrastructure,
hosting and consulting services in areas ranging from
mainframe computers to nanotechnology.
The company originated in 1911 as the ComputingTabulating-Recording Company (CTR) through the
consolidation of The Tabulating Machine Company, the
International Time Recording Company, the Computing
Scale Company and the Bundy Manufacturing
Company. CTR was renamed "International Business
52 | P a g e

Machines" in 1924, a name which Thomas J. Watson

first used for a CTR Canadian subsidiary. The initialism
IBM followed. In 1949, Watson created IBM World Trade
Corporation, a subsidiary of IBM focused on foreign
operations. Securities analysts nicknamed the
company Big Blue for its size and common use of the
color in products, packaging and its logo.
Lotus Notes
Rational Tools
Websphere Suit

Application Development
Application Development
Mail Management Software
SDLC Tools
Storage Manager
Application Server /


Integration Technology
Unix based Operating System

In Mainframes we use :
1) Cobol as the programming language
Acronym for Common Business Oriented Language.
Developed in the late 1950s and early 1960s, COBOL
is the second-oldest high-level programming language
(FORTRAN is the oldest). It is particularly popular for
business applications that run on large computers.
COBOL is a wordy language; programs written in
COBOL tend to be much longer than the same
programs written in other languages. This can be
annoying when you program in COBOL, but the
wordiness makes it easy to understand programs
because everything is spelled out. Although disparaged
by many
53 | P a g e

programmers for being outdated, COBOL is still the

most widely used programming language in the world.
CICS as a backend tool:
2) About CICS
Short for Customer Information Control System, a TP
monitor from IBM that was originally developed to
provide transaction processing for IBM mainframes. It
controls the interaction between applications and users
and lets programmers develop screen displays without
detailed knowledge of the terminals being used. CICS
is also available on non-mainframe platforms including
the RS/6000, AS/400 and OS/2 -based PCs.
3) DB2 as a Database:
About DB2:
Short for Database 2, a family of relational database
products offered by IBM. DB2 provides an open
database environment that runs on a wide variety of
computing platforms. A DB2 database can grow
from a small single-user application to a large
multi-user system. Using SQL, users can obtain data
simultaneously from DB2 and other databases. DB2
includes a range of application development and
management tools. DB2 supports Mainframe as
well as UNIX environment
4) MVS, OS/390 are the operating systems for
i) About VSAM :
Virtual Storage Access Method, a file management
system used on IBM mainframes. VSAM speeds up
access to data in files by using an inverted index
(called a B+tree) of all records added to each file.
Many legacy software systems use VSAM to implement
database systems (called data sets).
ii) About MVS
54 | P a g e

Short for Multiple Virtual Storage, the operating

system for older IBM mainframes. MVS was first
in 1974 and continues to be used, though it has been
largely superseded by IBM's newer operating
system, OS/390.
Mainframe Administrators:
1. OS/390 Administrator
2. RACF Administrator (Resource



Environment and platform and in this we use :

COBOL/400, CL/400 as a Programming Language
DB2/400 as a Database
OS/400 as an Operating system
Majorly used in Banking & Finance Industry
IBM Rational Tools
To manage the complete Software
Development Life Cycle
development through enhanced team collaboration
and better control of risk and change. This modular,
solution-focused set of products and services helps
increase efficiencies by aligning key capabilities
including DevOps, continuous engineering and
enterprise modernization with your business strategy.
IBM Rational software helps organizations succeed by
supporting DevOps, continuous engineering, and
enterprise modernization best practices.

55 | P a g e

Different phases:
1. Req. Gathering & Analysis 2. Design the project
3. Coding & Implementation
4. Testing 5. Change Management 6.
Maintenance & Documentation

Rational Requisite Pro

Rational Rose
Rational Rose XDE
Rational ClearCase
Rational ClearQuest
Rational Robot
Rational Test Manager
Rational Test Realtime
Rational Purify
Rational Portfolio Manager
Rational SoDA

Requirement Gathering & Analysis
Project Design
Modeling Tools
Version Control / Change
Bug Tracking Tool
Functional & System Testing
Test Management Tool
Testing tool for
Realtime/embedded technologies
Memory Leak testing
Portfolio Management
Documentation of projects

Datawarehousing & its Tools

Data Warehouse Definition:
Different people have different definitions for a data
warehouse. The most popular definition came from
Bill Inmon, who provided the following:

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A data warehouse is a subject-oriented,

integrated, time-variant and non-volatile
collection of data in support of management's
decision making process.
Subject-Oriented: A data warehouse can be
used to analyze a particular subject area. For
example, "sales" can be a particular subject.
Integrated: A data warehouse integrates data from
multiple data sources. For example, source A and
source B may have different ways of identifying a
product, but in a data warehouse, there will be only a
single way of identifying a product.
Time-Variant: Historical data is kept in a data
warehouse. For example, one can retrieve data from 3
months, 6 months, 12 months, or even older data from
a data warehouse. This contrasts with a transactions
system, where often only the most recent data is kept.
For example, a transaction system may hold the most
recent address of a customer, where a data warehouse
can hold all addresses associated with a customer.
Non-volatile: Once data is in the data warehouse, it will
not change. So, historical data in a data warehouse
should never be altered.

Ralph Kimball provided a more concise

definition of a data warehouse:
A data warehouse is a copy of transaction
data specifically structured for query and
This is a functional view of a data warehouse.
Kimball did not address how the data warehouse is
built like Inmon did; rather he focused on the
functionality of a data warehouse.

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ETL Tools: Which performs Extraction,

Transformation, Loading
operations on data?
OLAP Tools: Which performs On-Line Analytical
Processing on data?
ETL Tools

OLAP Tools

Ascential DataStage

Business Objects


Hyperion Essbase

Ab Initio


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Big Data Technologies

Big data is a term that describes the large volume of
data both structured and unstructured that
inundates a business on a day-to-day basis. But its not
the amount of data thats important. Its what
organizations do with the data that matters. Big data
can be analyzed for insights that lead to better
decisions and strategic business moves.
Big Data History and Current Considerations:
While the term big data is relatively new, the act of
gathering and storing large amounts of information for
eventual analysis is ages old. The concept gained
momentum in the early 2000s when industry analyst
Doug Laney articulated the now-mainstream definition
of big data as the three Vs:
Volume. Organizations collect data from a variety of
sources, including business transactions, social media
and information from sensor or machine-to-machine
data. In the past, storing it wouldve been a problem
but new technologies (such as Hadoop) have eased the
Velocity. Data streams in at an unprecedented speed
and must be dealt with in a timely manner. RFID tags,
sensors and smart metering are driving the need to
deal with torrents of data in near-real time.
Variety. Data comes in all types of formats from
structured, numeric data in traditional databases to
unstructured text documents, email, video, audio,
stock ticker data and financial transactions.

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At SAS, They consider two additional dimensions when

it comes to big data:
Variability. In addition to the increasing velocities and
varieties of data, data flows can be highly inconsistent
with periodic peaks. Is something trending in social
media? Daily, seasonal and event-triggered peak data
loads can be challenging to manage. Even more so
with unstructured data.
Complexity. Today's data comes from multiple sources,
which makes it difficult to link, match, cleanse and
transform data across systems. However, its
necessary to connect and correlate relationships,
hierarchies and multiple data linkages or your data can
quickly spiral out of control.
Big datas big potential
The amount of data thats being created and stored on
a global level is almost inconceivable, and it just keeps
growing. That means theres even more potential to
glean key insights from business information yet only
a small percentage of data is actually analyzed. What
does that mean for businesses? How can they make
better use of the raw information that flows into their
organizations every day?
Why Is Big Data Important?
The importance of big data doesnt revolve around how
much data
you have, but what you do with it. You can take data
from any
source and analyze it to find answers that enable 1)
cost reductions,
2) time reductions, 3) new product development and
offerings, and 4) smart decision making. When you
combine big

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data with high-powered analytics, you can accomplish

businessrelated tasks such as:

Determining root causes of failures, issues and

defects in near-real time.
Generating coupons at the point of sale
based on the customers buying habits.
Recalculating entire risk portfolios in minutes.

Detecting fraudulent behavior before

it affects your organization.

Who uses big data?

Big data affects organizations across practically every
industry. See how each industry can benefit from this
onslaught of information.
With large amounts of information streaming in from
countless sources, banks are faced with finding new and
innovative ways to manage big data. While its important
to understand customers and boost their satisfaction, its
equally important to minimize risk and fraud while
maintaining regulatory compliance. Big data brings big
insights, but it also requires financial institutions to stay
one step

ahead of the game with advanced analytics.

Educators armed with data-driven insight can make a
significant impact on school systems, students and
curriculums. By analyzing big data, they can identify
at-risk students, make sure students are making
adequate progress, and can implement a better
system for evaluation and support of teachers and

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When government agencies are able to harness and
apply analytics to their big data, they gain significant
ground when it comes to managing utilities, running
agencies, dealing with traffic congestion or preventing
crime. But while there are many advantages to big data,
governments must also address issues of transparency

Health Care
Patient records. Treatment plans. Prescription
information. When it comes to health care, everything
needs to be done quickly, accurately and, in some
cases, with enough transparency to satisfy stringent
industry regulations. When big data is managed
effectively, health care providers can uncover hidden
insights that
improve patient care.
Armed with insight that big data can provide,
manufacturers can boost quality and output while
minimizing waste processes that are key in todays
highly competitive market. More and more
manufacturers are working in an analytics-based
culture, which means they can solve problems faster
and make more agile business
Customer relationship building is critical to the retail
industry and the best way to manage that is to
manage big data. Retailers need to know the best

way to market to customers, the most effective way

to handle transactions, and the most strategic way to
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back lapsed business. Big data remains at the heart of

all those

How It Works
Before discovering how big data can work for your
business, you should first understand where it
comes from. The sources for big data generally fall
into one of three categories:
Streaming data
This category includes data that reaches your IT
systems from a web
of connected devices. You can analyze this data as it
arrives and
make decisions on what data to keep, what not to
keep and what
requires further analysis.
Social media data
The data on social interactions is an increasingly
attractive set of
information, particularly for marketing, sales and
support functions.
It's often in unstructured or semistructured forms, so it
poses a
unique challenge when it comes to consumption and
Publicly available sources
Massive amounts of data are available through open
data sources
like the US governments, the CIA World
Factbook or the
European Union Open Data Portal.
After identifying all the potential sources for data,
consider the decisions youll need to make once
you begin harnessing information. These include:

How to store and manage it

whereas storage would have been a problem several
years ago,

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there are now low-cost options for storing data if thats

the best
strategy for your business.
How much of it to analyze
Some organizations don't exclude any data from their
which is possible with todays high-performance
technologies such
as grid computing or in-memory analytics. Another
approach is to
determine upfront which data is relevant before
analyzing it.
How to use any insights you uncover
The more knowledge you have, the more confident
youll be in
making business decisions. Its smart to have a
strategy in place
once you have an abundance of information at hand.
The final step in making big data work for your
business is to research the technologies that help
you make the most of big data and big data
analytics. Consider:
Cheap, abundant storage.
Faster processors.
Affordable open source, distributed big data
platforms, such as Hadoop.
connectivity and high throughputs.
Cloud computing and other flexible resource
allocation arrangements.

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For the uninitiated, the Big Data landscape can be
daunting. The vast proliferation of technologies in this
competitive market mean theres no single go-to
solution when you begin to build your Big Data
architecture. In this series of articles, we will examine







technologies that exist to help enterprises harness

their data. This first article aims to serve as a basic
map, a brief overview of the main options available for
those taking the first steps into the vastly profitable
realm of Big Data and Analytics.
Ultimately, a Big Data environment should allow you
to store, process, analyse and visualise data. It starts
with the infrastructure, and selecting the right tools for
storing, processing and often analysing. There are
then specialised analytics tools to help you find the
insights within the data. Further on from this, there are
also applications which run off the processed,
analysed data. All of these are valuable components of
the Big Data ecosystem.
Infrastructural technologies are the core of the Big Data
ecosystem. They process, store and often also analyse
data. For decades, enterprises relied on relational

databases typical collections of rows and tables- for

processing structured data. However,

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the volume, velocity and variety of data mean that

relational databases often cannot deliver the
performance and latency required to handle large,
complex data. The rise of unstructured data in
particular meant that data capture had to move
beyond merely rows and tables. Thus new
infrastructural technologies emerged, capable of
wrangling a vast variety of data, and making it
possible to run applications on systems with
thousands of nodes, potentially involving thousands
of terabytes of data.
Some of the key infrastructural technologies include:

Hadoop- A whole ecosystem of technologies

designed for the storing, processing and
analysing of data. The core Hadoop
technologies work on the principle of breaking
up and distributing data into parts and
analysing those parts concurrently, rather
than tackling one monolithic block of data all
in one go.
NoSQL- Stands for Not Only SQL; also involved

in processing large volumes of multi-structured data.

Most NoSQL databases are most adept at handling
discrete data stored among multi-structured data.
Some NoSQL databases, like HBase, can work
concurrently with Hadoop.

Massively Parallel Processing (MPP)

Databases- MPP databases work by
segmenting data across multiple nodes, and

processing these segments of data in parallel,

and uses SQL. Whereas Hadoop is usually run
on cheaper clusters of
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commodity servers, most MPP databases run

on expensive specialised hardware.
Many enterprises make use of combinations of
these three (and other) kinds of Infrastructure
technology in their Big Data environment.
Although infrastructural technologies incorporate data
analysis, there are specific technologies which are
designed specifically with analytical capabilities in
mind. Sub-categories of analytics on the big data map
Analytics Platforms- Integrate and analyse

data to uncover new insights, and help companies

make better-informed decisions. There is a particular
focus on this field on latency, and delivering insights
to end users in the most timely manner possible.




designed- as the name might suggest- for

visualizing data; taking the raw data and
presenting it in complex, multi-dimensional
visual formats to illuminate the information

Business Intelligence (BI) Platforms- Used

for integrating and analysing data specifically
for businesses. BI Platforms analyse data from
multiple sources to deliver services such

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as business intelligence reports, dashboards

Machine Learning- Also falls under this

category, but is dissimilar to the others. Whereas the

analytics platforms input processed data and output
analytics/dashboards/visualisations for end users, the
input in machine learning is data the algorithm learns
from, and the output depends on the use case. One of
the most famous examples is IBMs super computer
Watson, which has learned to scan vast amounts of
information to find specific answers, and can comb
through 200 million pages of structured and
unstructured data in minutes. The computer recently
combed through recipes and taste combinations
tocreate its own sauce.
Applications are big data businesses and startups
which revolve around taking the analysed big data
and using it to offer end-users optimised insights.
Fields in which applications are used include:

Health- Mintlabs is a compendium of 3D brain

scans and neurological information which can
be accessed by neurosurgeons from all over
the world and help in the diagnosis, prognosis,
and treatment of patients with brain diseases

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Retail- Avansera run mobile shopping apps

that offer insights for food production
companies into variables that affect food
purchase, such as brand loyalty and price

Energy- AutoGrid uses data from smart

meters, building management systems, voltage
regulators and thermostats to help consumers
track and curb power use, reduce waste,
balance the grid, improve system operations
and even predict future consumption

This is just a brief insight into the multi-faceted and everexpanding cartography of Big Data. In the coming weeks
in the Understanding Big Data series, I will be
examining different areas of the Big

Landscape- infrastructure, analytics, open source,

data sources and cross-infrastructure/analytics- in
more detail, discussing further what they do, how
they work and the differences between competing
There are many different types of technologies out
there, which can offer infinite opportunities to their
users. The key is identifying the right components to
meet your specific needs.

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Cloud Computing
The practice of using a network of remote servers
hosted on the Internet to store, manage, and process
data, rather than a local server or a personal
computer. Wiki
Cloud computing enables companies to consume
compute resources as a utility -- just like electricity -rather than having to build and maintain computing
infrastructures in-house.
Cloud computing promises several attractive benefits
for businesses and end users. Three of the main
benefits of cloud computing includes:
1) Self-service provisioning 2) Elasticity &

3) Pay per

Three of the main benefits:

Self-service provisioning: End users can spin up
computing resources for almost any type of workload

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Elasticity: Companies can scale up as computing

needs increase and then scale down again as demands
Pay per use: Computing resources are measured at a
granular level, allowing users to pay only for the
resources and workloads they use.

Cloud computing services can

be private, public or
Cloud computing services can be private, public or
Private cloud services are delivered from a business'
data center to internal users. This model offers
management, control and security. Internal customers
may or may not be billed for services through IT
In the public cloud model, a third-party provider
delivers the cloud service over the Internet. Public
cloud services are sold on-demand, typically by the
minute or the hour. Customers only pay for the CPU
cycles, storage or bandwidth they consume. Leading
public cloud providers include Amazon Web Services
(AWS), Microsoft Azure, IBM/SoftLayer and Google
Compute Engine.
Hybrid cloud is a combination of public cloud services
and on-premises private cloud with orchestration and
automation between the two. Companies can run
mission-critical workloads or sensitive applications on
the private cloud while using the public cloud for
bursty workloads that must scale on-demand. The goal
of hybrid cloud is to create a unified, automated,
scalable environment which takes advantage of all that

a public cloud infrastructure can provide, while still

maintaining control over mission-critical data.
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Cloud Computing Categories:

IaaS, PaaS & SaaS:

IaaS providers such as AWS supply a virtual server
instance and storage, as well as application program
interfaces (APIs) that let users migrate workloads to a
virtual machine (VM). Users have an allocated storage
capacity and start, stop, access and configure the VM
and storage as desired. IaaS providers offer small,
medium, large, extra-large, and memory- or computeoptimized instances, in addition to customized
instances, for various workload needs.
In the PaaS model, providers host development tools
on their infrastructures. Users access those tools over
the Internet using
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APIs, Web portals or gateway software. PaaS is used for

general software development and many PaaS
providers will host the software after it's developed.
Common PaaS providers include's, Amazon Elastic Beanstalk and Google App
SaaS is a distribution model that delivers software
applications over the Internet; these are often called
Web services. Microsoft Office 365 is a SaaS offering
for productivity software and email services. Users can
access SaaS applications and services from any
location using a computer or mobile device that has
Internet access.

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Network Engineering
A network engineer is a technology professional
who has the necessary skills to plan, implement
and support the
computer networks that support in-house voice,
data, video and wireless network services.
Although the job titles network engineer and network
administrator are sometimes used as synonyms, a
network engineer usually has more executive
responsibilities than a network administrator. The
engineering side of things tends to deal more with
planning, design, and technical specifications, whereas
the administration side of things deals mostly with
day-to-day maintenance, management and
troubleshooting efforts.
The job titles may also be differentiated by
education and/or earnings. Typically, a network
engineer has more education and earns more than
a network administrator.
One of the largest categories for IT certifications, and
thus IT careers, has to be networking. Without
applying more specific criteria, a networking cert
could cover local wired and wireless IP network
design, connectivity, routing, and administration, but
also mobile communications technologies like LTE

and Mobile WiMAX.

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In addition, data center networking falls under this

umbrella, as well as wide area network (WAN)
connectivity and quality of service, as do traditional
long-haul technologies such as carrier Ethernet, optical
fiber, and so on. This survey whittled the list down
mainly to the most popular local wired and wireless
networking certifications. A handful of certs in this
article overlap general networking with Multiprotocol
Label Switching (MPLS) and mobility, but they're
exceptions to the rule.
The list also includes a mix of vendor-neutral and
vendor-specific credential sponsors, although
vendors are more heavily represented. You'll see
certs from well-known technology vendors like Aruba
Networks, Cisco, Extreme Networks, HP, and Juniper
Networks, as well as vendor-neutral certs by BICSI,
CompTIA, and the IPv6 Forum.
Advancing Your Career In Networking
If you're just starting a career in networking, we
recommend that you pursue one or more vendorneutral, entry-level credentials like the CompTIA
Network+, any of the CWNP certs, and the IPv6 Forum
Silver Certified Engineer. These credentials expose you
to many

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different but highly valuable networking technologies

and products and will be helpful in finding a
networking job.
The only free certification on the list is Hurricane
Electric IPv6, which actually represents several
credentials at multiple levels. The program is very
well developed and continually expands, and it looks
to be more than worth the time you will spend
studying for any of the exams.
After achieving one or more vendor-neutral
credentials, consider vendor-specific certs that are
pertinent to your line of work. For example, if you
work for a consulting firm that supports Cisco and HP
technologies, pursue applicable intermediate- or
professional-level certifications. Training costs for
vendor-specific certs are generally higher than
vendor-neutral, so be sure to find out if your
employer will cover part or all of the cost of training
and certification exam fees.
Networking Job Types
For those just starting a career in networking, here is
a short list of the available types of positions and
networking jobs:
Network Specialist

Network Technician
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Network Administrator
Network Analyst
Network Manager
Network Engineer
Network Solutions Architect
As you develop your networking career further, you
might decide to specialize in one or more areas of
networking. At this point, the networking jobs you
would be applying for might include:
Network Security Specialist
Cloud Networking Architect




Wireless Networking QA Engineer

Wireless Infrastructure and Mobility Specialist
Mobility Solutions Architect
VoIP Engineer
Telecom Project Manager
Data Center Networking Specialist
There are also plenty of networking jobs in sales and
consulting, so be sure to check out:
Networking Sales Specialist
Networking Account Manager
Networking Consultant
Networking Program Manager
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The following table lists 46 networking

credentials in alphabetical
order by sponsor.
Alcatel-Lucent Certifications
These are foundation-level
certifications in
the Alcatel-Lucent Service Routing
Certification (SRC) program.
Identify intermediate-level network
Network Routing professionals experienced with IP and
Specialist I (NRS
Ethernet technologies.
NRS II certification recognizes
Network Routing network/service offerings in IP/MPLS
Specialist II (NRS
Ethernet technologies.
Other SRC certifications include
Routing Professional (MRP), Triple Play
Routing Professional (3RP), and
Routing Architect (SRA).
Aruba Networks Certifications

Aruba Certified
Professional (ACSP)

Established program with seven

certifications, ranging from Tier 1

(foundation) to Tier 3 (Expert).

Aruba Certified
Mobility Associate

Certifications identify technical knowledge


and skills, design, deployment, and

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management in complex
settings. Aruba Certified
BICSI Certifications

Focused on supporting the

information technology systems
(ITS industry), BICSI is a
professional association with more
than 23,000 members in
approximately 100 countries.
The ITS Technician credential is a
mid-level certification targeting
those with a minimum of three
years documented industry
experience as well as familiarity
with ITSrelated chapters in
National Electric Code
telecommunications standards.

ITS Technician

The credential identifies

professionals who understand and
can apply installation-specific
information, lead installation teams,
perform testing and troubleshooting
on copper and optical fiber
installations, evaluate applications
of ITS cabling installation, make
recommendations regarding codes

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standards, and perform

retrofits and upgrades for
existing infrastructures.
Certification Partners

Entry-level certification
developed by Certification
Partners and Telecommunications
Industry Association (TIA).
Certified in

Target audience includes technical

support engineers, network
product managers, and engineers.
Content is focused on key concepts,
and core terms in convergence
including basic telecommunications,
data communications, LANs,
technologies, and VoIP.


Cisco Certified

Cisco has well-known and highly

certification portfolio.


Cisco Certified

Certs in this category aimed at

interested in building careers in
wired and
wireless networking techniques and

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Cisco Certified
Routing and

Cisco Certified
Wireless (CCNA
Cisco Certified
Cisco Certified

technologies, network design, or

routing and
switching technologies.
Certification paths range from entry
level to
expert level.
Certifications are targeted to
specialists, administrators, support
and design engineers.

Routing and
Cisco Certified
Wireless (CCNP
Cisco Certified
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Expert (CCIE)
Routing and
Cisco Certified
Expert Wireless
(CCIE Wireless)
CompTIA Certifications

One of the most popular general

networking certs in the world.
Targeted to candidates seeking
careers as network
administrators, technicians, or
installers, as well as help desk technicians and

CompTIA Network+

IT cable installers.
Recognized or required by the
Department of Defense, Dell, HP,
Ricoh, Sharp, and Xerox, and
required for Apple Consultants
Network membership.

Certified Wireless Network Professional (CWNP)

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Established certification program

offering a

full complement of certifications
from entry level to professional


Certifications are focused on

enterprise Wi-Fi
CWNP also offers Certified Wireless
Professional (CWSP) and Instructor

Network Expert
Electronics Technicians Association (ETA)

ETA offers over 80 certifications,


electronics professionals.

ETA is accredited by the

Certification Accreditation Council

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More than 125,000 certifications

have been

Extreme Networks Certifications

Certified Expert

Technical based certifications

focused on
practical hands-on training.

Certification paths range from entry

(specialist) to expert to architect.
Multiple concentrations are available
at the
Specialist level.
Expert designations include

Architect (ECA)

Switch Routing, Wireless, Network

Security Information Management,
and ENS.

HP ExpertOne Networking Certifications

HP Accredited
Specialist (HP

Mature vendor-specific certifications

from entry- level networking
credentials for
business and mid-class networks to
certifications validating skills
necessary to

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HP Accredited
HP Accredited

implement complex, large-scale,

Targeted audience includes customer
IT staff,
system designers and engineers,
and call
center support engineers.
Skills include network design,
cloud services, HP OpenFlow, BYOD,
much more.

HP Accredited
HP Master
Engineer (HP
Master ASE)
HP Master
Engineer (HP
Master ASE)
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HP Accredited
Specialist (HP
HP Accredited
Solutions Expert
(HP ASE) Network
HP Accredited
Solutions Expert

HP Accredited
Solutions Expert
HP Master
Engineer (HP
Master ASE)

Mature vendor-specific certifications

range from entry- level networking
credentials for business and midclass networks to certifications
validating skills necessary to
implement complex, large-scale,
networking solutions.
Targeted audience includes customer
IT staff, system designers and
engineers, and call center support
Skills include network design,
standards, cloud services, HP
OpenFlow, BYOD, and much more.

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HP Master
Accredited Systems
Engineer (HP
Master ASE)
Wireless Networks
Hurricane Electric Internet Services Certifications

Free online certification project that

skills in basic IPv6 concepts.
Certification exam includes IP
Hurricane Electric address format,
reverse DNS, localhost address,
IPv6 Certification default
routing, documentation prefix, linklocal
prefix, multicast prefix, traceroute,
configuring IPv6 servers, and more.
IPv6 Forum Certifications

IPv6 Forum Silver

Certified Engineer

IPv6 Forum Gold

IPv6 Education Certification Logo

promotes IPv6 education and helps

candidates build skills to foster swifter

adoption of IPv6.

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Courses focus on practical
application and
consist of both instructor-led and
lab instruction.
Detailed programs for universities
planned; future curriculum will
include a
Diamond-level certification.

Juniper Networks Certifications

and Switching
and Switching


vendor-specific credentials that
installation and support of LAN/WAN
and switches in Juniper Networks
technologybased networks.
Credential holders possess skills
necessary to
support large enterprise

Certified Expert
and Switching

JNCIS-WLAN certification validates

and skills in Juniper Networks
wireless LAN
systems, including system concepts,
technologies, configuration,
troubleshooting, and network

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Juniper Networks
Certified Specialist
Wireless LAN

Oracle Certified
Expert, Oracle
Solaris 10

Oracle has a well-established

certification program.
OCE is an advanced certification
technical skills of system
administrators who
work with LANs and the Oracle
operating system (Oracle Solaris
Credential was formerly Sun
Network Administrator (SCNA).

Palo Alto Certifications

Palo Alto

CNSE credential holders possess

and technical skills necessary to
configure, and implement Palo Alto
technologies at the advanced

The credential is targeted to
partners, system
engineers, system integrators,
support engineers, pre-sales
systems engineers,
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support staff, or anyone using

Palo Alto Network technologies.
Certification exam is tied to the .1
release of each Palo Alto Networks
operating system version, such as
Riverbed ProfessionalServices (RPS)
Riverbed Certified
Solutions Associate

Riverbed Certified



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Vendor-specific credentials that recognize

knowledge of and skills with the Riverbed

Cascade product suite (RCSA-NPM) and
Riverbed Network Performance Management

NPM products (RCSP-NMP).

Credential seekers should possess advanced

knowledge, training, and practical experience

in deploying, troubleshooting, maintaining
Riverbed technologies in small to large

SolarWinds Certifications


Professional (SCP)

Credential validates skills in

networking management
fundamentals, network
management planning, network
operations, network fault and performance
troubleshooting, and Orion NPM

The SCP is an accredited

Wireshark Certifications

Vendor-specific credential for

professionals who use Wireshark to
analyze network traffic and then use
the information to troubleshoot,
optimize, and secure networks.

Wireshark Certified
Network Analyst


Wireshark is considered the de facto

standard open source product for network
protocol analysis, with more than 500,000

downloads per month.

The WCNA exam was certified by
the US Army in 2009 and covers
Wireshark functionality, TCP/IP
network communications, network
troubleshooting, and network

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Operating Systems & Its
Windows XP An operating system or OS is software on
the hard drive that enables the computer hardware to
communicate and operate with the computer software.
Without a computer operating system, a computer and
software programs would be useless.
Operating System types
As computers have progressed and developed, so have
the operating systems. Below is a basic list of the
types of operating systems and a few examples of
operating systems that fall into each of the types.
Many computer operating systems will fall into more
than one of the below types.
GUI - Short for Graphical User Interface, a GUI
operating system contains graphics and icons and is
commonly navigated by using a computer mouse. See
the GUI definition for a complete definition. Examples
of GUI operating systems are:
System 7.x
Windows 98
Windows CE
Multi-user - A multi-user operating system allows for
multiple users to use the same computer at the same
time and different times. See the multi-user definition
for a complete definition. Examples of operating
systems that would fall into this category are:

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Multiprocessing - An operating system capable of

supporting and utilizing more than one computer
processor. Examples of operating systems that would
fall into this category are:
Windows XP
Multitasking - An operating system that is capable of
allowing multiple software processes to run at the
same time. Examples of operating systems that would
fall into this category are:
Windows 8






different parts of software program to run concurrently.

Examples of operating systems that would fall into this
category are:
Windows XP

Windows XP: Windows XP is an operating system

introduced in 2001 from Microsoft's Windows family of
operating systems, the previous version of Windows
being Windows Me. The "XP" in

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Windows XP stands for eXPerience. Microsoft called

the XP release its most important product since
Windows 95. Along with a redesigned look and feel to
the user interface, the new operating system was built
on the Windows 2000 kernel, giving users a more
stable and reliable environment than previous versions
of Windows.
Windows XP Versions
Windows XP was made available in in two versions,
Windows XP Home and Windows XP Professional. The
company focused on mobility, such as technology
allowed for in 2001, and included plug and play
features for connecting to wireless networks. The
operating system utilizes the 802.11x wireless security
The initial Windows XP release was followed by the
release of Windows XP 64-Bit Edition (v2002), Windows
XP Media Center Edition and Windows XP 64-Bit Edition
Microsoft to end Official Windows XP Support in
April 2014
On April 8, 2014, Microsoft will cease official XP
support. After this date users of the XP operating
system will no longer receive patches or system
updates to protect against viruses and malware.
Because the operating system has been so popular
and is still in use 11 years after release, the biggest
problem facing users is choosing to continue to run an

outdated operating system or upgrade to a new OS,








increased costs. In addition to paying for a new

operating system,
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some users looking to upgrade will find they need to

system hardware to run a newer version of the
Windows operating
The Impact on Businesses
As of 2013 it is believed that more than 400 million
computers still
run the Windows XP operating system, representing a
37 percent
market share, according to Small Business Computing.
"Windows XP
may seem like a relic of the past. For businesses,
however, XP has
proven to be a sturdy, stable and largely reliable OS
that you kept it updated and secure, of course. These
traits help
explain the 11 year-old operating system's enduring
The end of support for Windows XP translates into a
huge number of desktops and laptops that may
become targets for hackers and owners will be left to
wrestle with software compatibility issues. Even
Microsoft's own Internet Explorer 9 browser won't run
on Windows XP, but not all software will end
compatibility right away. For example, Google
announced that the Chrome browser will support
Windows XP users until at least 2015. The exceptions
will be few and far between, however. Software
manufacturers will optimize for more recent versions of
Windows so expect to find more applications and

devices that are not Windows XP-compatible as official

support for the operating system ends.

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Government Computers Especially Vulnerable

According to recent news reports, the expiration of
official Windows XP support will impact government
computers. "Federal officials have known for more than
six years that Microsoft will withdraw its free support
for Windows XP on April 8, 2014. Despite a recent rush
to complete upgrades, an estimated 10 percent of
government computers out of several million will
still be running the operating system on that date,
company officials said." cites the Washington Post. The
article also claims that federal officials asked Microsoft
to extend its deadline for ending support for Windows
XP, but the request was denied.

Anti-Malware Signatures for One Year

To help ease the transition from the outdated operating
system, Microsoft has said it will continue to issue antimalware updates for Windows XP for more than a year
after the April deadline passes to help organizations
complete their migrations. eWeek notes that for
enterprise customers, this applies to System Center
Endpoint Protection, Forefront Client Security, Forefront
Endpoint Protection and Windows Intune running on
Windows XP.
Linux Operating System: The Linux open source
operating system, or Linux OS, is a freely distributable,
cross-platform operating system based on Unix that
can be installed on PCs, laptops, netbooks, mobile and
tablet devices, video game consoles, servers,

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supercomputers and more. The Linux OS is frequently

packaged as a
Linux distribution for both desktop and server use, and
includes the
Linux kernel (the core of the operating system) as well
as supporting
tools and libraries. Popular Linux OS
include Debian, Ubuntu, Fedora, Red Hat and
Unix Operating System:
multitasking operating system developed at Bell Labs
in the early 1970s. Created by just a handful of
programmers, UNIX was designed to be a small,
flexible system used exclusively by programmers.
UNIX was one of the first operating systems to be
written in a high-level programming language, namely
C. This meant that it could be installed on virtually any
computer for which a C compiler existed. This natural
portability combined with its low price made it a
popular choice among universities. (It was inexpensive
because antitrust regulations prohibited Bell Labs from
marketing it as a full-scale product.)
Bell Labs distributed the operating system in its source
language form, so anyone who obtained a copy could
modify and customize it for his own purposes. By the
end of the 1970s, dozens of different versions of UNIX
were running at various sites.
After its breakup in 1982, AT&T began to market UNIX
in earnest. It
also began the long and difficult process of defining a

version of UNIX.

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Due to its portability, flexibility, and power, UNIX has

become a leading operating system for workstations.
Historically, it has been less popular in the personal
computer market.
Today, the trademarked "Unix" and the "Single UNIX
Specification" interface are owned by The Open Group.
An operating system that is certified by The Open
Group to use the UNIX trademark conforms to the
Single UNIX Specification.
According to the Open Group's Web site, "As the owner
of the UNIX trademark, The Open Group has separated
the UNIX trademark from any actual code stream itself,
thus allowing multiple implementations. Since the
introduction of the Single UNIX Specification, there has
been a single, open, consensus specification that
defines the requirements for a conformant UNIX
system. There is also a mark, or brand, that is used to
identify those products that have been certified as
conforming to the Single UNIX Specification, initially
UNIX 93, followed subsequently by UNIX 95, UNIX 98
and now UNIX 03. Both the specification and the UNIX
trade mark are managed and held in trust for the
industry by The Open Group."

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Mobile operating
A mobile operating system (or mobile OS) is an
operating system for smart phones, tablets, PDAs, or
other mobile devices. While computers such as the
typical laptop are mobile, the operating systems
usually used on them are not considered mobile ones
as they were originally designed for bigger stationary
desktop computers that historically did not have or
need specific "mobile" features. This distinction is
getting blurred in some newer operating systems that
are hybrids made for both uses.
Mobile operating systems combine features of a
personal computer operating system with other
features useful for mobile or handheld use; usually
including, and most of the following considered
essential in modern mobile systems; a touch screen,
cellular, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, GPS mobile navigation,
camera, video camera, speech recognition, voice
recorder, music player, near field communication and
infrared blaster.
capabilities (e.g. smart phones ) contain two mobile
operating systems the main user-facing software
platform is supplemented by a second low-level
proprietary real-time operating system which operates
the radio and other hardware. Research has shown that
these low-level systems may contain a range of
security vulnerabilities permitting malicious base
stations to gain high levels of control over the mobile
Much like the Linux or Windows operating system
controls your desktop or laptop computer, a mobile
operating system is the software platform on top of
which other programs can run on mobile devices.
A mobile operating system, also called a mobile OS, is

an operating system that is specifically designed to

run on mobile devices such as
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mobile phones, smartphones, PDAs, tablet computers

and other handheld devices.
The operating system is responsible for determining
the functions and features available on your device,
such as thumbwheel, keyboards, WAP, synchronization
with applications, email, text messaging and more.
The mobile OS will also determine which third-party
applications (mobile apps) can be used on your device.
Types of Mobile Operating Systems
When you purchase a mobile device the manufacturer
will have chosen the operating system for that specific
device. Often, you will want to learn about the mobile
operating system before you purchase a device to
ensure compatibility and support for the mobile
applications you want to use.

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10 Popular Mobile Operating

1. Android OS (Google Inc.)
The Android mobile operating system is Google's open
and free software stack that includes an operating
system, middleware and also key applications for use
on mobile devices, including smartphones. Updates for
the open source Android mobile operating system have
been developed under dessert-inspired codenames
(Cupcake, Donut, Eclair, Gingerbread, Honeycomb, Ice
Cream Sandwich) with each new version arriving in
alphabetical order with new enhancements and
2. Bada (Samsung Electronics)
Bada is a proprietary Samsung mobile OS that was first
launched in 2010. The Samsung Wave was the first
smartphone to use this mobile OS. Bada provides
mobile features such as multipoint-touch, 3D graphics
and of course, application downloads and installation.
Did You Know? In the computer industry, proprietary
is the opposite of open. A proprietary design or
technique is one that is owned by a company. It also
implies that the company has not divulged
specifications that would allow other companies to
duplicate the product.
3. BlackBerry OS (Research In Motion)
The BlackBerry OS is a proprietary mobile operating
system developed by Research In Motion for use on
the companys popular
BlackBerry handheld devices. The BlackBerry platform
is popular with corporate users as it offers
synchronization with Microsoft Exchange, Lotus
Domino, Novell GroupWise email and other business
software, when used with the BlackBerry Enterprise

4. iPhone OS / iOS (Apple)

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Apple's iPhone OS was originally developed for use on

its iPhone devices. Now, the mobile operating system
is referred to as iOS and is supported on a number of
Apple devices including the iPhone, iPad, iPad 2 and
iPod Touch. The iOS mobile operating system is
available only on Apple's own manufactured devices as
the company does not license the OS for third-party
hardware. Apple iOS is derived from Apple's Mac OS X
operating system.
Editors Pick: Need help understanding Apple mobile
devices? Webopedias iPhone, iPhone 3G, and iPhone
3G S - What's The Difference? article will help you get
5. MeeGo OS (Nokia and Intel)
A joint open source mobile operating system which is
the result of merging two products based on open
source technologies: Maemo (Nokia) and Moblin (Intel).
MeeGo is a mobile OS designed to work on a number of
devices including smartphones, netbooks, tablets, invehicle information systems and various devices using
Intel Atom and ARMv7 architectures.
6. Palm OS (Garnet OS)
The Palm OS is a proprietary mobile operating system
(PDA operating system) that was originally released in
1996 on the Pilot 1000 handheld. Newer versions of
the Palm OS have added support for expansion ports,
new processors, external memory cards, improved
security and support for ARM processors and
smartphones. Palm OS 5 was extended to provide
support for a broad range of screen resolutions,
wireless connections and enhanced multimedia
capabilities and is called Garnet OS.
7. Symbian OS (Nokia)
Symbian is a mobile operating system (OS) targeted at
mobile phones that offers a high-level of integration
management (PIM) functionality. Symbian OS combines
middleware with wireless communications through an
integrated mailbox and the integration of Java and PIM

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(agenda and contacts). Nokia has made the Symbian

platform available under an alternative, open and
direct model, to work with some OEMs and the small
community of platform development collaborators.
Nokia does not maintain Symbian as an open source
development project.
8. webOS (Palm/HP)
WebOS is a mobile operating system that runs on the
Linux kernel. WebOS was initially developed by Palm as
the successor to its Palm OS mobile operating system.
It is a proprietary Mobile OS which was eventually
acquired by HP and now referred to as webOS (lowercase w) in HP literature. HP uses webOS in a number of
devices including several smartphones and HP
TouchPads. HP has pushed its webOS into the
enterprise mobile market by focusing on improving
security features and management with the release of
webOS 3.x. HP has also announced plans for a version
of webOS to run within the Microsoft Windows
operating system and to be installed on all HP desktop
and notebook computers in 2012.
9. Windows Mobile (Windows Phone 7)
Windows Mobile is Microsoft's mobile operating system
used in smartphones and mobile devices with or
without touchscreens. The Mobile OS is based on the
Windows CE 5.2 kernel. In 2010 Microsoft announced a
new smartphone platform called Windows Phone 7.

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Job Descriptions &
When you receive a job description from your
manager for finding the candidates, it is very
important for you to understand the job description
really well so that what you are finding is the right
resource in the organization he/she is getting
recruited for so to easily understand what is job all
about we have divided the job description into R T L
R: Role T: Technology L: Level & D:
In every organization roles would differ from each
other for instance x company can give a role of a
programmer to a person and the same person If gets
offer from y company they can give him analyst as a
role. The important aspects are technology, level and
domain while you are looking to screen the description
as well as the candidates for the positions.
Domain Knowledge is having full or partial knowledge
on a particular subject or thing. Those who have full
knowledge about a subject (anything) can be called as
a SME (Subject Matter Expert).
Few Domain names are:
Financial | Banking | Educational| Insurance | Health
Care | Logistics |

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Different Roles within

Development, Testing,
Administration, Infrastructure,
Project management & ERP


Testin Admini Infrast Projec

trator cture e
Hands- Technic
Technic SAP
Manage Oracle

Forms ,
, App



Networ People

oft People
ode ,


Manage nal

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Perfor PeopleS Unix/Lin

mance oft DBA ux
Manual Sybase p
Tester DBA
Autom Teradat


The above diagram shows how a developer

starts his careers and
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The above diagram shows how a Tester

starts his career and

The above diagram shows how a

Administrator starts his
career and hierarchy
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The above diagram shows how an Analyst

starts his career and

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Exercise on RTLD:
Lead Java Developer
Location : Dallas, TX
Duration : Full time / Permanent
Client : Wipro
End Client : Bank of America
Should have 8+ years of overall experience
in Java
Must have Hibernate, Java, J2EE
Related, Eclipse & Applications Development
Hands on experience with Oracle.
Familiar with Agile concepts

Ability to multi-task in a fast paced

development environment.

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Resume 1

Resume 2
The difference between resume 1 & 2 is resume 1 have
more experience and resume 2 exactly matches the
job description, Resume2 over qualifies the job and the
client will not be interested hiring him for a higher
salary. So presenting candidate with all those relevant
qualification is the key for a closure.
From the above profiles below are the RTLDs
Role: Developer
Technology: Sun Java Technologies
Level: Junior, Mid, Senior
Domain: Automotive, Banking, Manufacturing, Retail,

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Technical Glossary for IT
All you need to know about staffing terms that will help
you learn and grow yourself in this industry, As a
recruitment consultant one must be aware of all the
terms so as to be a consultative person to clients as
well as candidates on these aspects.
Contingency Placement The practice of charging
a fee to either the applicant or the employer only after
a successful referral of the applicant to the employer
for employment. (See also: Retained Search.)
Contingency Recruiting (Search) Refers to
senior-level recruitment or executive-level searches
most likely undertaken by an executive search firm.
The executive search firm takes responsibility for the
initial recruiting, screening and interviewing with
payment of all (or most) of the fee contingent on the
hiring of a referred candidate into a traditional
employment role. (See also: Retained Search)
Contingent Work/Worker Used to describe work
arrangements that differ from regular/permanent,
direct wage and salary employment. Contingent
workers most often include temporary employees
provided by an outside staffing agency and
workers may also include temporary workers from an
internal pool, and others (such as summer interns)
employed directly by an organization for an

intentionally limited time period. They do not include

work done by
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consulting firms or by part-time regular employees,

and are primarily distinguished by an explicitly defined
Self-employed individuals should only be defined as
contingent workers if they provide themselves as
contract labor to other organizations. Otherwise, they
should not be included in the contingent workforce,
because they may have stable occupations or careers
that are clearly not conditional. Workers in Professional
Employer Organization (see definition) arrangements
are not contingent workers, because the relationship is
by definition ongoing. Outsourcing also falls outside of
the contingent work definition, because it defines a
vendor-supplier relationship, not an employer-worker
The contingent worker label applies to all workers of
any skill type or experience level who meet this
definition, including those in professional, blue-collar,
or office/clerical roles.
Contractor An individual hired to deliver a specified
service as laid out in a contract. In some organizations
this term is used interchangeably with temporary
employee to refer to individuals employed by a
temporary staffing firm, typically at a professional
Direct Hire A term commonly used to refer to
services provided by a staffing agency related to
helping an organization obtain an employee to work on
their payroll as opposed to temporary staffing
relationship where the employee is typically working

on the staffing firms payroll. (See also: Permanent

Placement, Placement.)
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Managed Services/Managed Staffing Term used

to describe facilities support management and
outsourcing services. Refers to the on-site supervision
or management of a function or department at a client
(customer) site on an ongoing, indefinite basis. In the
world of temporary staffing, these arrangements are
also known as managed service providers (MSPs).
Managed Service Provider (MSP) A company
that takes on primary responsibility for managing an
organizations contingent workforce program. Typical
responsibilities of an MSP include overall program
management, reporting and tracking, supplier
selection and management, order distribution and
often consolidated billing. The vast majority of MSPs
also provide their clients with a vendor management
system (VMS) and may have a physical presence on
the clients site. An MSP may or may not be
independent of a staffing supplier.
Master Supplier A staffing supplier that takes
overall responsibility for providing clients with
temporary staff. In a master supplier relationship, all
orders will usually go first to the master supplier to
either be filled or distributed to secondary suppliers.
Sometimes a master supplier will not only provide a
significant portion of the temporary staff working at
the employers site but also manage an organizations
contingent workforce program. Also known as Master
Vendor. (See also: Vendor on Premises.)
On-boarding The process of bringing a worker into
a position with a goal of providing all necessary tools
to be productive as soon as possible. On-boarding can

apply to permanent hires as well as

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contingent workers. May include training, seat

assignments, equipment requirements and other
steps. Many ATSs and VMSs include on-boarding
On-site Vendored or outsourced services provided
to the client (customer) via supplier personnel located
at the client site.
On-site Management Management of a
department or function by the supplier at the clients
site. (See also: Managed
Services/Managed Staffing.)
On-site Supervision Supervision by the supplier at
the clients
Partnering Long-term commitments focusing on
win-win relationships between customers and
suppliers (or among suppliers) that add value to both
parties through increased sales, reduced expenses,
and/or greater productivity.
Payrolling As it relates to contingent staffing,
payrolling is the provision of longer-term temporary
workers to a customer where the workers have been
recruited (possibly interviewed, tested and approved)
by the customer but become, in effect, employees of
the supplier providing the payroll services.
This may occur in an instance when only the customer
has the proper knowledge and experience to properly
evaluate potential workers. Often the payrolling
arrangements are temporary in nature and usually

only involve a specific client function or position, not

all or a significant portion of a clients workforce as in
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leasing. Payrolling services are typically billed at

significantly lower markups than traditional temporary
staffing because the staffing firm has not incurred any
recruiting costs.
Per Diem Daily living expenses paid to technical,
travel nurses, or other skilled temporary or contract
employees while they are employed at a distant
location requiring housing away from home, or during
a period while they are relocating.
Can also refer to billing by the day (instead of hourly
billing) or shorthand for nurses provided on a daily
basis rather than a travel basis.
Perm Short for permanent, usually permanent
Permanent Placement The bringing together of a
job seeker and a prospective employer for the purpose
of effecting a traditional employment relationship, for a
fee. Also refers to the process of arranging such a
relationship. This term is now falling out of favor
because the use of permanent can connote a
guarantee of employment that is generally misleading
for a typical at-will employee. (See also: Direct Hire.)
Placement Agency An employment agency that
seeks to refer applicants seeking employment to
employers seeking employees. A fee is charged either
to the employer or the applicant (rarely) after a
successful referral.
Placement Fee The fee due to an agency when a
referred candidate is hired by a direct employer,

typically in the range of 15%

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to 35% of annual salary. Fee calculations are usually

based on salary
one months salary, a fixed percentage (e.g., 20% of
annual salary), or a percentage that increases with the
salary level (e.g., 1% per thousand).
Placement Services Services provided by a
staffing service to an organization to locate a properly
skilled employee with the ultimate goal of a traditional
direct hire employer-employee relationship with the
client; may include temp-to-perm services. (See also:
Planned Staffing Contracting for the regular use of
temporaries to handle peak production periods,
seasonal activities or special projects. May involve the
supplementation of a customers traditional workforce,
or the provision of a temporary workforce to handle a
project that occurs periodically. (The concept of
Planned Staffing differs from Facilities Staffing in
that planned staffing refers to cyclical or intermittent
staffing needs, while facilities staffing refers to the
process of planning turnover in a continuous
function. However, as might be expected, these terms
are often used interchangeably.)
Professional Staffing A segment of temporary
staffing that includes workers in IT/technical,
engineering, accounting and finance, legal, sales and
marketing, and managerial functions, among others.
This segment contrasts to commercial (or traditional)
staffing. While there is common consensus on how to
categorize the highest and lowest skilled workers,
there is a blurring of boundaries when it comes to

medium skilled/middle management roles. Within

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these categories (such as sales & marketing, nursing,

social care, and HR), what some people call
professional staffing, others might call commercial
staffing. Such variation exists among the categories
used by different national staffing associations to
estimate the size and growth of their respective
markets. (See also: Specialist Staffing.)
Recruitment Process Outsourcing (RPO) A
category of human resource outsourcing applying
specifically to recruitment matters. Typically involves
an organization taking on responsibility for all or most
parts of an organizations recruiting process for direct
hire employees.
Retained Search Service provided by an executive
search firm to locate a candidate for a specific position
at a client company. Fee is payable whether or not a
hire is made. (See also: Contingency Recruiting.)
Specialist Staffing/Specialty Staffing A term
used as an alternative to Professional Staffing, i.e., a
segment of temporary staffing that includes workers in
IT/technical, engineering, accounting and finance,
legal, sales and marketing, and managerial functions,
among others. (See also: Professional Staffing.)
Statement of Work (SOW) A document that
captures the work products and services, including, but
not limited to: the work activities and deliverables to
be supplied under a contract or as part of a project
timeline. In contrast to a typical temp or contingent
work arrangement which is billed based on time
worked, SOW

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agreements are usually billed based on a fixed price

deliverable or for hitting specific milestones. Like
typical contingent arrangements, they may also be
billed based on time, including arrangements where
there is a time-based billing that is capped at some
not to exceed level for time and materials (See also:
Statement of Work
(SOW) Consultant.)
Statement of Work (SOW) Consultant Any
consultant performing work on a project under a
Statement of Work (SOW) arrangement. In contrast to
agency consultants, SOW consultants are typically, but
not always given a regular, consistent salary by their
employer and continue to receive this salary when off
project assignments (i.e., benched resource). While
SOW consultants are typically employed by consulting
firms, a host of technology and other staffing firms
have also entered the solutions space for its greater
premium margins (the theory being that you are
paying for the firms proven methodology and
chemistry of the team). At times
rogue managers have used an SOW arrangement in
order to avoid restrictions on the use of temporary
workers or agency consultants (See also: Statement of
Strategic Staffing The pre-planned use of
alternative or flexible staffing strategies by the
customer. May include the use of temp-to-perm hiring,
planned temporary staffing for work cycle peaks or
projects, or payrolling, for example.
Structured Tiers Selection of multiple suppliers in

a specific priority, usually based on pricing level,

combined with size and capacity.
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Supplemental Staffing The provision of temporary

workers to a client company to supplement the current
workforce for peak loads, special projects, or planned
and unplanned worker absences. Also describes the
regular practice of using contract healthcare staff in
hospitals and other medical institution settings.
Temporary Staffing A segment of the staffing
industry that provides temporary help and related
staffing services to businesses and other clients. The
temporary staff provided are recruited, screened,
possibly trained, and employed by the temporary
organizations . Although the customer typically
assumes supervisory responsibility for these workers,
in certain service arrangements coordination or
supervisory functions may be provided by the supplier.
Temp-to-Direct See Temporary-to-Permanent.
Temp-to-Hire See Temporary-to-Permanent.

Transition of a temporary worker to permanent

employment status. This may be on an ad hoc reactive
basis where an employer finds that a temporary worker
can fulfill a permanent job vacancy or a more formal
employment service concept where a client company
proactively plans to make a traditional hiring decision
during or after a temporary help assignment. In a
temp-to-perm situation, only temporary workers who
are also seeking a similar type of traditional job would
be sent on the assignment. The term is falling out of
favor due to aversion to the use of permanent when

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referring to a typical at-will employment situation.

The fee for transitioning a temporary worker in this
way would normally be charged at a discount to the
staffing companys standard permanent placement fee
and normally related to the length of time the
temporary has been assigned to the client. Temp-toperm fees may be subject to legislation in certain
European jurisdictions. (Other terms used to describe
this process are temp-to-direct, temp-to-hire, trybefore-hire or try-before-buy.)
Vendor Management/Supplier Management A
comprehensive approach to managing an enterprises
interactions with the organizations that supply the
goods and services it uses. Vendor management
includes both business practices and software (e.g.
VMS) and attempts to streamline and make more
effective the processes between an enterprise and its
Vendor Management System (VMS) An Internetenabled, often Web-based application that acts as a
mechanism for business to manage and procure
staffing services (temporary help as well as, in some
cases, permanent placement services) as well as
outside contract or contingent labor. Typical features of
a VMS include order distribution, consolidated billing
and significant enhancements in reporting capability
over manual systems and processes.

Vendor on Premises (VOP) On-site coordination

of a customers temporary help services through an
exclusive, long-term general contractor relationship

with a temporary help company. The designated

vendor on premise may enter into subcontracting
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relationships with other temporary help suppliers, or

such relationships may be specified by the customer.

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Boolean Tactics, Boolean
Operators &
What is Boolean Logic?
Types of Boolean
The Boolean Operators / The Boolean Modifiers
The Boolean Operators
The Boolean Modifiers
Basic Boolean Operators/Modifiers Explained
Boolean search works based on logic
Boolean Logic
As a recruiter it is paramount that we endeavor
(make an effort) to make our Web searches more
sophisticated, effective, and streamlined. Effectively
utilizing Boolean searching is the way we accomplish
this goal for both online web searches and for
archived resume/profile databases. In this session,
we'll talk about the origins of Boolean terminology,
how Boolean search really works, and look at specific
examples of this incredibly easy to use and logical
search system.
Boolean logic is named after George Boole (18151864), an obscure nineteenth century English
mathematician. Boole invented a new form of algebra
in which values are either true or false. His binary logic
is the foundation of digital circuit design and a part of
the language of internet search engines. Dont worry you dont have to remember high school algebra to
make Boolean logic work.

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Most online databases (Monster, CareerBuilder, Dice,

etc.) and search engines (Google, Bing, Yahoo, etc.)
support Boolean searches. Boolean search techniques
can be used to carry out effective searches, cutting out
many unrelated documents and highlighting the
information you need.

Types of Boolean
() Brackets/Parentheses
Quotation Marks
* Asterisk (Wildcard Symbol)
NOT (sometimes AND NOT)

The Boolean Operators / The Boolean

Quotation Marks
( ) Brackets/Parentheses
* Asterisk (Wildcard Symbol)

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AND is the simplest function to apply. Any search
terms that follow an AND command must appear in
the result. For example:
Engineer AND Senior Developer
Will give results that include both the word engineer
and the phrase
Senior Developer. All search results will include
both, and any CVs that have either Engineer or
Senior Developer (but not both) will not appear.
Use OR between terms to search for resumes that
contain either word surrounding it.
Usage of the OR command allows you to create a list
of possibilities for which only one match is important.
For example, the following search phrase would give
you results that contain one or more of the stated
Engineer or Senior Developer
Boolean Operator # 3: NOT (sometimes AND
NOT is the command of exclusion. If there are closely
related terms that mean very different things, then
usage of the NOT command is extremely valuable. An
example could be as follows:
architect NOT software architect

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This would give you results that contain the word

architect, but leaving out any that use the phrase
software architects. Very useful if you are
operating in the construction industry.
The one major limitation with the NOT command
is that it isnt recognized by Google.
Boolean Operator # 4: NEAR
Returns pages in your search string with both terms
within close proximity to each other on the page.
Usually within ten words or less.
The "near" operator indicates that the search
words you have entered must appear within a
certain number of words of each other (usually
between one and 20).
For example, a search for " Sales near Management
would turn up results in which the two words appear
close together.
Boolean Modifier # 1: Quotation Marks
Use (quotation marks) around multiple terms
to search for resumes that include the term
included in quotes. For example,
UNIX programmer will return resumes that include
that specific term, rather than separate occurrences
of the two words. As You will have noticed that I have
used the expression above in some examples
already, wrapped around particular keywords.
Boolean Modifier # 2: ( ) Brackets/Parentheses
Using brackets is essential for complex search strings,
and it can be their application that causes the most
confusion. Essentially, a clause within brackets is given
priority over other elements around it. The most
common place that brackets are applied by recruiters
is in the use of OR strings. Perhaps a good example
would be company names. You have a list of target

companies from where you wish to

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find your talent, and a candidate can have worked

at any one (or ideally several) of them. You might
initially construct a command like this:
IBM OR Oracle OR Red Hat OR Microsoft
These are all large companies though, so any search
like this is likely to generate a large number of results.
If you wanted to find just individuals who have
reached Manager or Director level, then you might use
the following command:
Manager OR Director
To combine both commands into one search, we use
brackets to tell the search engine that these are
separate conditions. In order to tell the search engine
that we want to see results containing either Manager
or Director and also one of IBM, Oracle, Red Hat, or
Microsoft, we group them like this:
(Manager OR Director) AND (IBM OR Oracle OR
Red Hat OR
It makes no difference which order the two bracketed
sections go; the same results will result either way.
Boolean Modifier # 3: * wild card symbol
The asterisk can replace one or more letters at the
end of a word. This might help you search for
something that can be phrased differently.
Example: Develop* (would retrieve pages with
the words Developer, Developing,
Development etc.)
Although Boolean logic is a very effective tool to assist
you with your searches. There are other factors you
must keep in mind. The search terms you use are just
as important as the Boolean logic. If a search is
proving unproductive, maybe there are synonyms to
some of the search terms? Are there different job titles
for this position?

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Play with different combinations of search terms

and see what results you get. It is not uncommon
to have to run four to six different search term
combinations to find the right resumes.
From my experience over the years I would say only
about 50% - 60% of recruiters are aware of Boolean
Logic and use it when conducting searches. Boolean
Logic can increase your edge in terms of speed and
efficiency of sourcing resumes online. Use it and your
already putting yourself ahead of half your recruiting
Here I will try to explain how to use Boolean operators
effectively to extract most suitable profiles from
resume database.
Here are two cases out of which I will take one and
make an effective search string using Boolean
operators. You can take the other case or think of a
case on your own and try to use Boolean operators
for it. This will help you learn it better.
Case 1: We are searching for candidates with Core
Java and Multi Threading skills and Unix / Linux /
Solaris platform experience but he should not have
worked in telecom or networking domain.
Case 2: We are looking for Project Managers in
insurance domain but he should have retail
experience not institutional or corporate sales.

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Here, I will take the 1st case:

If we put a search - Corejava AND multithreading,
we will find profiles where all these words are
mentioned i.e.: all the candidates might have
worked on corejava, multithreading
Now the problem is - there may be many profiles
where people would have written corejava as core
java and multithreading as multi threading or
multi-threading. We dont want to miss any of
them. So how do we accommodate them? Here OR
function comes handy. We can change our search
string to - (Corejava
OR Core java) AND (multithreading OR multi
threading OR multi-threading).
But we are looking for people who have worked
either unix or linux or solaris platform. So now the
string becomes (Corejava
OR core java) and (multithreading OR multi
threading OR multi-threading) and (unix OR
linux OR solaris).
Now we are looking for people who have worked in
core java, multithreading in unix/linux/solaris
platform but he should not be from telecom or
networking background.
So the search string we can use is (CoreJava OR
core java)
AND (multithreading OR multi threading OR
multi-threading) AND (Unix OR Linux OR
Solaris) AND NOT (telecom
OR networking)
Now this is a strong Boolean search string which
covers all the aspects of the case. Here the results
will be lesser in number yet most relevant - exactly
what we want.
As I told you earlier, only reading will not do. Take

an example and try using the Boolean operators

one by one. Look at the
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results and analyze them. You will find out the

pattern very soon.

Whenever searching for any skill try to put all the
alternatives a candidate could have used to
mention that skills set i.e.
(multithreading OR multi threading OR
multi threading). This will make your search
more robust.
You have mentioned NOT X where you dont want
people who have worked on X skill. Here the search
will remove every resume where X is mentioned even
once . As a result you may miss some people who
have worked in your required skill sets and casually
written X once or twice somewhere in there resumes.
So before putting NOT operator, think of all the
Boolean operators are not as complicated as they are
thought to be. After all you have to learn only 5
operators. Remember how many formulas we used to
practice in math class in school!
Portal or internal database have huge number of
resume of all skill sets. So the key lies in finding the
right resume quickly. Strong Boolean skill will help
you achieve that.

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Sourcing Tips, Sites &
Social Media
Some important sites & implications:

1. JobGram Welcome to Jobgram. On-brand and

targeted infographic, visual, and rich media job
ads from the worlds leading employers.
Jobgram pass it on! Send visually
engaging job opportunity straight to the
2. PinTheJob Wouldnt you like your job ads
transformed into share worthy piece of
infographic art? Simply post us the link to the
job ad or just upload the job description below
and we will send you the draft of the
jobgraphic accompanied with an offer soon.
Vine (Apple app) Create short, beautiful,
looping videos.
Most Wanted Social Recruiting Referral Tool.
5. Colleague Internet Explorer Add-on (Internet
Explorer add-on) Recruiter search tool for
Internet Explorer and page parser.
6. If This Then That IFTTT is a service that
lets you create powerful connections with
one simple statement, if this then that.
Crowdbooster Crowdbooster offers social
media analytics with suggestions and tools to help you
improve your online presence.
8. Customer Engagement Bar
and Analytics with Each Shared Link.
9. SocialBro With SocialBro you can manage
and analyze your Twitter Community.

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10.Google Alerts Google Alerts are email

updates of the latest relevant Google results
(web, news, etc.), based on your queries.
11.Bottlenose The next-evolution of social
media listening and analytics.
12.Twitter Feed Offers to tweet the last posts
published in a blog via the RSS feed.
13.Falcon (Chrome Add-on) Rich contact details
within your browser.
Rapportive Rich contact profiles right inside
15.Microsoft Outlook Social Connector With
the all-new Outlook Social Connector, you
can expand your social networks and stay
up to date without leaving Outlook.
16.Lookup by Talent Bin (Apple app) Quickly and
easily look up professional and social
information about friends, colleagues, and
business contacts with this intuitive people
search engine.
Social Mention Real-time social media search
and analysis.
18. HootSuite Assignment (Chrome add-on) Quickly
and easily assign Tweets and Facebook messages
to team members within your organization by
using Assignments (by
Sprout Social Engage, Publish & Analyze


20.Buffer -Easily add great articles, pictures

and videos to your Buffer and we
automatically share them for you through
the day.
21.WhoWorks.At Discover your connections
while you browse the web.
22.Statigram Instagram client online: Great
web viewer, social analytics, tools for
contests & brand community management.
Webstagram Another Instagram web viewer.

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Linkedn Signal Search over LinkedIn updates.

25.Job Change Notifier Get an email alert
whenever any of your LinkedIn connections
gets a new job, leaves their current one, or
gets promoted.


1. Lippl
Lippl allows you to quickly uncover LinkedIn profiles
network, email addresses, and find
out if your prospective candidates have anything in
common with your Facebook friends.
2. Facebook You can post a job for free in the
Facebook Marketplace. The ad requires basic
information such as location, job category,
subcategory, title, why you need to fill this
position, description and if you want to post
your photo with the job posting or another
3. Facebook Pages
A lot of the times, the best candidates are your
biggest brand fans; those who follow your social
media accounts, and love and engage with your
brand. Use your facebook page to find people both
active and interested in your field or that would be

interested in your available position.

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Find passionate experts in your field who love
putting themselves out there. is a social
network where people create pages about
themselves, their thoughts, passions and
epertise. . Youll also get a feel of the persons
personality by viewing their own personal website
5. BranchOut
Branch out allows you to turn Facebook into
BranchOut overlays employer information on top of
Facebook interface, which allows recruiters search
by company, job title, or even an individuals name!
BranchOut then displays relevant candidates based
on your search criteria and your connections to
those candidates. Because of its use of
Facebooks API, BranchOut can claim it allows
access to 800 million searchable profiles.
6. Instagram
If youre looking specifically for team culture then
using Instagram to look for your next hire may be the
perfect tool! There was recently a fun story going
around the Internet about a young college grad being
offered her dream job via an Instagram picture. She
followed ePrize throughout her college career and they
followed her right back. The company was able to get a
feel of her work, photography, and attitude. In turn,
she was able to get a feel for the company culture and
employer brand.

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7. Streak CRM
Streak is a handy tool that you can use in your inbox to
manage the entire recruiting process, from prospect
to close. Track your applicants where you talk to them
in your email. Streak builds on your existing email
habits to create an easy and efficient experience.

6. Twitter
39% of all job seekers are on Twitter and 8 million
Twitter users have credited Twitter as a source of
landing their current job. Top employers around the
globe, including Disney, are also engaging prospective
employees through Twitter. By retweeting relevant
news and using Twitter hashtags quite well, employers
are able to engage with prospective candidates
increase their job ads reach.
7. HireRabbit
HireRabbit makes it easy to recruit on social media
platforms such as Facebook and Twitter. HireRabbit
allows you to combine your career site and Facebook
page into one, making it easy for candidates to find
and apply for your jobs.
8. LinkedIn
Comprising of 130 different industries, and well over
100,000 recruiters, LinkedIn is by far the largest social
platform of professionals. Employers can use LinkedIn
in a number of different

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ways to find employees including: searching by

employer (current/past), using InMail, purchasing
advertising, and networking.

LinkedIn can also develop and expand a personal

network of professionals to whom the employer or
recruiter can send a request for a referral of a
recommended candidate for a particular job opening.
9. Jobvite
Jobvite is the leading social recruiting and applicant
tracking system for companies with the highest
expectations in recruiting software. Jobvite maximises
the reach of your ad via social media, friend and
network referrals, and even mobile apps. With Jobvite
you can turn your social followers to potential
candidates and build relationships.
10. Evernote
Social recruiters are always working on the go
evernote allows you to access all of your notes and
resources wherever you are. You can create to-do-lists,
meeting notes, recruiting strategies, notes on
candidates during interviews etc.

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X-Ray Search LinkedIn & More ~


There are lots of tools available in the market free and

premium, one of the best tool that is available in the
market for free is Recruitin that allows you to search
candidates on Stackoverflow, Github, Xing, LinkedIn,
Google+ & Twitter. One of the hardest and repetitive
job as a recruiter we do is creating search string or
boolean operators for each platform which is a time
consuming process. This tool is easy to use and simple
enough to find candidates on the platforms by
automating the process of creating the search string.
The history:
One fine summers day, Maebellyne was working as a
contractor at a recruitment agency trying to find
suitable candidates on LinkedIn, but was hindered by
LinkedIns limit of one hundred results and only seeing
3rd degree contacts.
Being a digital native (someone who doesnt get out
much), she realised that Google already had tens of
millions of LinkedIn profiles available for free. She
immediately got to work building clever boolean
queries to find her candidates, with great success.
This tool is a simple way to construct the very same
boolean queries (and a few more), but with the benefit
of a nice simple interface.

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Who built it
RecruitEm is a project by Clever Biscuit a small but
highly caffeinated development team dedicated to
building online tools
that help people. Its entirely free and anonymous and
not in any
way shape or form associated with LinkedIn, which is a
trademark of the LinkedIn Corporation.
LinkedIn provided a professional platform to connect
with people around the globe on a single platform, as
the product evolved so are the features, recently it
started your views limit a month by allowing you to
view 30 pages a month and furtherly if you want to see
you have to upgrade. As a recruiter we happen to
search and view 100s of profiles each day for our
clients and one of the reason recruiter get discouraged
to use this tool these days and the news is LinkedIn is
in big loss of money in billion. (LinkedIn sheds $11
billion in value on stocks worst day since debut)
Stack Overflow : Stack Overflow is a question and
programmers. Its built and run by programmers as
part of the Stack Exchange network of Q&A sites. With
their help, were working together to build a library of
Github : GitHub is how people build software. With a
community of
more than 12 million people, developerscan discover,
use, and contribute to over 31 million projects using a
powerful collaborative
development workflow.

As a recruitment professional you must focus on creating your

own self brand in which you should attract, engage and pipeline

138 | P a g e

talent for your clients. It is very important that you build your own
identity and with your identity your organization will get
Below listed tools, add-ons and platforms are some researched
based self-help material you might also find some more similar
type of tools while you do research about it on the internet.

Rapportive ( by LinkedIn) finds online profiles
based on an entered email address. Rapportive shows
you everything about your contacts right inside your
Discoverly A tool to navigate your social data,
making you more productive personally and
professionally. see contacts social profiles in Gmail
FullContact Tap into the power of FullContact
from your devices to easily access the contact
information and insights you need to make connections
on the go. Also add-on for Gmail plus they also have a
site com, where you can upload lists of email
addresses and social contacts. They have accumulated
an enormous database of contact and social data.
Prophet Prophet reveals more information
about people. Install our extension in your Chrome
browser and get the power to uncover emails, phones
and other social sites for most any social profile.
Prophet goes beyond what can be found on
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the web by using an advanced engine to predict and

verify contact information. With Prophet, the web is
your address book. tries to guess and verify the email
Findthatlead It works by connecting to your
Chrome browser as a plugin giving you the power to
view anyones business contact information and social
data whilst you are logged into Linkedin. A newer tool,
similar to Prophet
Clearbit Clearbit provides powerful products dat
and a
APIs to help your business grow. Contact lea
enrichment, d
generation, financial compliance, and more. Similar to
Facebook Graph

18 years as

a government computer crime investigator. During the

majority of that time, he was assigned to the FBIs
Cyber Crimes Task Force where he focused on open
source intelligence and computer crime investigations.
As an active investigator for multiple organizations, he
has been involved in numerous high-tech criminal
investigations including online child solicitation, child
abduction, kidnapping, cold-case homicide, terrorist
threats, and high level computer intrusions. He has
trained thousands of individuals in the use of his
investigative techniques.
LeadIQ LeadIQ lead capture tool helps you

find prospects 10x faster. New capture a profile,

add email and social links, save to Google drive.
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Outwit Docs Your free Webtop document
harvester. With OutWit Docs you will find text
documents, datasheets, PDF files, presentations from
multiple online sources. download manager. It can
save the documents referenced on a web page

(such as the Google search results for Excel or PDF

files); sort them by the size and date; save for
processing offline.
DownThemAll! DownThemAll is all you can
desire from a download manager: it features an
advanced accelerator that increases speed up to 4x
and it allows you to pause and resume downloads at
any time. Similar to Outwit Docs
Outwit Hub OutWit Hub explores the depths
of the Web for you, automatically collecting and
organizing data and media from online sources.
OutWit Hub breaks down Web pages into their
different constituents. Navigating from page to page
automatically, it extracts information elements and
organizes them into usable collections. An advanced
web scraping tool. It makes sense of (it parses and
collects) data shown on web pages, in cases where
there are lists of similar entries.

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Email Extractor One of many similar email

extraction tools; paste some text in the box and it will
extract email addresses
Scraper Scraper gets data out of web pages
and into spreadsheets. Scraper is a very simple (but
limited) data mining extension for facilitating online
research when you need to get data into spreadsheet
form quickly. It is intended as an easy-to-use tool for
intermediate to advanced users who are comfortable
with XPath. Get data out of pages into spreadsheets
Kimono Turn websites into
structured APIs from your browser in seconds .
Visual scraper

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Ultimate Tech Dictionary
Super technical positions can be challenging to recruit
for, especially if you dont consider yourself a
technical expert, but were here to help. In order to
build credibility with candidates, youll need to be
knowledgeable about the field they work in. Each role
youre recruiting for has a different skill set and
varying qualifications and its your job to effectively
convey them to the developer in your pitch. If you
dont know the difference between Java and JavaScript,
youre bound to fail.
Learn all about the different technology languages,
skills and roles in a way thats easy to digest and



Code Coverage



Codec (Short for

Flash Builder 4


Coder Decoder)



Front End Developer

Content Management

Full Stack Developer

JavaScript and
Amazon Web

Systems (CMS
CSS (Cascading Style G

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API (Application


ASP.NET (Active
Pages on .NET

GO / golang

Data Modeling


DBMS (Database


Management System)



HTML (HyperText


Augmented Reality


(Development +


Back End
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IIS (Internet

Big Data

Bug Tracking





ETL (Extract,

Java (rhymes with




C (Pronounced


C# (Pronounced


Sea Sharp)

JSON (JavaScript

C++ (Pronounced
Sea Plus Plus)
CAD (ComputerAided
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LAMP (Linux,
MySQL, and
Rackspace Cloud,
VBA (Visual Basic
EC2, S3


Ruby on Rails

VB (Visual Basic)

VB.NET (Visual

Lean Programming

SAN/NAS (Storage

VB6 (Visual Basic

Version 6)
Version Control

Visual Studio




Mobile Developer



Source Control

MVC (Model View

SQL (Structured

WCF Web Services



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Web developer



.NET Framework

System Administrator

Wowza Media Server



NoSQL Database




XML (Extensible


XAML (Extensible


Unit Testing

Open Source


Application Markup
User Interface (UI)

UX (User


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Software for creating and managing databases from
A type of development that calls for keeping code simple,
testing often, and delivering small, functional bits of the
application as soon as theyre ready. The focus is to build
a succession of parts, rather than delivering one large
application at the end of the project.
AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML)
A web browser development feature that allows web
pages to be more interactive and dynamic such that
content can update without requiring manual page
reloads. The X is a red herring, these days its more
common to use JSON than XML.
Amazon Web Services AWS
An Amazon-run service where a cloud of computers
can be made available on-demand. This allows you to
only pay for server capacity that you actually need
when you need it. It includes Amazon Elastic Compute
Cloud (EC2) and Amazon S3.
A mobile operating system developed by Google. It is
designed primarily for touch screen mobile devices
such as smartphones and tablets.
An open-source web application framework that
addresses many of the challenges encountered in
developing single-page applications. It aims to simplify
both the development and the testing of such
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applications by providing a framework for client-side

modelview controller (MVC) architecture, along with
components commonly used in rich Internet
A widely-used free and open-source web server
software. It is most commonly used on a Unix-like
system, and the software is available for a wide variety
of operating systems, including Windows, OS X, Linux,
Unix, FreeBSD, Solaris, NetWare, OS/2, TPF, OpenVMS
and eComStation.
API (Application Programming Interface)
A standardized module of program functionality
that provides a specific service and can be re-used
by multiple programs or developers.
Application Developer
A developer who writes standalone apps that run on
desktop and laptop computers.
ASP.NET (Active Server Pages on .NET
A framework for developing custom web server
applications on Microsoft Server Platform. The term
includes the original ASP.NET known as Webforms
and the newer ASP.NET/MVC.

Augmented Reality (AR)

A subset of graphics programming and things like
image recognition, pattern recognition, face
recognition; machine learning is also not unlikely to be

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Microsofts cloud service, a competitor to Amazon

Web Services. This is essentially a similar platform to
Amazon Web Services (AWS) and the Google cloud
Back End Developer
A developer who focuses mainly on the server side
of code for a web application. They are
knowledgeable about databases, server
internals, system administration and
used once a site reaches scale.
Big Data
A buzzword for data science which means
working with very large amounts of data.
Bug Tracking
A database or project management system for
tracking program bugs.
A program defect or erroneous behavior.
Verb = the act of compiling programs from their
source human-readable form into computer
executable format.
Noun = the final executable output form itself as a

C (Pronounced Sea)
A general purpose programming language used to
program low-level applications for
embedded applications, device drivers, operating
system kernels, etc.
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C# (Pronounced Sea Sharp)

A very common development language for ASP.NET
platform. It is a general purpose language that is
extensively used for Think Client (Silverlight) apps and
Windows (WPF) apps.
C++ (Pronounced Sea Plus Plus)
An object-oriented version of the C
programming language, commonly used for
developing desktop Windows and Linux
applications. Competes with Java, C#.
CAD (Computer-Aided Design)
A combination of hardware and software that allows
engineers to design a variety of objects.
A service of another company managing your
hardware. Using a cloud service means you dont
own your own physical hardware, and you can add
or remove servers on-demand without much up-front
One of the Apple technologies, is a programming API
for OS X.
Code Coverage
An analysis method that determines which parts of the
software have been executed (covered) by the test
case suite and which parts have not been executed
and therefore may
require additional attention.
Codec (Short for Coder Decoder)
A device or program that converts signals or content
from one form to another. Additionally, it may be used
to refer to a standard that does such activities in a
standard way. MP3 is an Audio CODEC for example.
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An Enterprise Web Development Framework sold by
Adobe Systems used for developing Web applications.
Content Management Systems (CMS)
A database for content storage that is intended to
help manage workflow and version tracking of
content. Usually used as a way to have multiple
people contributing to the content of a particular
web-site and track all those revisions and history.
CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
A way to describe the presentation and
formatting semantics separate from the actual
textual content in HTML pages.
A collection of data stored in a computer in such
a way that a program or a webpage can
easily find, select, and/or manipulate the desired
data. Typically, databases are organized by
fields, records and tables. A field is one piece of
data, a record is a collection of fields, and a
table is a collection of records.
Database Administrator
A developer who has exceptional knowledge of the
internal workings of a database server. Their primary
roles are ensuring data integrity, backup, and
performance efficiency.
Data Modeling
The analysis of data objects that are used in a
business or other context and the identification of the
relationships among these data objects.
DBMS (Database Management System)
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Software for creating, reading and writing to a

The process of finding and removing the causes of
software failures.
The process of moving compiled code (and other
items - such as images, CSS, documentation etc)
from development to production. Common to web
A person who solves technical problems and
implements them primarily by writing software.
Developers must be able to write working code.
Development Environment
The set of programming tools used to create software.
DevOps (Development + Operations)
A software development practice that emphasizes
close collaboration between software developers and
other operational teams like system administrators, or
a person who specializes in a hybrid developersysadmin role. Contrast this against the traditional
model still in use at most companies called waterfall,
Developer and Operations are given conflicting
priorities and collaboration isnt encouraged.
An open-source web framework written in Python.
A web development application. Used to create and
manage web page content and
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A free and open source Content Management System
that is written in PHP.
An Integrated Development Environment used to write
Java code.
ETL (Extract, Transform, Load)
The process of moving and transforming data between
two systems, which are usually both
very complex.
An Adobe proprietary multimedia platform for
adding animation, video and various forms of
interactivity to web applications. Normally realized as
a downloaded application that runs via
web browser client-side plug-in. Many Flash
developers are proficient in ActionScript.
Flash Builder 4
An interactive development environment for build
Adobe FLASH applications. See Flash.
Earlier versions of Flash Builder. See Flash Builder 4.

Front End Developer

A developer who focuses mainly on the part of the
application that runs in the browser. They
work directly with HTML, CSS and JavaScript.

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Full Stack Developer

A developer that can get a website live on the
internet all on their own. Requires the use of
many technologies, including a database,
operating system configuration (OS), server
a server framework, HTML, CSS and JavaScript.
A distributed source control system, where everyone
who clones a project gets the complete
history of it. It is possible to develop locally without
any dependency on a central server.
A website for hosting source code in Git. It is the
most common place to share and collaborate on
open source projects, and can also be used to host
private repositories for companies.
GO / golang
A general purpose computer language developed by
High-level Programming Language
A programming language thats designed to be easier
to read and use. Provides more abstractions from the
details of how computers work, may include natural
language keywords (e.g. making some code read like
English prose). Examples: Ruby, Python, C#.
An open-source big data framework written in Java.
HTML (HyperText Markup Language)
The language used to specify the content of web
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Stands for Integrated Development Environment.

A software application that helps developers write
code. Examples include Eclipse and Visual Studio.
A mobile operating system created and developed
by Apple for Apple hardware. It presently
powers many of their mobile devices, including the
iPhone, iPad and iPod touch.
IIS (Internet Information Server)
A software used to serve web site pages. Runs
on Microsoft Windows Server.
A vector graphics based editor, Adobe Illustrator. This
program allows graphics to be created using lines and
various structured objects. Alternatively, Adobe
Photoshop operates at the pixel level.
A companys network - not usually accessible from
outside company premises, though sometimes
such access is available via a VPN (see VPN).
Java (rhymes with lava)
An object-oriented programming language that is
philosophy. Java applications can be run securely on
any platform.
A programming language most commonly used for
client-side web browser based applications
to build interactive and dynamic web page content.
However, its popularity in server-side
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programming has been increasing lately; see

node.js. This language has no association
with Java.
A free and open source Content Management
System (CMS) for web servers written in PHP.
A cross-browser JavaScript library designed to
simplify the client-side scripting of HTML. It is
the most popular JavaScript library in use today.
JSON (JavaScript Object Notation)
A lightweight way to move data for web applications.
Its intended as a more efficient alternative
to XML when the sophistication of XML is not needed.
LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, and
A fully free and open source technology stack
usually used for development of Web Applications
on Linux platforms. LAMP is a competitor to
Microsoft ASP.NET stack with Microsoft SQL Server.
Lean Programming
A concept that emphasizes optimizing efficiency
and minimizing waste in the development of
a computer program; the concept is also applicable to
all enterprise practices. The concept
originated in manufacturing and is also known
as the Toyota approach.
A computer operating system assembled under the
model of free and open-source software
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and distribution. The word Linux is used to describe a

whole family of operating systems, the best known of
which are Ubuntu, Fedora, CentOS, and Debian.
Low-level Programming Language
A programming language that provides few abstractions
and allows programs to be written that resemble
hardware instructions. This allows for code that is
potentially harder to read but runs faster than a highlevel counterpart. Examples: Assembly, C
An open-source E-commerce content management
system written in PHP.
Mobile Developer
A developer who typically writes programs for
smartphones and tablet computers using iOS,
Android, or Windows Phone (less common).
A cross-platform, document-oriented database which
makes the integration of data in certain types of
applications easier and faster. Belongs to the family of
NoSQL databases.
MVC (Model View Controller)
A design pattern for creating a separation of
concerns where the user interface is separated from
the data and business logic of the application.
A relational database management system that is a
popular choice for use in web applications.
It is a central component of the LAMP open source
web application software stack.
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.NET Framework
A software framework developed by Microsoft that
runs primarily on Windows. Programs
written for the .NET Framework are most commonly
written in C#, but can also be written in
Visual Basic .NET, F# and several other languages.
Microsoft has recently released the .NET
framework under an open-source license.
An open-source, cross-platform runtime
environment for server-side and networking
Node.js applications are written in JavaScript.
NoSQL Database
A database that provides a mechanism for storage
and retrieval of data that is modeled in means other
than the tabular relations used in relational databases.
NoSQL databases are increasingly being used in big
data and real-time web applications. NoSQL databases
are often contrasted with more traditional relational
databases like MySQL, Postgresql, MSSQL and Oracle.
Also called a key-value database because given a
key (the item being looked up), the value (answer) is
Object-Oriented Programming
A programming model where data and code is
combined together into a logical abstraction.
A type of programming that helps improve the
structure of programs so that common
in the code could be structured more like the real
world objects they represent. Many
modern programming languages are object-oriented,
including Java, C#, Python, Perl, Ruby,
PHP, Objective-C and Swift.
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An object-oriented version of the C
programming language, commonly used on Apple
platforms including Mac OS X and iOS for iPhone and
iPad. Apples answer to C++. Also see
Swift, which was created by Apple in 2015 and
which has a good chance of mostly replacing
Objective-C in the long run.
Open Source
A program whose source code is made
available for use or modification as users or
other developers
see fit. Other terms used are Free Software and
Libre Software
(less common) and the acronyms
OSS, FOSS, and FLOSS; the difference between these
terms is mostly philosophical.
A photo editing software made by Adobe.
A scripting type programming language with
many powerful libraries. This language is
used to develop web server applications, especially
on open source platforms such as Linux.
A free and open object-relational DBMS. Used for
storing and management of data via SQL.
Competitors include Microsoft SQL, MySQL, Oracle,
A configuration management solution that allows you
to define the state of your IT infrastructure,
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and then automatically enforces the desired state.

It is primarily used on Linux and Unix
systems. Competitors include Chef, Ansible, SaltStack,
An object-oriented programming language commonly
used for web development and scripting
Rackspace Cloud, EC2, S3
An example of cloud-based computing and cloud
based storage applications.
A dynamic, reflective, object-oriented,
general-purpose programming language.
Ruby on Rails
An open-source web application framework written in
Ruby. Ruby on Rails is a MVC (model-view-controller)
framework, which provides default structures for a
database, web service
and webpages.
SAN/NAS (Storage Area Network/Network
Attached Storage)
Dedicated devices and infrastructure for
management of data intensive applications.
An object-functional programming language for
general software applications. Scala source
code is intended to be compiled to Java
bytecode, so that the resulting executable code
on a Java virtual machine.
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A development process that emphasizes
writing software in short, iterative sprints.
The person responsible for facilitating the
process is called the Scrum master.
A web-based content management system written in
Source Control
A database that tracks changes to software source
code. Common source control systems include Git,
Subversion, Team Foundation Server and Mercurial
SQL (Structured Query Language)
A (mostly) standardized syntax for accessing and
updating data in a database management system
(DBMS). Common SQL databases include MySQL,
Postgresql, Microsoft SQL Server (MSSQL) and Oracle.
The core set of technologies used to implement
solutions. Generally companies that describe
their stack are web development companies
because most standalone app and mobile
developers use a much smaller set of tools. A product
has a specific stack, but a company
can use different stacks for different products.
A modern programming language created by Apple for
iOS and OS X development.
System Administrator (sysadmin)
A person responsible for building and
maintaining server infrastructure.
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A cross-platform mobile development kit -- the idea
is that when using it you dont need specific
knowledge of iOS/Android/Windows Phone to write
apps for all three.
Unit Testing
A method by which individual units of source code
are tested to determine if they are fit for
use. A unit is the smallest testable part of an
application. The goal of unit testing is to isolate
each part of the program and show that the
individual parts are correct. A unit test provides a
strict, written contract that the piece of code must
An early operating system developed in the C
programming language. Many current operating
systems such as Linux and Mac OS X are based on
User Interface (UI)
The human interface aspect of a computer
application or device. The user interface is what the
end user/human sees and uses.
UX (User Experience) Developer
A developer that is responsible for the design and
workflows of the user-facing
part of the application.
VBA (Visual Basic for Applications)
The programming environment used to develop
application on top of the Microsoft Office
Suite such as Word, Excel, and PowerPoint.
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VB (Visual Basic)
A Microsoft Programming language. See VBA.
VB.NET (Visual Basic .NET)
A version of Visual Basic that runs on the .NET
framework and Runtime.
VB6 (Visual Basic Version 6)
A legacy Microsoft version of the BASIC programming
Version Control Systems
See Source Control
Visual Studio
An Integrated Development Environment used to
write .NET code.
Stands for Virtual Private Network. It extends a
private network across a public network, such
as the Internet.
WCF Web Services (Windows Communication
An API under Microsoft .NET for creating
service oriented applications in a distributed
Web developer
A developer who works on applications that run in the
A web-based Content Management System (CMS)
typically used for blogging. Written in
Wowza Media Server

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A commercial server built for efficiently

delivering rich media streaming content over the
like videos, images or audio files.
An IDE that contains a suite of software
development tools developed by Apple for OS
X and
XML (Extensible Markup Language)
A set of standard rules and syntax for encoding
any type of structured data. XML is commonly
used as a data interchange format in web
applications and various document types.
XAML (Extensible Application Markup
A Microsoft flavor of XML used in .NET development
of desktop or rich client applications
with WPF and Silverlight.

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Recruitment Process, Mode of
Hiring & Etc
Recruitment Process
5 Steps Involved in Recruitment
The five steps involved in recruitment process are as
follows: (i) Recruitment planning (ii) Strategy
Development (iii) Searching (iv) Screening (v)
Evaluation and Control.
These are depicted in Figure

1. Recruitment Planning:
The first step involved in the recruitment process is
planning. Here, planning involves to draft a
comprehensive job specification for the vacant
position, outlining its major and minor responsibilities;
the skills, experience and qualifications needed;
grade and level of pay; starting date; whether
temporary or permanent; and mention of special
conditions, if any, attached to the job to be filled

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2. Strategy Development:
Once it is known how many with what qualifications of
candidates are required, the next step involved in this
regard is to devise a suitable strategy for recruiting
the candidates in the organization. The strategic
considerations to be considered may include issues
like whether to prepare the required candidates
themselves or hire it from outside, what type of
recruitment method to be used, what geographical
area be considered for searching the candidates,
which source of recruitment to be practiced, and what
sequence of activities to be followed in recruiting
candidates in the organization.
3. Searching:
This step involves attracting job seekers to the
organization. There are broadly two sources used to
attract candidates.
These are:
1. Internal Sources, and
2. External Sources
These have been just discussed, in detail, under
6.3 Sources of Recruitment.
4. Screening:
Though some view screening as the starting point of
selection, we have considered it as an integral part of
recruitment. The reason being the selection process
starts only after the applications have been screened
and shortlisted. Let it be exemplified with an example.
In the Universities, applications are invited for filling
the post of Professors. Applications received in
response to invitation, i.e., advertisement are screened
and shortlisted on the basis of eligibility and suitability.
Then, only the screened applicants are invited for
seminar presentation and personal interview.

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The selection process starts from here, i.e., seminar

presentation or interview. Job specification is invaluable
in screening. Applications are screened against the
qualification, knowledge, skills, abilities, interest and
experience mentioned in the job specification. Those
who do not qualify are straightway eliminated from the
selection process. The techniques used for screening
candidates vary depending on the source of supply and
method used for recruiting. Preliminary applications,
de-selection tests and screening interviews are
common techniques used for screening the candidates.
5. Evaluation and Control:
Given the considerable cost involved in the
recruitment process, its evaluation and control is,
therefore, imperative.
The costs generally incurred in a recruitment process
(i) Salary of recruiters
(ii) Cost of time spent for preparing job analysis,
(iii)Administrative expenses
Cost of outsourcing or overtime while vacancies
remain unfilled
(v) Cost incurred in recruiting unsuitable candidates
In view of above, it is necessary for a prudent
employer to try to answer certain questions like:
whether the recruitment methods are appropriate and
valid? And whether the recruitment process followed
in the organization is effective at all or not? In case
the answers to these questions are in negative, the
appropriate control measures need to be evolved and
exercised to tide over the situation.
However, such an exercise seems to be only rarely
carried out in practice by the organizations
employers. Having discussed recruitment process, it
will be now relevant to have an idea about
recruitment practices in India. The following section
delineates the same.

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Mode of Hiring:
Mode of Hiring or Position Type is a contract
established between a person and a company OR
between a company and another company.
Contract between a company and a person:

W2: On W2, Candidate will work as a full time

employee of a company (Employer) and
employer takes care of employee and
employer taxes. Employer sends w2 form to
candidate in January, for the previous year
wages and deductions. Candidates submit tax
returns to IRS usually, and occasionally
employer also submits tax returns on behalf of

Eligible Candidates: American Citizen,

Green Card (GC) Holder, EADs (Employer
Authorization Document), TN Permit
(Canadian Visa), OPT (Optional Practical
Training), CPT (Curricular Practical Training),
H1B, L1 etc.
W2 - Salary with benefits: This is
will be paid salary and get benefits like
joining bonus, vacation, holidays,
workers compensation, relocation
expenses, leave encashment, IRA,
Health/Vision/Dental/ Life Insurance,
401k, Education Benefits, retirement
plans etc. Usually company pays the
candidate when there is no job or in
between projects.
W2 - Hourly with benefits: This is FULL
TIME, TEMPORARY job. Employee will be
paid on hourly basis and they will be
enjoying benefits also. As soon as the
contract period is over, employee has to
find another job.
W2 - Hourly with no benefits: This is

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TEMPORARY job. Employee will be paid

on hourly basis and there are no
Contract - Independent (1099): Candidate
will work as a contractor for a company for that
contract period. Company sends 1099 form to
candidate in January, for the amount earned in
previous year. Based on this 1099 form, Candidate will
submit tax returns to IRS, which includes employee
and employer taxes.

Contract to Hire - Independent (1099): To

start with, Candidate will work as a contractor
for a company and later will be hired as a full
time, permanent employee for that company. In
January, company sends 1099 form for the
amount earned previous year in contract
period. In addition, they also send w2 form to
candidate in January, for the previous year
wages and deductions earned after hiring him
as a fulltime employee. Based on this w2/1099
form, Candidate will submit tax returns to IRS,
which includes employee and employer taxes.

Contract between a company and another


Contract - Corp to Corp: This is a contract

between Company (Client) and another
company (vendor). Vendor's candidates will
work with client and client sends 1099 form to

Contract to Hire - Corp to Corp: Vendor's

candidates work with client ON CONTRACT for a
particular duration and later they will be hired
as permanent employee of the client. Client
sends 1099 forms to Vendor for the contract
period worked by the candidate. After hiring the
candidate into their payroll, client sends w2 to
the candidate for the wages earned during the

previous year.
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USA Tax Terms - Question and

A. What are the different US tax terms in
US staffing or in US Recruitment?

1. W2 Tax Term - Full Time

a. W2 - salary with benefits
b. W2 - salary with no benefits
c. W2 - hourly with benefits
d. W2 - hourly with no benefits
2. 1099 Tax Term
b. Contract to hire with an Independent
3. Corp - Corp(C2C) Tax Term

b. Contract to hire between a

B. What is the difference between w2 and 1099?

w2: Since candidate is an employee, the employer
has to deduct employee and employer taxes and
pay to the necessary organizations.
1099: The employee pays the employee taxes and
employer taxes. Employee Taxes: Federal Tax, State
Tax, County Tax, City Tax, FICA, Medicare etc.
Employer Taxes: FICA, Medicate, FUTA, SUI, Workers
compensation, Liability Insurance etc.
C. What is the difference between w2 and
corp to corp (c2c)? w2: An employee of the
company is called as w2 employee. w2 form is
issued by the employer to employee which shows
salary, taxes, benefits paid.
c2c: It is a contract between one company to another

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D. What is the difference between corp to

corp(c2c) and 1099? c2c: It is a contract
between one company to another company. 1099:
It is a contract between a company and a
In corp to corp, company employee and employer
taxes, and in 1099 employee pays employee and
employer taxes.


The United States uses nine standard time zones. From
east to west they are Atlantic Standard Time (AST),
Eastern Standard Time (EST), Central Standard Time
(CST), Mountain Standard Time (MST), Pacific Standard
Time (PST), Alaskan Standard Time (AKST), HawaiiAleutian Standard Time (HST), Samoa standard time
(UTC-11) and Chamorro Standard Time (UTC+10). View
the standard time zone boundaries.
Daylight Saving Time begins at 2:00 a.m. local time
on the second Sunday in March. On the first Sunday
in November areas on Daylight Saving Time return to
Standard Time at 2:00 a.m. The names in each time
zone change along with Daylight Saving Time.
Eastern Standard Time (EST) becomes Eastern
Daylight Time (EDT), and so forth. Arizona, Puerto
Rico, Hawaii, U.S. Virgin Islands and American Samoa
do not observe Daylight Saving Time.

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United States Time Zone Map

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