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In the study of dynamics, real bodies will be idealized either as particles or as rigid bodies.

A particle is a body of negligible dimensions. When the dimensions of the body are unimportant to the description of its motion, we will idealize the body as a particle. The use of

the word particle does not mean that our study will be restricted to small bodies; rather, it

indicates that the motion of bodiespossibly as large as cars, rockets, or airplaneswill be

considered without regard of their size. By saying that the bodies are analyzed as particles,

we mean that only their motion as an entire unit will be considered; any rotation about their

own mass center will be neglected.

A rigid body is a body that has a finite size but it does not deform. This will be a useful

approximation when the deformation of a body is negligible compared to the overall motion.

For instance, we may consider an aircraft as being a rigid body when considering the behavior

of the aircraft along its flight path, even though under some specific conditions the deflection

of the wing tips may be considerable. In describing the motion of a rigid body, we need to

be concerned with its position but also with its orientation.

On the other hand, real bodies have a finite size and are always deformable under loading. In

some situations it will be required to consider the deformation of the body when considering

its dynamic behavior, but this is outside the scope of this course.

Kinematics and Kinetics

Kinematics is the study of the geometry of motion. Kinematics is used to relate displacement,

velocity, acceleration, and time, without reference to the cause of the motion.

Kinetics is the study of the relation existing between the forces acting on a body, the mass

of the body, and the motion of the body. Kinetics is used to predict the motion caused by

guiven forces or to determine the forces required to produce a given motion.

Chapter 11 KINEMATICS

Position coordinate of a particle in rectilinear motion

We start by analyzing the rectilinear motion of a particle, i.e., the motion of a particle along a straight line.

To define the position P of the particle on that line, we

choose a fixed origin O and a positive direction (Fig. 1).

The distance x from O to P , with the appropriate sign,

completely defines the position of the particle on the

line and is called the position coordinate of the particle

in rectilinear motion.

The m

O

straigh

motio

x

x

of the

choos

Figure 1:

positive direction. The distance x fro

appropriate sign, completely defines

on the line and is called the positio

particle.

P

The (instantaneous) velocity v of the particle is equal to the time derivative of the position

coordinate x,

dx

(1)

v=

dt

and the acceleration a is obtained by differentiating v with respect to t,

a=

dv

dt

(2)

or

d2 x

a= 2

dt

Applying the chains rule to (2), the acceleration a can also be expressed as

a=

(3)

dv

dv dx

=v

dx dt

dx

(4)

We observe that the velocity v and the acceleration a are represented by algebraic numbers

which can be positive or negative. A positive value for v indicates that the particle moves

in the positive direction, and a negative value that it moves in the negative direction. A

positive value for a, however, may mean that the particle is truly accelerated (i.e., moves

faster) in the positive direction, or that it is decelerated (i.e., moves more slowly) in the

negative direction. A negative value for a is subject to a similar interpretation in rectilinear

motion.

Determination of the velocity and acceleration by integration

In most problems, the conditions of motion of a particle are defined by the type of acceleration

that the particle possesses and by the initial conditions. The velocity and position of the

particle can then be obtained by integrating two of the equations (1) to (4). Which of these

equations should be selected depends upon the type of acceleration involved. Let us consider

three common classes of motion:

1.- a = f (t). The acceleration is a given function of t.

Z v

Z t

Z t

dv = a dt = f (t)dt

dv =

f (t)dt v v0 =

f (t)dt

v0

0

0

Z t

dx = v dt x x0 =

v(t)dt

0

From Eq. (4),

Z

v dv = a dx = f (x)dx

vdv =

v0

Z x

dx

dx

dt =

t=

v

x0 v(x)

x0

1

1

f (x)dx v 2 v02 =

2

2

f (x)dx

x0

Z v

dv

dv

dv

=

t=

dt =

a

f (v)

v f (v)

Z t0

v(t)dt

dx = v dt x x0 =

0

v dv

v dv

dx =

=

x x0 =

a

f (v)

v0

v dv

f (v)

Two types of motion are frequently encountered: the uniform rectilinear motion, in which

the velocity v of the particle is constant and

x = x0 + vt

(5)

and the uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion, in which the acceleration a of the particle

is constant and we have

v = v0 + at

1

x = x0 + v0 t + at2

2

v 2 = v02 + 2a (x x0 )

(6)

When a particle moves along a curve other than a straight

line, we say that the particle is curvilinear motion. The

position A of the particle at a given time is defined by the

position vector r joining the origin of coordinates O and

point A (Fig. 2). The average velocity of the particle over

the time interval t is defined as the quotient of r and t.

The (instantaneous) velocity v of the particle is obtained by

taking the limit t 0:

v=

dr

dt

(7)

magnitude v (called the speed of the particle) equal to the

time derivative of the length s of the arc described by the

particle:

ds

(8)

v=

dt

fig_02_05

Figure 2:

The acceleration a of the particle is defined by

the relation

dv

(9)

a=

dt

and we note that, in general, the acceleration is

not tangent to the path of the particle (Fig. 3).

Derivative of a vector function

Before proceeding to the consideration of the

components of velocity and acceleration, we are

going to review the formal definition of the derivative of a vector function and to establish a few

rules governing the differentiation of sums and

products of vector functions.

fig_02_05

Figure 3:

The standard rules for the differentiation of the sums and products of scalar functions can

be extended to vector functions. Consider first the sum of two vector functions P(u) and

Q(u) of the same scalar variable u. The derivative of the vector P + Q is

d (P + Q)

(P + Q)

P Q

P

Q

= lim

= lim

+

= lim

+ lim

u0

u0

u0 u

u0 u

du

u

u

u

so

d (P + Q)

dP dQ

=

+

du

du

du

(10)

The product of a scalar function f (u) and a vector function P(u) of the same scalar variable

u will now be considered. The derivative of the vector f P is

(f + f ) (P + P) f P

f

d (f P)

P

= lim

= lim

P+f

u0

u0

du

u

u

u

or recalling the properties of the limits of sums and products

d (f P)

df

dP

=

P+f

du

du

du

(11)

The derivatives of the scalar product and the vector product of two vector functions P(u)

and Q(u) can be obtained in a similar way. We have

dP

dQ

d (P Q)

=

Q+P

du

du

du

(12)

d (P Q)

dP

dQ

=

Q+P

du

du

du

(13)

The properties established above can be used to determine the rectangular components of the

derivative of a vector function P(u). Resolving P into components along fixed rectangular

axes x, y, z, we write

P = Px i + P y j + Pz k

(14)

where Px , Py , Pz are the rectangular scalar components of the vector P, and i, j, k the unit

vectors corresponding, respectively, to the x, y, z axes. The derivative of P is equal to the

sum of the derivatives of the terms in the right-hand side. Since each of these terms is the

product of a scalar and a vector function, we should use (11). But the unit vectors i, j, k

have a constant magnitude (equal to 1) and fixed direction. Their derivatives are therefore

zero, and we write

dPx

dPy

dPz

dP

=

i+

j+

k

(15)

du

du

du

du

so we conclude that the rectangular scalar components of the derivative dP/du of the vector

function P(u) are obtained by differentiating the corresponding scalar components of P.

Rectangular components of velocity and acceleration

Denoting by x, y, and z the rectangular coordinates of a particle P , we find that the rectangular components of the velocity and acceleration of P equal, respectively, the first and

second derivatives with respect to t of the corresponding coordinates:

vx = x

vy = y

vz = z

(16)

ax = x

ay = y

az = z

(17)

Component motions

When the component ax of the acceleration depends only upon t, x, and/or vx , and when

similarly ay depends only upon t, y, and/or vy , and az upon t, z, and/or vz , Eqs. (17)

can be integrated independently. The analysis of the given curvilinear motion can thus be

reduced to the analysis of three independent rectilinear component motions. This approach

is particularly effective in the study of the motion of projectiles.

It is sometimes convenient to resolve the velocity and acceleration of a particle P into components other than the

rectangular x, y, and z components. For a particle P

moving along a path contained in a plane, we can attach

to P a unit vector et tangent to the path of the particle

and pointing in the direction of motion (Fig. 4). Let e0t

be the unit vector corresponding to the position P 0 of the

particle at a later instant. Drawing both vectors from the

same origin O0 , we define the vector et = e0t et (Fig. 5).

Since et and e0t are of unit length, their tips lie on a circle of radius 1. Denoting by the angle formed by et

and e0t , we find that the magnitude of et is 2 sin(/2).

Considering now the vector et /, we note that as

approaches zero, this vector becomes tangent to the unit

circle of Fig. 5, i.e., perpendicular to et , and that its magnitude approaches

Ninth

Edition

Ninth

Edition

Velocity ve

Vel

particle.

In

Wish to par

exp

tangential

Wia

tan

a

particle pat

respect to th

par

is the a

res

Figure 4:

2 sin(/2)

sin(/2)

= lim

=1

0

0

/2

lim

Ninth

Edition

Thus, the vector obtained in the limit is a unit vector along the

normal to the path of the particle, in the direction toward et turns.

Figure 5:Companies, Inc. All rights res

Denoting this vector by en , we have

2010 The McGraw-Hill

et

det

=

0

d

en = lim

(18)

With the v

the particl

particle in terms of tangential and normal components.

We write

v = vet

(19)

and

a=

But

dv

det

et + v

dt

dt

det

det d ds

=

dt

d ds dt

but

(20)

After subs

Figure 6:

Tangentia

change of

change of

7 With the v

the particl

Recalling from (8) that ds/dt = v, from (18) that det /d = en , and from elementary calculus

that d/ds is 1/, where is the radius of curvature of the path at P (Fig. 6), we have

det

v

= en

dt

but

(21)

After subs

Substituting into (20), we obtain

a=

dv

v2

et + en

dt

(22)

We conclude from the above that the tangential component of the acceleration reflects a change in the speed of

the particle, while its normal component reflects a change

in the direction of motion of the particle. The tangential

component dv/dt may be positive or negative (depending if the speed of the particle increases or decreases).

The normal component always points toward the center

of path curvature (Fig. 7).

Tangentia

change of

change of

Tangentia

negative.

toward ce

2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Figure 7:

Ninth

Edition

For a particle P moving along a space curve, we define the plane which most closely fits the

curve in the neighborhood of P as the osculating plane. This plane contains the unit vectors

et and en which define, respectively, the tangent and principal

normal to the curve.

Tangential

andSince

Normal

Com

d(et et )

det

= 2 et

,

ds

ds

the vector det /ds is perpendicular to et , and points in

the direction of the principal normal to the curve. Its

magnitude is the inverse of the radius of curvature

Relation

also app

det

1

= en

ds

Plane co

vectors

0=

(23)

osculating plane and completes the right-handed triad et ,

en , eb , defines the binormal (Fig. 8).

Normal

Figure 8:

Acceler

Ninth

Edition

When partic

it is conveni

with compo

by its polar coordinates r and , it is convenient to use radial

and transverse components directed, respectively, along the

position vector r of the particle and in the direction obtained

by rotating r through 90o counter-clockwise. We attach to

P unit vectors er and e directed, respectively, in the radial

and transverse directions (Fig. 9). A derivation similar to

the one used to obtain (18) leads to the relations

The particle

Similarly, th

Figure 9:

der

= e

d

de

= er

d

(24)

de d

de

=

= er

dt

d dt

(25)

der d

der

=

= e

dt

d dt

We then express the velocity and acceleration of the particle in terms of radial and transverse

2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

components

d

v=

(rer ) = re

r + re

(26)

dt

d

= (

r r2 )er + (r + 2r )e

(27)

re

r + re

a=

dt

The scalar components of the velocity and acceleration in the radial and transverse directions

are therefore

vr = r

ar = r r2

v = r

a = r + 2r

(28)

It is important to note that ar is not equal to the time derivative of vr , and that a is not

equal to the time derivative of v .

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