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A Simulation and analysis of fiber non-linearity and dispersion compensation

1. INTRODUCTION
Optical fiber is one of the most prominent topics in communication system in today’s
era. Not only it helps in increasing the transmission speed but also helps in decreasing the
overall cost of the communication system. When the signal is transmitted through fiber at
transmitter, some losses are observed in receiver end and as a result data from original signal
is lost. In Single mode fiber (SMF), chromatic dispersion and polar mode dispersion takes
place. Chromatic dispersion occurs due to dependence of group index Ng to wavelength.
Erbium doped fiber amplifier can be used to compensate dispersion in optical system. Also,
chromatic dispersion can be compensated by dispersion compensation fiber and fiber Bragg
gratings. DCF compensation needs very high negative dispersion coefficient with DCF’s to
compensate dispersion in a narrow band frequency. This increases the overall losses nonlinear
effects and the cost of the optical communication system. FBG is another method to
compensate dispersion. In this, propagated light which satisfies the Bragg condition is
resonated by grating structure and reflected and get only a small part of the signal and rest all
goes out of the fiber. So FBG’s which compensate the dispersion by the recompression of an
optical signal for different architecture of FBG’s have to be introduced. It also gives low
losses and decreases the cost of the transmission system.
The EDFA (Erbium doped fiber amplifier) is the gigantic change that happened in the
optical fiber communication systems; the loss is no longer major factor to restrict the fiber
optic transmission. Since EDFA works in 1550 nm wave band, the average Single Mode
Fiber (SMF) dispersion value in this wave band is very big, about 15-20ps / (nm.km-1). So, it
is easy to see that the dispersion become the major factor that restricts the long distance fiber
optic system. Compensation of fiber non-linearities was first proposed in 1996 with the
materials having negative nonlinear coefficient which was not so practical, so Electronic
Dispersion Compensation (EDC) allowed to virtually implement this idea. Most of the
researches have implied EDC at the receiver. To increase the system efficiency it is necessary
to reduce the non-linearity and increase the fiber capacity. Fiber capacity can be increased by
raising OSNR, reducing channel spacing or by installing higher order modulation techniques.
Non-linearities originates with the implementation of WDM systems and since then there has
been a continuous effort to reduce or completely remove these penalities. Using Digital
Signal Processing (DSP) techniques, amplification methods like that of Raman Amplification
designing fibers with large effective area are some of the available methods to compensate
Dept of Telecommunication Engineering, RVCE

2015-16

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A Simulation and analysis of fiber non-linearity and dispersion compensation
the ambiguities. Signal degradation can also be due to periodic amplification, combined
effect of group velocities and kerr non-linearities. On the other hand impairments caused due
to chromatic dispersion can be controlled by optical phase conjugation, dispersion
compensating devices, differential delay method, microchip compensation. Dispersion
compensation fibers can be used at the place of single mode fibers to control the dispersion
which are designed with negative coefficient. The positive compensation is cancelled out
with the negative coefficient of the EDFA thus providing a reliable communication by
increasing the coefficient with respect to the positive dispersion generated. Single mode fiber
is in great interest due to its high data rate carrying capacity with low loss in transmission but
the dispersion is an penality which degrades the overall performance. At higher bit rates cross
talk is an another problem which is mainly observed in telecommunication field where a user
wants to exchange data with desired user but the line is attached to an unwanted receiver. As
the installation of Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifer (EDFA) improves the link distance but they
also induce nonlinearities, So there must be a match between the values used for practical
implementation.
LITERATURE REVIEW
M. I. Hayee and A. E. Willner [5] analyzed 10 Gb/s non dispersion managed and dispersion
managed wavelength division multiplexed systems which use the pre compensation, post
compensation and dual compensation of each channel to mitigate dispersion and nonlinear
effects. They observed that the dual compensation method gives the minimum penalty for
each dispersion managed WDM systems. Furthermore, they have found that the optimal
amount of pre or post compensation depends upon the specific dispersion map used in the
wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) system. Fariborz Mousavi Madani and Kazuro
Kikuchi [6] investigated the performance limit of 10, 20, and 40 Gb/s WDM systems
employing the higher order DCF by extensive computer simulations. They have realized that
in conventional long distance wavelengthdivision multiplexed (WDM) dispersion-managed
transmission systems, since both the dispersion-shifted fiber (DSF) and the standard singlemode fiber (SMF) have positive dispersion slope, perfect dispersion compensation can be
achieved only for a single wavelength channel. In contrast, WDM dispersion managed
systems comprised of a SMF followed by a higher order dispersion compensation fiber
(DCF) with opposite second and third-order dispersions can clear out this drawback. J.-J. Yu,
Kejian Guan, Zhenbo Xu and Bojun Yang [7] analyzed the effects of different compensation
ratios with dispersion post-compensation on nonlinear signal channel and WDM systems
Dept of Telecommunication Engineering, RVCE

2015-16

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Kaler.A Simulation and analysis of fiber non-linearity and dispersion compensation with 10 Gb/s NRZ per channel. R. But the enhanced distance of the nonlinear WDM system was not as obvious as that of the single channel transmission system.K. because the cross phase modulation effect played an important role in the nonlinear WDM system. S. DRZ and MDRZ at different bit rates 10 Gb/s.dispersion compensation scheme shows better performance as compare to other schemes on the basis of Q factor. 20 Gb/s and 40 Gb/s.Shrama and T.Sharma [10] presented simulative results for DWDM systems using NRZ format with ultra high capacity upto 1. The numerical results showed that in order to achieve good performance.S. They observed that at high bit rate MDRZ format gives better performance than others and found that mix. Post dispersion compensation enhanced the performance of the nonlinear single channel system and the nonlinear WDM system.28 Tb/s and spectral efficiency 0. length of fiber and number of channels. Dept of Telecommunication Engineering. the length of DCF should be precisely selected. A. RVCE 2015-16 Page 3 .4 b/s/Hz. Jyoti Choudhary. CS-RZ. bit error rate (BER) and eye opening over 50 km of single mode fiber (SMF) and 10 km of dispersion compensating fiber (DCF). Lalit Singh Garia and Rajendra Singh Shahi [11] analyzed 16 channels DWDM optical communication system for different dispersion compensation schemes pre. They investigated the impact of signal to noise ratio on channel spacing. post and mix dispersion compensation scheme using DCF using different modulation system NRZ. dispersion.

A Simulation and analysis of fiber non-linearity and dispersion compensation 1. Dept of Telecommunication Engineering. SELF-PHASE MODULATION (SPM): The higher intensity portions of an optical pulse encounter a higher refractive index of the fiber compared with the lower intensity portions while it travels through the fiber. This results in frequency chirping. The optical phase changes with time in exactly the same way as the optical signal. RVCE 2015-16 Page 4 . The leading edge will experience a positive refractive index gradient (dn/dt) and trailing edge a negative refractive index gradient (−dn/dt).1 FIBER NON-LINEARITIES 1 . Fig1. The rising edge of the pulse finds frequency shif tin upper side where as the trailing edge experiences shift in lowerside. keeping the temporal shape unaltered. Hence primary 258 Singh and Singh effect of SPM is to broaden the spectrum of the pulse [8]. Since. This temporally varying index change results in a temporally varying phase change. as shown in Figure 1. In fact time varying signal intensity produces a time varying refractive index in a medium that has an intensity-dependant refractive index. this nonlinear phase modulation is self-induced the nonlinear phenomenon responsible for it is called as self-phase modulation.1. The SPM effects are more pronounced in systems with high-transmitted power because the chirping effect is proportional to transmitted signal power. Different parts of the pulse undergo different phase shift because of intensity dependence of phase fluctuations.1: Phenomenological description of spectral broadening of pulse due to SPM.

1mW per channel. Time pulses with two different wavelength channels will not remain superimposed since each had different group velocity dispersion (GVD). XPM hinders the system performance through the same mechanism as SPM: chirping frequency and chromatic dispersion. To avoid XPM should have a fiber in which the pulses do not travel together for large distance. Theoretically. It can be greatly mitigated in WDM systems operating over standard non dispersion shifted single mode fiber. and line widths may be measured. CROSS PHASE MODULATION: The response of any dielectric to light becomes Non-linear for intense electromagnetic fields.5Gbps-10Gbps system with wavelength spacing of 25GHz or less) and when coherent detection schemes are used. XPM influences the system severely when number of channels is large. Another unique advantage of FWM is that Raman cross sections FWM also has the advantage of eliminating the non-resonant background signals present in the other methods. which is typically 80 μm2. One more advantage of this kind of fiber is its effective core area. FWM may be used to probe either one-photon resonances or two-photon resonances in a material by measuring the resonant enhancement as one or more of the frequencies are tuned. This greatly reduces the impact of XPM for direct detection of optical fiber transmission systems. XPM only appears when two interacting light beams or pulses overlap in space. The term “four-wave mixing” is usually reserved for the interaction of four spatially or spectrally distinct fields. and optical fibers are no exception. Thus require large group velocity change as the function of frequency. Cross phase Modulation (XPM) had been derived from the fact that the refractive index of the fiber in nonlinearity converts the optical intensity fluctuations in other co propagating channel.A Simulation and analysis of fiber non-linearity and dispersion compensation 2. FWM reduces to the previously discussed processes when two or more of the frequencies are degenerate. Large dispersion will give large velocity difference which will give small walk-off time and thus reduction in XPM will be obtained. but XPM can damage the system performance even more than SPM. SPM is always present when XPM occurs. The main Dept of Telecommunication Engineering. the origin of Non-linear response is related to a harmonic motion of a bound electron under the influence of an applied field [4]. XPM imposes a power limit of 0. XPM could be the problem for high rate ultradense WDM systems (2. In addition since the refractive index seen by particular wavelength is influenced by both the optical intensity of that wave and by the optical power fluctuation of the neighbouring wavelength. RVCE 2015-16 Page 5 . excited state cross sections. for a 100-channels system. lifetimes. By tuning the frequencies to multiple resonances in the material. On a fundamental level.

Data can be transmitted with few errors. They are usually one of two types. as they travel through the fiber. But usually. Hence chromatic dispersion is a phenomenon in optical fiber which is created because of dependence of group index to wavelength which causes a temporal broadening of the pulses as they are propagating in the fiber. Single-mode fiber eliminated the multipath dispersion and left only chromatic dispersion and polarization mode dispersion to be dealt with by engineers.A Simulation and analysis of fiber non-linearity and dispersion compensation disadvantage of FWM is the complications involved in simultaneously overlapping three coherent beams while maintaining the phase matching condition. Multimode graded-index fiber improved the situation. dispersion needs to be compensated by various dispersion compensating techniques. 1. Fig1. but when they are well graded some limitations are added to the information capacity of multimode fibers. The first type is DCF or Dispersion Compensating Fiber and the second type is FBG or Fiber Bragg grating. Chromatic dispersion occurs due to the inherent property of silica fiber i. Hence. DISPERSION Telecommunication systems change the intensity of light source in order to transmit information. After a certain propagation distance. bit rates and transmission distances in the fiber optic. And this becomes a limitation to the channel count. Information is modulated and sent as a series of pulses representing binary encoded data. the broadening of the pulses causes a significant number of errors at the receiving end thus the information is lost.2 shows the broadening of pulses caused due to loss of information i. as long as these pulses travel through the fiber without changing their shape. Dispersion was initially a problem when multimode step index fiber were introduced. the pulses start to spread. Figure 1.2: broadening of pulse due to chromatic dispersion Dept of Telecommunication Engineering. Both of them causes distortion and broadening of pulse.e chromatic dispersion. losing their original shape and overlap each other becoming indistinguishable at the receiver input.e refractive index varies with wavelength. Dispersion is the general term applied to this cause and this effect is known as inter-symbol interference. RVCE 2015-16 Page 6 .2 .

3 represents dispersion in step index fiber.000. MODAL DISPERSION: Modal dispersion occurs only in Multimode fibers.mode fiber. 1. a mode is simply a path that a light ray can follow in travelling down a fiber. the ray following the longest path will arrive at the other end of 1 km long fiber 15 to 30 ns after the ray. other rays arrive later. arrives at the other end first. Modal dispersion is that type of dispersion that results from the varying modal path lengths in the fiber. which have slightly different refractive indices. Since light reflects at different angles for different paths (or modes). RVCE 2015-16 Page 7 . The spreading of light is called modal dispersion. The light has spread out in time. Dept of Telecommunication Engineering. It arises because rays follow different paths through the fiber and consequently arrive at the other end of the fiber at different times. Fig 1. Fig 1. Thus light entering the fiber at the same time exit the other end at different times. The number of modes supported by a fiber ranges from 1 to over 100. Thus different rays take a shorter or longer time to travel the length of the fiber.A Simulation and analysis of fiber non-linearity and dispersion compensation There are three main types of dispersion in a fiber: Modal Dispersion. Mode is a mathematical and physical concept describing the propagation of electromagnetic waves through media. Typical modal dispersion figures for the step index fiber are 15 to 30 ns/ km. Material dispersion. occurs because optical energy travels in both the core and cladding. The ray that goes straight down the center of the core without reflecting. WAVEGUIDE DISPERSION: Waveguide dispersion. This means that for light entering a fiber at the same time.3: Modal dispersion in step index fiber In case of fiber. Thus a fiber provides a path of travels for one or thousands of light rays depending on its size and properties. following the shortest path. the path lengths of different modes are different. 2. most significant in a single. Waveguide dispersion.

Altering the internal structures of the fiber. which points exactly in the propagation direction.g. Waveguide dispersion is important in waveguides with small effective mode areas. The origin of waveguide dispersion can be understood by considering that a guided wave has a frequency-dependent distribution of wave vectors (k vectors). a significant property is that the waveguide dispersion has opposite signs with respect to the material dispersion in the wavelength range above 1300 nm. and material dispersion is dominant(4). waveguide dispersion is normally negligible. see e. For fibers with large mode areas.4.g.. the article on dispersion-shifted fibers. e. thus changing the specified overall dispersion of the fiber. The waveguide dispersion depends on the dispersive properties of the waveguide itself. allows waveguide dispersion to be substantially changed. From a practical point of view. Chromatic dispersion in fiber is as shown in fig1. It is generally the dominant contribution. in particular certain photonic crystal fibers. but also other single-mode fibers as used in.A Simulation and analysis of fiber non-linearity and dispersion compensation The energy travels at slightly different velocities in the core and cladding because of the slightly different refractive indices of the materials. Dept of Telecommunication Engineering. except in the wavelength region in which it vanishes (for silica based material this happens around 1 300 nm). The material dispersion occurs because the refractive index changes with the optical frequency. optical fiber communications. 3. whereas a plane wave (as the reference case) has only a single wave vector. CHROMATIC DISPERSION: Chromatic dispersion is caused by delay differences among the group velocities of the different wavelengths composing the source spectrum. Examples are optical fibers. RVCE 2015-16 Page 8 . Waveguide dispersion may be tailored via the fiber design to obtain the desired dispersion properties.4: Chromatic dispersion in step index fiber The chromatic dispersion is essentially due to two contributions: material dispersion and waveguide dispersion. Input signal Output signal Fig1. The consequence of the chromatic dispersion is a broadening of the transmitted impulses.

Dept of Telecommunication Engineering. although the single mode fiber can sustain only one transverse mode. In single-mode fiber (SMF) performance is primarily limited by chromatic dispersion (also called group velocity dispersion) which occurs because the index of the glass varies slightly depending on the wavelength of light and the light from real optical transmitters necessarily has nonzero spectral width. When different wavelengths of light pulses are launched into the optical fiber. This phenomenon of broadening of pulse width is known as dispersion. The pulse width gradually increases and the peak power of pulse reduces. Each pulse broadens and overlaps with its neighbours eventually becoming indistinguishable at the receiver input. In order to remove the spreading of optical pulses. Polarization mode dispersion is another source of limitation which occurs because. these pulses travelled with different speeds due to the variation of refractive index with wavelength. This effect is known as inter symbol interference (ISI)[2]. dispersion compensation is required. The light pulses tend to get spread out in time domain after travelling some distance in fiber and this is continued throughout the fiber length. Dispersion of transmitted optical signals causes the distortion for both digital and analog transmission through optical fibres.A Simulation and analysis of fiber non-linearity and dispersion compensation CHAPTER 2 EFFECTS OF DISPERSION ON OPTICAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS Dispersion characterized optical fiber in terms of maximum transmission speed. RVCE 2015-16 Page 9 . This phenomenon is called birefringence. It reduces the effective bandwidth and at same time it increases the BER due to an increasing inter symbol interference. Dispersion limits the information capacity at high transmission speeds and distances. but it carry this mode with two different polarizations and slight distortions in a fiber can alter the propagation speeds for the two polarizations.

system performance depends upon power levels [6] and the position of dispersion compensated fibers [7]. Dept of Telecommunication Engineering. until after the invention of optical amplifiers. So by inserting a DCF. DCF has become a most suitable method of dispersion compensation. The idea of using dispersion compensation fiber for dispersion compensation was proposed in 1980 but. pre-. the average dispersion is close to zero.3 respectively. In the third method. the optical communication system is pre compensated by the dispersion compensated fiber of negative dispersion against the standard fiber. not easily affected by temperature. the optical communication system is symmetrically compensated by two dispersion compensated fibers of negative dispersion against the standard fiber in between. the optical communication system is post compensated by the dispersion compensated fiber of negative dispersion against the standard fiber. To compensate positive dispersion over large length of fiber high value of negative dispersion is used.and symmetrical compensation. chirped fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) and high-order mode (HOM) fiber. Due to the nonlinear nature of propagation. post.A Simulation and analysis of fiber non-linearity and dispersion compensation 3. 3. stable. In the second method. the ones that appear to hold immediate promise for dispersion compensation and management could be broadly classified as: dispersion compensating fibers (DCF). There is positive second-order and third-order dispersion value in SMF. Amongst the various techniques proposed in the literature. while the DCF dispersion value is negative.1. Compensation is done by three methods.2 and 3. As the products of DCF are more mature. Dispersion compensation fibers are specially designed fiber with negative dispersion. wide bandwidth. Spans made of single mode fibers and dispersion Compensated fibers are good candidates for long distance transmission as their high local dispersion is known to reduce the phase matching giving rise to four waves mixing in SCM system. In the first method. RVCE 2015-16 Page 10 . DISPERSION COMPENSATION In order to improve overall system performance and reduced as much as possible the transmission performance influenced by the dispersion. DCF began to be widespread attention and study. several dispersion compensation technologies were proposed. The simulation setup of all three schemes is created by using software shown in figure 3.

1: pre compensation In this method. output of the optical fiber also increases. the both pre compensation and post compensation method is combined .3. the DCF of negative dispersion is placed after the SMF as shown in fig4.1 Fig 3.3:Mix compensation method In this method. In this.2: post compensation method In this method.first placed post compensation method next to EDFA placed pre compensation method as shown in fig 4.A Simulation and analysis of fiber non-linearity and dispersion compensation Fig3. the DCF of negative dispersion is placed before the SMF as shown in fig 4. Symmetrical/mix compensation has minimum bit error rate indicating best Dept of Telecommunication Engineering.2. Different methods generate different non-linear effects. Fig 3. As the bit error rate increases. RVCE 2015-16 Page 11 . mix-compensation method largely reduces the non-linear effects as compared to pre-compensation and postcompensation method.

RVCE 2015-16 Page 12 . Does not require precise laser wavelengths. DCF compensation depends on the wavelength and they can perfectly act only in a narrow band of frequency. Similarly when the length of the fiber is increased. Nonzero dispersion fiber (NDF) has a chromatic dispersion between 1 and 6 ps/nm/km or -1 and -6 ps/nm/km. So DCF also has high optical nonlinearities. Since DCF has a small core size which may make it prone to certain types of nonlinearities. It is also a function of wavelength. However DCF has high insertion loss.3 ps/nm/km in the same window for a dispersion-shifted fiber (DSF).compensation. low polarization mode dispersion and low optical non-linearity. It is at a maximum of 3. This is called intersymbol interference (ISI). DCF provides continuous compensation over a wide range of optical wavelengths (i. A 60 km compensator can exhibit 6 dB of loss or more. The pulse broadening effect of chromatic dispersion causes the signals in the adjacent bit periods to overlap. Advantages of DCF are that they can be easily constructed and highly reliable. post.and mix.55 μm wavelength range for a standard single mode fiber (SMF). \ Dept of Telecommunication Engineering. DCM's are usually co-located with EDFA's which also increases the overall cost of the fiber. Broadening is a function of distance as well as dispersion parameter D. In addition to these characteristics DCF should have large chromatic dispersion coefficient to minimize the size of a DCF module. This shows that symmetrical/ mix compensation is best among the pre-. The dispersion parameter is given in ps/nm/km and changes from fiber to fiber.A Simulation and analysis of fiber non-linearity and dispersion compensation performance in comparison to pre and post compensation. A DCF module should have low insertion loss. (by keeping EDFA constant) bit error rate also increases. D is usually about 17 ps/nm/km in the 1.e. Because of this.

and 40-Gbps transceivers to unbias the 10-Gbps dispersion map.A Simulation and analysis of fiber non-linearity and dispersion compensation 4. DISADVANTAGES: 1) Usually DCF has a small core size which may make it prone to certain types of nonlinearities. Does not require precise laser wavelengths. 4) The rugged and cost-effective dispersion approach results in easy system in-design. 3) The scattering losses of dispersion compensating fiber depend on fabrication method as well as the design of the fiber. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES DCF ADVANTAGES: 1) Simple construction. the effect of chromatic dispersion is quit high. 5) The DCM-PC is also very useful in systems with mixed 10. effective system commissioning. 2) At higher bit rate. Dept of Telecommunication Engineering.) 3) The dispersion compensation patch cord (DCM-PC) combines the dispersion compensating power of continuously chirped FBGs with the simplicity of an ordinary patch cord. and valuable system space savings. 2) Provides continuous compensation over a wide range of optical wavelengths (i. 6) At figure of merit signifies that the dispersion compensating fiber module adds less lose to the system. RVCE 2015-16 Page 13 . It limits the overall performance of the optical communication system at high bit rate.e. highly reliable.

power and saturation power both at 10 dBm.5 dB/Km. In the third method. Loop controller is also used with 5 number of optical loops. the optical communication system is post compensated by the dispersion compensated fiber of negative dispersion against the standard fiber. To compensate positive dispersion over large length of fiber high value of negative dispersion is used. Non-Return to Zero (NRZ) is also implied. RVCE 2015-16 Page 14 . post. SIMULATION USING OPTISYSTEM The research aims at the frequencies of 193 THz to 195.4 THz with power level of 0 dBm (equals to 1 mW) and line width of 10 MHz corresponds to Continuous Wave (CW) laser at the bit rate of 15 Gb/s. Dispersion compensation fibers are specially designed fiber with negative dispersion. Optical Power Meter. system performance depends upon power levels [6] and the position of dispersion compensated fibers [7]. In the first method. In the second method. Spans made of single mode fibers and dispersion Compensated fibers are good candidates for long distance transmission as their high local dispersion is known to reduce the phase matching giving rise to four waves mixing in SCM system. Attenuation of DCF is 0. pre-. Dept of Telecommunication Engineering. noise figure of 0 dB. Photodetector PIN with responsivity of 1 A/W is there.5 GHz. Due to the nonlinear nature of propagation. Cutoff frequency of low pass bessel filter is 7.A Simulation and analysis of fiber non-linearity and dispersion compensation 5. Mach-Zehnder Modulator is used which simply controls the phase and amplitude of the transmitted signal. Along with these devices and components pseudo-random bit sequence generator is used which generates a pulse of on and off sequence. Length of Standard Mode Fiber (SMF) used is 100 Kms with Dispersion Compensation Module/Fiber (DCM) [20] 20 Kms. the optical communication system is pre compensated by the dispersion compensated fiber of negative dispersion against the standard fiber. a BER analyser is also present for the representation of the eye diagram.and symmetrical compensation. EDFA gain is 35 dB. the optical communication system is symmetrically compensated by two dispersion compensated fibers of negative dispersion against the standard fiber in between. 64 samples per bit are transmitted with 4096 as total number of samples. Compensation is done by three methods. quality factor and minimum bit error rate. an oscilloscope is installed for visual analysis of the results.

1: simulation on post compensation method Fig 5.A Simulation and analysis of fiber non-linearity and dispersion compensation The simulation setup of all three schemes is created by using software Simulation setup: (a) pre-compensation with 60 km link with 2 spans (b) post-compensation with 60 km link with 2 spans (c) pre-post compensation with 120 km link with single span using single mode and dispersion compensating fibers. RVCE 2015-16 Page 15 .2: simulation on pre compensation method Dept of Telecommunication Engineering. Fig 5.

having 1 A/W responsivity and 10 nA of dark current. And FBG is used as the dispersion compensator. 5. Then the electrical signal is filtered by low pass Bessel filter and 3R regenerator is used for regeneration. The single mode fiber (SMF) of length 210 km is used as the transmission medium. which is externally modulated at 10 Gbits/sec with a non-return to zero (NRZ) pseudo random binary sequence in a M-Z modulator with 30 db extinction ratio. modulator driver (NRZ).A Simulation and analysis of fiber non-linearity and dispersion compensation Fig 5. RVCE 2015-16 Page 16 . the PIN diode is used as a photo detector.1. Use the continuous wave (CW) laser with frequency 193. Dept of Telecommunication Engineering. the transmitter section consists of data source. 5. At the receiver side.1 THz and output power of 15 dbm. which converts the optical signals into electrical.3 respectively. Simulation setup of all three method is shown in figure 5.2.3: simulation on mix compensation method In the simulation. laser source and Mach-Zehnder (M-Z) modulator. Two EDFAs are used as optical amplifiers in the system with gain of 40 db and 10 db with noise figure 4 db.

A Simulation and analysis of fiber non-linearity and dispersion compensation 6 . Dept of Telecommunication Engineering.5THz the quality factor increases and BER goes on decreasing upto 195.1694 and goes upto the highest range of 20. Fig6. The results which emerged with proper quality factor and BER are in relation with the increase in CW laser frequency i. Both the highest quality factor and minimum. with increase in frequency from 193THz to 195. The length of standard mode fiber (SMF) and dispersion compensation fiber(DCF) has been varied a number of times to get out the optimized results yielding to better system performance.RESULT AND ANALYSIS 6. its power and its linewidth.4THz along with the SMF and DCF lengths of 100Kms and 20Kms respectively.5098 which itself is a great indication of efficiency. And minimum BER which has been achieved is 8.71082e-094. RVCE 2015-16 Page 17 . The quality factor starts from 2. BER has been achieved at the CW laser frequency of 195.e.1THz.1 Analysis of the proposed system on the basis of eye diagram A number of parameter has been used like that of the CW laser frequency. which means a great reduction in the bit error rate while transmitting information.4THz.1 represents the eye diagram of DCF at frequency 193..

A Simulation and analysis of fiber non-linearity and dispersion compensation Fig 6.1 : Eye diagram of DCF at frequency 193. RVCE 2015-16 Page 18 .1THz Dept of Telecommunication Engineering.

4THz Dept of Telecommunication Engineering.2 :Eye diagram of DCF at frequency 193.A Simulation and analysis of fiber non-linearity and dispersion compensation Fig 6. RVCE 2015-16 Page 19 .5THz Fig6.3 : Eye diagram of DCF at frequency 195.

Table 1 : corresponding results[1] Table 2: Simulation results Dept of Telecommunication Engineering. Figure shows at the largest eye diagram opened. According to the test. eye's shape is very good. The figure shows this system have the big decision scope under the guarantee of the condition of system bit error rate. the BER is about 10-12.5THz and 195THz and bit rate of 10Gb/s.3 represents the eye diagram of DCF at frequency 194. when Q=6.2 and 6. The signal quality is high. the Qfactor is bigger. This indicated the DCF compensate different channel's chromatic dispersion greatly. the Q-factors of the four channels achieve about 20. the BER is about 10-9. And the effect of dispersion compensation quite good.A Simulation and analysis of fiber non-linearity and dispersion compensation Figure 6. The curve of Q-factor changes with the open degree of eye diagram as follows: More approaches the point of largest eye diagram opened. RVCE 2015-16 Page 20 . and the edge neat graph is symmetrical. when Q=7. and the Corresponding BER is smaller.

6]. In the proposed methodology. It is observed that the effect of dispersion compensating fibers using 30Km fiber for pre compensation. Post-Compensation fiber length = 35km [fig.223014ns . for precompensation & postcompensation. if the DCF length for the Pre-compensation & Post compensation fiber = 24Km. as a quality factor.80072 e 0. As frequency goes on increasing from 193. BER=1e040 and Jitter=0.7602dB. RVCE 2015-16 Page 21 . a comparison is made between the various configurations taken.024919ns this is the optimum compensation scheme which has been obtained Above tables 1 and 2 tells the relation between Q factor and BER and prove that Q factor and bit error rate are inversely proportional. SMF=120Km.4: Comparison of transmission influence of three compensation system In optical communication systems. SMF=120Km. However.A Simulation and analysis of fiber non-linearity and dispersion compensation By taking into account the dispersion management scheme which is employed using a transmission line consisting of equal numbers of 120 km SMF and DCF sections of 24 km. Analysing other configurations of Pre-compensating fiber length=30km. especially in WDM systems.the estimated values of the Q Factor=30. SMF=120Km. the estimated values of the Q Factor=20. Typically.1THz to 195THz bit error goes on decreasing and Q factor increasing first tables is took it from reference paper and it practically proved by using optisystem Fig 6. Post-Compensation fiber length=30km [fig. only optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) could not accurately measure the system performance. Q is a one of the important indicators to measure the optical performance by Dept of Telecommunication Engineering. BER=1.5346dB. SMF of 120Km and 24Km fiber for the Post compensation.26 and Jitter=0. 30km and 35km for Pre compensation & Post compensation.5] and DCF Pre compensation fiber length=35km.

4 display the influence of input optical power on the performance of transmission system. In this work. analysis of the Q-factor revealed that system performance has exceeded by an amount of 10dB which shows a significant increase. the Q factor becomes the maximum. And from the figure6. Fig6. When the input optical power approaches 9dB. making the system BER performance is degraded rapidly.A Simulation and analysis of fiber non-linearity and dispersion compensation which to characterize the BER. When the input optical power is greater than 9dB. Through the whole system study found that the performance of mix -compensation system is best in the long-distance high-speed WDM systems. the system performance decreases as the total dispersion of fiber exceeded that of the DCF.4 find that with the input optical power increased to about 9dB. the nonlinear effect increases rapidly. the Q factor increases. CONCLUSION Dept of Telecommunication Engineering. Fig6. RVCE 2015-16 Page 22 . As can be seen from Figure 2 in the case of the fiber optical power equal. but the optical signal noise ratio increased. A moderate bigger value of laser average power is favorable to the performance of the transmission system. When the input optical power is greater than 9dB the quality factor decreased gradually and the error performance is gradually degraded.4 appear that the effect of laser average power is just contrary to the previous situations. nonlinear effects increase. Results show that symmetrical compensation for 24Km fiber of DCF is much better than the results obtained for the compensation obtained for the 30Km and 35Km length of the fiber. it is found that the system performance gradually improved as the total dispersion of the transmission fiber tend towards that of the DCF and in a similar fashion. This is because as the optical power increases. Furthermore. the quality factor of mixcompensation is greater than the two other kinds of dispersion compensation.

It has been found that there is a considerable improvement in terms of Q factor and reduced BER. the effect of laser average power is just contrary to the previous situations. RVCE 2015-16 Page 23 . the corresponding BER performance is better. this program better than the pre-compensation and post compensation program.A Simulation and analysis of fiber non-linearity and dispersion compensation In fiber optical high bit rate (such as 10Gbit/s) long-haul transmission systems. REFERENCES Dept of Telecommunication Engineering. A moderate bigger value of laser average power is favourable to the performance of the transmission system the input fiber power is taken as 9-10dB. dispersion compensation is one of the most important items to be considered for design. The results show that the optimum compensation scheme is achieved when a DCF of 20km for pre & post compensation is used. Mix-compensation scheme can greatly reduce the fiber nonlinear effects. For this compensation scheme.

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