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Retrospecting the Origins of the League of the Iroquois

Author(s): William A. Starna
Source: Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 152, No. 3 (Sep., 2008), pp. 279321
Published by: American Philosophical Society
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40541589
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theOriginsof
Retrospecting
theLeagueoftheIroquois
WILLIAM A. STARNA
Professor
StateUniversity
ofNewYorkCollegeat Oneonta
Emeritus,
Ontario
Emeritus,
AdjunctProfessor
Queen'sUniversity,
Kingston,

A SELDOM-CITED SHORT ESSAY,WilliamN. Fenton,the
"As a youngmanI
dean of Iroquoisstudies,candidlyremarked,
I wouldreallybe able to authenticate
theLeagueof the
thought
with
some
answers.
As
I've
and
end
up
grownolder,I've realIroquois
Thoseprobaizedthereare no answers;thereare onlyprobabilities."1
moreweight,evenaugmented,
however,
bilities,
by
mightbe afforded
the
data
from
which
were
derived.
and
they
reassembling reexamining
whichoftheprobabilities
suchan exercisemightdetermine
Moreover,
historical
truth.
is themostlikelyto reflect
so constituted
oraltraditions,
and otherpointsofviewon the
Scholarly
writings,
orethnoMost
are
measured
historical
of
the
are
League, legion.
genesis
with
the
of
a
level
commensurate
assessments
fully
singularimlogical
oftheLeagueto Iroquoispeopleandcolonialhistory,
although
portance
Butthere
therehas beentheoccasionalcounterintuitive
undertaking.
theLeague'sorigin,
remainmanyunanswered
questionssurrounding
intended
to serve,and itsform.
thepurposeit was initially
itstiming,
of a thought
Andperhapsalongthewaythereneedsto be a revisiting
Fenton's
Merle
entertained
Deardorff,
colleaguein
longtime
yearsago by
"the
creationof
the
have
been
Could
unwitting
League
things
Iroquois:
in
the
of
Lewis
HenryMorgan"?2
footsteps
following
anthropologists
is thata sourcecrucialto an
Of specialnotein thisretrospection
oftheLeaguecomesnotfromthenearlytwocenturies
understanding
thepublished
of Dutch,French,and Englishrecordsof colonization,
1WilliamN. Fenton,"Problemsin theAuthentication
of theLeague of theIroquois,"in
An Ethnohistorical
Explorationof theIndiansofHudson'sRiver,
Neighborsand Intruders:
ed. LaurenceM. Hauptmanand JackCampisi,NationalMuseumof Man MercurySeries,
ServicePaperNo. 39, p. 266 (Ottawa,1978).
CanadianEthnological
2WilliamN. Fenton,The GreatLaw and theLonghouse:A PoliticalHistoryof theIro(Norman,Okla., 1998), 713.
quois Confederacy
PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY

VOL. 152, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2008

[279]

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WILLIAM

280

A. STARNA

butfromthepen of a
or modernnativetradition,
literature,
scholarly
in
Moravian
German-born
missionary.
Writing
mid-eighteenth-century
hisnativelanguage,JohannChristopher
Pyrlaeus(1713-1785) putto
Mohawk
an
what
man,had toldhimof the
paper
Sganarády, elderly
League'sbeginnings.
Background
In December1741, BishopNicolaus Ludwig,Grafvon Zinzendorf,
to New York
steppedoffa shipthathad takenhimfromAmsterdam
north
to
a
first
to
then
He
traveled
newlyformed
Philadelphia,
City.
on theLehighRiver,upon whichhe bestowed
Moraviancommunity
thefollowAta synodheldin Oley,Pennsylvania,
thenameBethlehem.
Zinzendorf
decidedto visitthemixedIndiancommunity
ingFebruary,
and Moravianmissionat Shekomekoin New York'sHudsonValley.3
he spenta weekin conference
withhispartyin mid-August,
Arriving
rebrethren.
Thesedeliberations
withtheIndiansand severalresident
one ofthembeingto exsultedin theadoptionofa listofresolutions,
intoNew Englandand,byname,Altendthechurch'smissioneffort
the
of theMohawks.Two
This
meant
into
disposition
bany.
looking
withsomeoftheirheadmenat interweeksearlierat a chancemeeting
ZinzenIndian
Conrad
Weiser's
homeinTulpehocken,
and
preter
agent
to visitall sixoftheIroquoisnations.4
dorfhad madearrangements
To initiatethe Moravians'missionary
endeavoramongthe MoChristian
HeinrichRauchwas directed
to travelfrom
hawks,Brother
Bethlehem
to Albany,and thenceintotheMohawkValley.He was to
to liveamongthesenativepeohemightbe permitted
discoverwhether
of
tellthemsomething
ple and learntheirlanguageand, perchance,
wouldpavethewayfortheMoraJesusChrist.His efforts
presumably
wouldfollow.
vianbrethren
Zinzendorf
intended
Rauch'sjourney,
begun
at theend ofJanuary1743, tookhimfirstto theMohawkvillageof
theresidence
oftheRev(van)andadjacentFortHunter,
Tionondoroge
erendHenryBarclay,thenwestto two otherMohawkcommunities,
onenearpresent
FortPlainandthatofCanajoharieoppositethemouth
with
severalunproductive
encounters
ofEastCanadaCreek.5Following
3Recordsof theMoravianMissionamongtheIndiansof NorthAmerica.Microfilm,
40
Dec. 1741,Jan.1742. Hereafter
cited
reels.MoravianArchives,
Bethlehem,
Pa., 26/211/5/1,
as RMM (reel/box/folder/item
and date).
number,
4WilliamC. Reichel,ed.,MemorialsoftheMoravianChurch
1870),32-33,
(Philadelphia,
57. Zinzendorf
nevervisitedanyoftheIroquoiscommunities,
althoughseveralotherMoraviansdid.SeeWilliamM. Beauchamp,ed.,MoravianJournals
Relatingto CentralNew York,
1745-66 (Syracuse,
N.Y., 1916).
5An unknownbutsmallnumberofMahicansalso residedinTionondoroge.

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THE LEAGUE OF THE IROQUOIS

281

theIndians,Rauchreturned
toAlbanyonlyto learnthattheauthorities
werehot on his trailbecausehe did not have a pass to travelin the
therewithout
area. He hastilybeat a retreatto Shekomeko,
arriving
at theendofFebruary.6
further
incident
At thesametimethatRauchwas in theMohawkValley,Johann
Pyrlaeussat at a tablein ConradWeiser'shometaking
Christopher
fromhimlessonsin theMohawklanguage.Followingthreemonthsof
with
intensive
he and Susanna,hiswife,traveledto Shekomeko,
study,
reRauch
about
his
After
with
to
to
the
Mohawks.
conferring
plans go
thePyrlaeusesbegantheirjourneythe last week of
centexperience,
at FortHunter
June1743.As hadRauchbeforethem,theystoppedfirst
withRev.Barclay.
fora meeting
Barclaywas on hisguard,as theMoravianswerewidelybelievedto
in theanti-Catholic
be papists,a distinct
colonyofNew
disadvantage
to travel
to grantPyrlaeuspermission
York.He was at firstreluctant
be
made
should
that
such
farther
west,maintaining any
directly
request
of theGospel.But
at theSocietyforthePropagation
to his superiors
forPyrlaeus's
resistance
was soonassuagedbyhisadmiration
Barclay's
to learn
Mohawklanguageskills;he admittedthathis own attempts
The Indiansat FortHunter
thelanguagehad beenlessthansuccessful.
at Pyrlaeus'sabilityto
astonishment
wereequallyimpressed,
voicing
thelanguage
overcome
in
them.
understand
Having
speakand, turn,
he norhis religionwas a
and convincing
barrier,
Barclaythatneither
continued
their
and
Susanna
threat,
Thirtymilesupjourney.
Pyrlaeus
riverfromFortHuntertheycame to Canajoharie,takingroughand
on an earth
farmer
nearby,
sleeping
readylodgingwithan impoverished
floorand bedeviledbymosquitos.Nothingis knownabouttheirvisit
ofthatplace.Whatmayhavebeenan attempt
withthenativeresidents
was thwarted
to travelon to Onondaga,however,
by an Indianwho
advisedthemthatunlesstheyweretradersor licensed,
theycouldnot
back
to
Shekomeko.7
made
their
and
Susanna
way
proceed.Pyrlaeus
to havereturned
is reported
inearlyto mid-July,
Sometime
Pyrlaeus
to the valleyaccompaniedby ChristianFrederickPost, the errant
inIndian-colonial
Moravianwholaterbecameentangled
politics.A reThe sameis trueofPyrlaeus's
cordoftheirtriphasyetto be discovered.
thirdvisitto Canajohariein August,whenhe tookwithhimBrother
6RMM 29/221/4/4,
n.d.
7Pyrlaeusrecountshis journeyto the Mohawks in his so-called "Treatise. RMM
an
1739-1751. However,he tellsa somewhatdifferent
storyin hisLebenslaufe
29/221/21/1,
memoirhe composedin 1785, someforty
yearsafterthefact.See thenote
autobiographical
thatfollows.

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1971). Pa.withtheintention to go on to in hisLebenslaufe Onondaga. 1738-1744. This content downloaded from 132. loomslargein thehistory the of their that celebrated alliance formed understanding origins League.85. Severalyearslaterhe was recruited Postto Christian by assisthimwiththeDelawareIndianmissionin westernPennsylvania.236. 26/211/5/1. 1739-July1746.and CustomsoftheIndianNationswho Once InHistory. oftheMohawks. 15 Aug 2015 18:25:26 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Oneidas.and ed.8 settlea fewMoraviansamongtheMohawks. his and producing history ethnological treatiseon the Delaware Indians. Hamilton.. Mai 1785. Pyrlaeusand SeifertleftShekomekofortheMohawkValleytwo dayslater.on 8 August. 1742-1744 (Bethlehem.however. He soonafterturnedto writing. Pyrlaeus'sLebenslaufor in the Bethlehem Diary for1743. The Bethlehem Diary.9AlthoughHeckewelderdiscussed briefreporton theoriginsoftheIroquoisLeagueat several Pyrlaeus's 8The solereference to thePyrlaeus-Post journeyintotheMohawkValleyis intheso-called "MasterDiary.trans. Pyrlaeusreportsthattheywerewarnedoffbyan unnamedIndianheadmanand a local settler.. "Lebenslaufdes BrudersJohannChristophPyrinHerrnhut den28..Cayugas.however. RMM Dec. 57.in particular. 9JohnHeckewelder.and Sénecas. wordsstandtodayas theearliestdocumented Pyrlaeus's anditscomposition.thatwas keptbyBrotherGottlobBüttner. habitedPennsylvania and theNeighboring States(1819.1971). English publishedby a on of this have had considerable studies 1819.JohnHeckewelder. Translated into accountoftheLeague'sbeginnings in fellow and first a Moravian. STARNA The objectof all of thesecomingsand goingswas to AntonSeiffert.New York. Butthatdoesnotendtheepisode.VolumeI.26 on Sat. His vocationchosen.Heckewelder continued workinPennmissionary and the Ohio until when he retired to Bethlehem. First Record It was in all likelihoodon one of his journeysto theMohawkValley information that thatPyrlaeus collectedfroman Indianhe encountered in of theIroquoispeopleand.Written in a neathandin Germanscripton two manuscript pagesamidstthe he morethanfivehundredpages of a Mohawk languagedictionary had compiled."citedhere.Onondagas.Those plans.LeagueoftheHo-dé-no-sau-nee or Iroquois.they impact subsequent WhatPyrlaeus recorded hasbeencitedandrecited cultural phenomenon. didnotmaterialize. KennethG.heimgegangen (Gnadau. stationedat thetime in Shekomeko."inNachrichten aus derBrüder-Gemeine läus. sylvania country 1810.curiously. The journeyis notmentionedin 1/111/1/1. save one theestimable LewisHenry and history ethnology in treatment of an Morgan who 1851 publishedthe firstscientific American Indianpeople. Manners.WILLIAM 282 A.1785). overthelasttwo centuries by nearlyeverymajorscholarof Iroquois . who reportsthatthetwo returned to Shekomekoon 6 August1743. repr. fromLondon (1743-1823)arrivedinBethlehem JohnHeckewelder inApril1754.

Heckewould thenbe devotedonlyto "pacificemployments."in effectchangingtheirstatusfromwarriorsto mediatorswhose interests In brief. forethewhitepeople(theDutch)cameintothecountry.whichat thattimemetand formedthealliance. of the from two towns Sénecas.61. had beenone ofthedeputiessentforthepurIndian. Heckeweldertook the view that Pyrlaeushad contributedone more criticalpiece of evidenceto explainwhyand underwhat circumstances theIroquois had decidedto label theDelaware Indians"women.. genesis writtenby Moravians George Henry Loskiel and David Zeisberger.wherethiscovenantof friendship in active were the the Mohawks and first established.85. witheachother. 10Ibid.viz."&c. thesewords:"According aged Sganarady.aboutfourmilesbelowwhere was afterwards Albanywas built. butthisis no mere manuscript is quotedincludesthe quibble. book." welderarguedthatthe label had been applied earlyin the seventeenth shortlyafterthe arrivalof Europeans and just priorto the alcentury. "All are forever these names by saying: in after each nation a them.Mr. "The allianceor confederacy one age (or thelengthofa man'slife)benearas can be conjectured.C.afterfixing as nearas he couldthe TheRev. suggesting translation.236. Thannawage was thenameoftheagedIndian.Togaháyon. This content downloaded from 132. 15 Aug 2015 18:25:26 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ."11 Accordingto Heckewelder.hisgrandfather intoa covenantwiththewhiteEuropeans. &c.Ganiatarióand Onondagas. "Toganawita. body effecting thiswork.whofirst proposedsuch thengivesthenamesof thechiefsof the an alliance.a Mohawk."He [Pyrlaeus] FiveNations.: of theOneidas." andconcludeswith SatagarúyeSy to be keptin remembrance. of the of the tarho.Pyrlaeus. timewhentheFiveNationsconfederated proceedsin a creditable tomyinformant.THE LEAGUE OF THE IROQUOIS 283 pointsin thiswork. scriptand theaccuracyofHeckewelder's 11Ibid. Pyrlaeus..says: as oftheFiveNationswas established.theymet pose ofentering at a placesincecalledNordman'sKill.Otatschéchta.&c.the meaningof Pyrlaeus'sstatementextendedbeyondthatof a relativelystraightforward storyof theLeague's in basic and its part on the histories Relying great components.56nl.page 234 [sic].It reads as follows: in his manuscript The Rev.Tatoof theMohawks.it is the textof a footnoteon page 56 thatis cited by historians.EverysourceconsultedwherethefootnotefromHeckewelder thatnot one scholarhas examinedthe originalmanuerroneouspage number.10 naming person Heckewelderoffersadditionaldetail fromPyrlaeus'saccount elsewherein his book: inhisnotes.26 on Sat. Cayugas. mostcertaindefeatof the Iroquois by a combinedforceof Delawares. ThecorrectpagenumberinPyrlaeus's is 235.

thereare otherproblems.daselbstkamendie Mohawkszuersthinzur des Aufrichtung Bundes."David Zeisberger'sHistoryof theNorthernAmerican and HistoricalQuarterly19 (1910): 1-189.] Ein Maquaischer. Pyrlaeus'sactheseeventsis confirmed by modernhistories.236.Historyof theMission." countis whollyunrelated But or wars betweenthe Iroquoisand theirAlgonquianneighbors.and others. here:DiesenNahmenhattevorherschoneinervon markedforinsertion seinerFreundschaft gehabt.- 12Ibid.Er war aber nach seinenAblebendiesenIndianerbeygeleget worden.85.. translation faulty and Whatfollowsis theGerman-language transcription thentranslationof theexcerptin questionfromPyrlaeus's"Lexiconder MaccomoftheMohawkLanguage. 15 Aug 2015 18:25:26 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . PhilaMS 497.WILLIAM A.umihnzu propagieren.where and theexchange was formalized thearrangement ceremony through ofwampum. 14In themargin. werdenisteinMannsLebenzuvorausgerichtet worden. thatis. Die Mohaxsendeten Toganawita Otatschéchte 2.e. i. STARNA 284 forthe Mahicans. eine Familieausmachen. 15In themargin:Thannawágeistderjenige alteIndianer..15 derNaDie Nahmenderer5 besonderen Deputierten Hauptleute Bunderrichtet welchedenNationenFriedens tionen. vorgeschlagen This content downloaded from 132. plot. AmericanPhilosophicalSociety. and translation delphia. See generally Loskiel.theirbeingcalled"women. die ein Hauß. thefirstand foremost beingHeckewelder's andthenhisreporting ofwhatPyrlaeus had written.] A Dictionary 1743 and about 1748:13 between piled Transcription: [235] diedeswegen DerFriedens Bundzwischen denen5 Nationen. totheDelawares. Die Oneider.ArcherButlerHulbertand WilliamNathanielSchwarze. welchen mitdenenweisen(Europaern) denBund dieMohaxIndianersendeten.wo Albanienhernach isthingebauet worden.33 P99. haben[:] 1.eds.14 undderwareinervondenenDeputirten.thattheDutchboredirectresponsibility Dutch had conand that the least had been the or at instigators.LautdemBericht GroßVater diesesIndianers digenaltenIndianers Sganarády genannt.v.26 on Sat." quaischenSprachen[.ehe genennet zuerstdasclbin die weisenLeuteAlbanienanbautenodervielmehr einesglaubwürderselben Gegendgesehenworden.Transcription byCorinnaDally-Starna. 302.12 or Heckewelder allegedabout NothingofwhatLoskiel.Zeisberger. Indians.56-63.welcherdenBunddenNationen [. Der OrtderZusammenkunft warbey derFreundschaft aufzurichten. hießTokaháyon."Ohio StateArchaeological 13AmericanIndianManuscripts. derNordmanns Kill4 MeilenunterdemPlaz. Aquadie Allürten.pag. veneda grandcouncilof Delawaresand IroquoisnearAlbany. noschióni.

meine jüngeren Brüder.85. unserejüngereBrüderI oder auch Untattéco. Accordingto the account of a credibleold Indian named Sganarády.oder GeschwisterKinder. aucha Town. cousins. Indianer Sagogáei.e. or rather.4. 19In themargin:Tsonontowane.26 on Sat. Danoncaritaoni.19 Die Seneckernennensie TsSonnanwantówane und haltensie vor die jungenSöhne. verte18 [236] Die Oneidernennensie Niharuntagóa und haltenihnvor den älterenSohn.e. This content downloaded from 132. Die Onontager.- 285 Tatotárho Togaháyon Ganniatario16 and Satagarúuyes17 so Und weil die Mohawksdie erstengewesensind.it.. Onontágo heistSagochsanogéchte in onontago [blank]sagochsanogechtége Die Aquanoschioniheißendie '^¿^¿i Niockwát[o] d. a Town.236. was formedone man's lifeago. beforethe whitepeople builtAlbany.vid. 21In themargin:Sagaochwãtam. i.e.und heißendiese Nation den Bruder. a family. Die Senequer. i. die Tutelars.this Indian's grandfather 16In themargin:von ihrerStadt.Thegaronhies.i.were firstseen therein thatarea.die im Bundgetreten. zünd die federan) so heistein Chiefin onontágo. 15 Aug 2015 18:25:26 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 21721 Die Aquanoschioniheißendie EngeländerUnguagse.p. Onassatéko (i.Dionenhogaráwe. 18In themargin:Lehanton[Lahonton]. ist ihrTitulim Rath Tgarihógu.20 Die Tuscarorernennensie Tuscaróro Sohn weil sie zulezt in die Allianz und haltensie vor den Jüngern getretensind. 20In themargin:Totirechrohne.the allies. 487. vid. d. ältesterBruder Translation: [235] The peace alliance betweenthe 5 nations.Onuchgarritáwy.THE LEAGUE OF THE IROQUOIS 3.p. Die Gajuquer . cousins. Oziragéllioheistdes vorigens. those who make up a house.called forthat reason Aquanoschioni. 77.5. Der Chiefin onontágo heißt s. 17In themargin:von derStadt.

¿bIn themargin:FromthetownDionenhogarawe. thatis. also a Town*.pag.afterhisdeath. a Town.itwas bestoweduponthisIndianin orderto propagate it'. 15 Aug 2015 18:25:26 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .v. verte16 [236] The Oneidertheycall Niharuntagóa and considerhimtheolder son. Onontágo is called Sagochsanogéchte in onontago [blank]sagochsanogechtége callthe TheAquanoschioni {^¿^r} NiockwátM thatis. This content downloaded from 132. 29In themargin:'Sagaochwãtam[eans]cousins'. The Senequer.85. fortheywere thelast to have enteredthealliance.or siblings'children.p. The Gajuquer . Danoncaritaoni. our youngerbrothersI or also Untattéco.The location of thismeetingwas near the Normanskill.However. cousins.WILLIAM A. 4 milesbelow the place whereAlbanywas laterbuilt.a Mohawk. theirtitul[us][title]in council is Tgarihógu.4.it. 26In themargin:'Lehanton[Lahonton]. 487'.26 on Sat.vid. 302'. 27In themargin:"Tsonontówane. The Mohax sent Toganawita Otatschéchte 2. 22In themargin.Tatotárho 3. theTutelars. 21729 The Aquanoschionicall theEnglishUnguagse. vid. The Onontager. 77.28 The Tuscarorertheycall Tuscaróro and considerthemtheyoungerson. 23In themargin:Thannawáge is theold Indianwho had suggestedtheallianceto the . STARNA 286 was called Tokaháyon22and he was one of those deputieswho the Mohax Indians had sentto forman alliance of peace withthe whites (Europeans).Togaháyon Ganniatario24 5.and Satagaruuyes25 And because the Mohawks had been the firstto enterthe alliance.and this nation is called thebrother.to whichplace theMohawks firstcame fortheformationof thealliance. markedforinsertion here:This namewas alreadycarriedbyone of his kinbefore.23The names of the 5 special chiefswho were the deputiesof the nationsthat had formedthepeace alliance [are]: 1. nations 24In themargin:'FromtheirtownOnuchgarritawy'.Thegaronhies.27 The Seneckertheycall TsSonnanwantówane and considerthemtheyoungsons. The Oneider .p.236." 28In themargin:Totirechróhne.

. 31ElsewhereCanasatego'sbrother's name is spelled"Zila Woolien.See also Elisabeth Politics.2 (2001): 301-14. 418-41 (Washington. BruceG.myyounger brothers. 30 how "ca-" cameto replace"o-" in this in explaininglinguistically Despitethedifficulty name.is not to repeat.. Fields. The Amin theEra of EuropeanColonization(Chapel Hill. FrancisJennings. 66-73."Fenton..THE LEAGUE OF THE IROQUOIS 287 The chiefinonontágocallshisIndiansSagogse.to suggestan alternateview of its inceptionand evolution.however. Trigger..N.85.Volume15.. on thatfooting. Despite the wide range of available estimates. Mann and Jerry AmericanIndianCultureand ResearchJournal21. 2004). 1992).It is insteadto followthetrailof documentsand relatedlinesof evidencehavingto do withtheLeague and. Kuhn and MarthaL.thatis."The LeagueoftheIroquois:ItsHistory. century.GreatLaw. formation are The behind its intothesixteenth. emend. This content downloaded from 132.and also withintheframeworkof modernscholarship.] Documenting the League The foundingof the Iroquois League and its timing. Onassatéko(i."in Friendsand Enemiesin Penn'sWoods: ed. Richter.and archaeology.and Ritual.the consensusview well positsthe League's beginningsfromsometimein the late fifteenth." 105-63.145."and "Zillawoolie. AmericanIndians. Snow. 60. D.The Iroquois (Cambridge. Starna. RobertD.and theRacial Construction of Pennsylvania.or furnisha critiqueof what has been written.1984).2 (1997): LeagueoftheHaudenosaunee. Fentonmayhavegotitrightwhenhe wrote. 1994).""Zila Woolie. set the featheron fire)such is a chiefcalled in onontágo. ed."Authentication theformation League. 3-6 and workscitedtherein. The bestand mostauthoritative 32Theliterature cussionis in Fenton.Mass.ethnologists. chaps.ethnologicaltheory.236. of greatinterestto nativeand non-nativehistorians. 144-63 (University Daniel K."AmericanAntiquity L. The OrdealoftheLonghouse:The PeoplesoftheIroquoisLeague 1978).. ofIndianTribeswithEnglish biguousIroquoisEmpire:The CovenantChainConfederation Colonies(New York.Pa. An unhelpful accountof LeagueoftheIroquois. DanielK. 33Fenton. 15 Aug 2015 18:25:26 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Northeast.have been subjects League's structure."266.e. in history."Onassatéko"is probablythenotedOnondagaheadmanCanasatego.and othersformanydecades.C..32The purposehere."A New Approachto Datingthe 66.Colonists. Richter. WilliamA.along with the workings.31 [.C. Pencakand Indians. thatis."Ibid.."The DiplomaticCareerof Canasatego.Great Law.See WilliamA. dison theIroquoisLeagueis extensive."The wholesearchforan exactdateof ofthe oftheIroquois[League]seemsto be nonsense.26 on Sat.and place in history. Sempowski. Park. See also Dean R.33 explanations of the in tradition the the Iroquois League Deganawidahepic expressed ."inHandbookofNorth Tooker.30 Theeldestbrother oftheone beforeis calledOziragéllio."A Signin theSky:Datingthe theLeague'sgenesisis BarbaraA.

IroquoianLinguistics. 36The total numberof League chiefs.duringwhicha chiefwho had diedwas mournedand a newchiefraisedin hisplace."424-25. listedfifty withtheirtitles.Cayugas.an OnAyonhwathah headman.35 WhenAdodarhonh had beenpersuadedto joinin theGreatPeace.theIroquoisConfederacy.236. a Mohawk."League.288 WILLIAM A.Algonquianand IroquoisLeagueTradition Memoir9 (Winnipeg. unevenly among emoniesand customs. and chaps.and unless are as theyappearin thesourcecited.is notspecified inanywritten recorduntilLewisHenryMorgan.."whether bytheDeganawidahepicor as demandedbythepoliticalrealitiesofthecolonialperiod.itspeopleand all otherlivingthings.inthemid-nineteenth century. This content downloaded from 132.85. STARNA ForIroquoispeopletherearetwo"greatpublicutterances" emblematicofand essentialto theirculturehistory. and trans. Iroquois.3-6.GreatLaw.spellingsand associateddiacritics theLeaguelegend.B.36 GreatLaw.In versionsof noted. 15 Aug 2015 18:25:26 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . or as one and the sameperson.a figure withsupernatural qualitiesand bornof a virgin. 51. Onondaga Together. The mostcompleteversionoftheepicis Hanni 34Fenton. nawidahepicor themessageofthePeacemaker.as wellas the spellingsofchiefs'namesnotcitedto a specific occasionaltechnicalspelling.His allyin thisendeavor was theresolutebutsorelyafflicted (Hiawatha). Nontechnical source. theoriginstoryofthe formittellshowtheMoLeagueoftheIroquois.a malignant and mercurial shaman. 1992).withReg Henryand HarryWebster.ora Huron. theLeague: The Woodbury.broughtan end to blood feudand warfare. 74. The first is thecosmologi.who at thetimewerelivingin horticultural villagesscattered eastto westacrosspresentNew YorkState. Concerning as Dictatedin OnondagabyJohnArthurGibson. ed. thenamingand installationof Leaguechiefswhoseoffices weredistributed but permanently the five and the formalization ofessential cernations.and Sénecasceasedtheirfeudingand wars by acceptingand abidingby thePeacemaker's message in theGreatPeace. a grandcouncilwas arranged oftheheadmenfromamongtheIroquois It is understood thattheoutcomeofdeliberations at villages. and sorceryamongthe corruptgovernment. 35N.as italso cameto be called. generally thisassembly was thecreationofthebylawsoftheLeagueor. and celestialbodieswerecreated.In itsmostelemental hawks.theWomanWho FellfromtheSkycal mythof theEarthGrasper whichdescribeshow theearth.34 andthenuniting In itsseveralversionstheepicexplainshowDeganawidah. The two faced a formidable obstacleto theirmission ondaga in theformof Adodarhonh(Thadodaho). perhaps and reformed Adodarhonh and established Deganawidah Ayonhwathah theLeague. Ayonhwathah Fenton. is described as an Onondagaémigré.Oneidas.themostimportant of whichwas theCondolenceCouncil.League who.are fromTooker.26 on Sat. Otherwise.The secondis theDegaspiritforces.LewisHenryMorgan. referred to in the literature as "sacustomarily as prescribed chems.Onondagas.

citingHewitt1920." This content downloaded from 132. Tooker.it is impossibleto knowtheprecisemeaningbeleadersas "sachems"by colonial scribesor by Indians hindthe labelingof presumptive morethanthat.14-15 (Syracuse. and Lafitau1924. 1607-1789.The titlesachemcameto be appliedto Iroquoisheadmen.. were (Mohawk)'he is a chief.N.N. Few oftheIroquoispoliticalsystem. betweentheIroLeaguechiefs?Answersto thesequestionsmaylie in therecordofmeetings Forexample. 15 Aug 2015 18:25:26 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . trans. 1996).. Richterand JamesH.Bragdon. chaps.althoughnativewordsforsuchleadersarerakowa-. Brodhead. a Landscapeof Peace: IroquoisWallace. projectthissamenumberofchiefsdeepintohistory "OrdealsoftheLonghouse:The FiveNationsin Early oftheLeague. 11.theirnameswererarelyrecorded.MatthewDennis.249n3.and ed. Robert A. had yieldedwell overtwelvehundrednamesof Indianswho were lessthansevenhundredpersons. 'leader'. to theverydawn fication savetradition.3-6 and the Ordeal and "Ordeals".236.15 vols. Daniel K.N. reasonsforwhichwerethreatsfromencroaching Europeansand.has suggested IndianDocucouncilsbyappointedspeakers..Thiswordis attestedin variousformsfromthelatesevroya-.faultsDutchand Englishofficials ignorant the thoughtthatperhapsthe League as describedby scholars."representing something weretraceableto listscompiledby namesmatchedthosefoundon Morgan'sroster..ed. simply Algonquian*sa:kima:wawhichtranslates New England. were"theeldestSachemsof theMaquas. Merrell. in a NorthAmericanIndigenousVisionof Constitutionalism ArmsTogether:Multicultural Law and Peace. 1995). VolumeVIII. or designation deathofa "sachem..I reat the1977 Conference Namesand Numbers. Fenton.. Smithsonian Reserve." dianNorthAmerica.Procuredin Holland.1962).Fenton. Bruyas1863..ed.Hewittin 1920.15 (1950): 1-73.Earlyintheeighteenth to'a considerable andrefers enteenth century century it meant'theancients. Complicating Morgansimplydid notexistin theseventeenth tersis themeaningofsachemand themannerin whichitwas ascribedto IndianmenbycoThe wordis fromtheProtolonialofficials.Md. DocumentsRelativeto theColonialHistory ofNew York. Richter.THE LEAGUE OF THE IROQUOIS 289 havemostoftenviewedthegenesisand purposeof Socialtheorists theunderlying theLeagueto be an exampleofpoliticalconfederation."CaliforniaLaw Review82 (1994): 981-1049.NativePeopleofSouthern Okla.GreatLaw. Richter.Nineofthe identified as "sachems. 199.ancestors'. ments. therewas littleindicationthat.neh (Mohawk)'he is a greatone' and rahsennowameh (Mohawk)'his nameis great'. in BeyondtheCovenantChain:TheIroquoisand TheirNeighborsinInAmericanHistory.B."League". "Linking League plethoric portrayal ticularly exaggerated. It has also been the native with them. B..26 on Sat.EarlyAmericanIndianDocuments:Treatiesand Laws.Graymont. 15 in number."a paperpresented portedthata searchof E. Gehring.N.have entertained matand eighteenth centuries.councilors.League chiefs.thatis.Cultivating America(Ithaca. Williams the is of Jr. repr.. O'Callaghan. Manyscholars.in conformance or "passed down" followingthe nameshad been perpetuated putativeLeague orthodoxy.Death and Rebirth. The IroquoisBook ofRites(1883. Moreover.1600-1800. Forexamplesofthisprojectionsee Fenton.GreatLaw.fifteen HoratioHale.GreatLaw.and FrancebyJohnR.. In theend.perhaps Werethesepersonssimplyvillageheadmenor something themselves."The Roll Call oftheIroquoisChiefs:A Studyofa MnemonicCane fromtheSixNations thenames MiscellaneousCollections111.frefoes.(Albany. Iroquois' quentlyjoining meansfor as a alliance was formed that the quasi-militaristic suggested no justiNew York.85. 64-65.withvirtually oftheIroquois(1851. 1993).KathleenJ.1972) and WilliamN.See Daniel K. ed. CharlesT. literature citedtherein.. xxvii-xxviii.1500-1650 (Norman.Y."whichpointsto an ad hoc recognition in thatbecauseLeaguechiefsusuallywererepresented Fenton.Y. 1853-87).Y. 1987). A parNew Yorkand New Jersey Treaties. repr." with rarelyrepeatedthroughtime.xxviii.it seems.1683-1713 (Bethesda. BarbaraGray-Century EuropeanEncountersin Seventeenth mont.as describedbyJ. Snow.Iroquois.appearingbeforea tribunalat FortOrangein 1658 quois and colonialofficials. In "IroquoisSachems:Their on IroquoisResearch. ofsuchheadmen.nehr manorwoman'. Toronto.England.

Y. Century: Confederacy.GreatLaw. Wallace.85."The DekanawidahMythAnalyzedas theRecordof a Revitalization 5 (1958): 118-30. idem. to whatcamefirst: theideologyleadingto confederation.26 on Sat.Others. In my1977 paper"IroquoisSachems.290 WILLIAM A. "Ordeals. in theliterature on theDe37Theterms"myth"and "tradition"are usedinterchangeably used"legend. 2 vols. setthenumberof Leaguechiefsat fifty.1976). (Montreal. theconfederationto be subsequently justified by theideology. sometimes The ChildrenofAathegenesisand purposeoftheLeaguesee ibid. Deganamythspeaks widah.TwentyyearslatereightyIroquois"Sachims"convenedwithNew York Kingston.who broughta plan of peace to thewarringIroquois.Daniel Richterdrewa distinction beand othernativegroups.and (2) a politicalLeaguewitha varying withcolonial and engagedin a fullrangeof diplomaticefforts villageand nationalinterests in 1987.In 1673 "morethansixtyoftheoldestand mostinfluential sachims"fromthefiveIroquoisnationsmetwithCount de Frontenacat present Ontario. untilMorgan.Out of a confederacy thatcalledfortheestablishment thisreformation emerged ofa hereditary counciloffifty chiefsfromthefiveIroquoisnationsapa decision-making processbasedon consenpointedbyclan matrons.. Hauptman.71-73.For thesake of I havechosento use"League"throughout andconsistency thisessay.anda politicalandceremonial protocolrootedinthekinshipstrucofthepeople. imbuedwithreligiousoverendproductofa revitalization movement. "a politicaland diplomatic that andtheIroquoisConfederacy. WilliamA. theideologicalsubstanceand continuity numberofleadersrepresenting thereis no evidence.however.Fenton.GreatLaw. Leagueas the Europeanoutposts. taentsic:A Historyof theHuronPeopleto 1660.Writing governments tweentheIroquoisLeague. tonesand culminating Finally. STARNA to theireast. This content downloaded from 132. at Onondaga. MaryB.236. 4-5."On ganawidahepic. funeral rite theCondolence thatovertimebecamea vehicleforpoas it did to bringtogether liticalmeetings.1969)."a culturaland religiousinstitution" thatwas "undeniablyold.O'Callaghan. BruceG. villageleaders. functioning of a to the The underlying journey culture-hero.I hypothesized thattheLeaguemayhaveoperatedas twocoexistent parallelforms: sachemswhoseresponsibility itwas to maintain ( 1) a ritualLeaguewitha fixedrosteroffifty oftheLeagueforwhich. Accordingto native who followedhim."Richter. century.The Death and Rebirthof theSeneca Movement.or a complexmix the of bothprocesses." contact.allowingthatthe clarity term"Confederacy" couldjustas easilybe substituted.a practicefollowedhere..nevertheless.278-79 (New York. 15 Aug 2015 18:25:26 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Starna. in NativeAmericain theTwentieth ed. 1990).adaptivesystem. sus. C. nineMohawksachemsor Leaguechiefs. Following "developedgraduallyin theyearsfollowing theLeaguewas Fenton.37 thequestionarisesas tureandworldview Throughout.1994). however. 1:162-63.N.9:103. it in socialand politicaltransformation. concludedthatbytheeighteenth Richter."citedin theprevious note.therewereand arejust LewisHenryMorgan. entity" relatively unchanging.4:62." politicalinstitution." I viewtheLeague/Confederacy as a unitarybutevolving." Davis. Nativetheoryand the officials samehistorians. Trigger.and LaurenceM.Equallyintriguing is to whatdegreeorganizing FortOrangeCourtMinutes1652-1660 (Syracuse."11-12. has beenproposedthattheLeagueevolvedfroma looselyorganized At itscorewas a ceremonial systemsharedbyIroquoiscommunities.DocumentsRelative. "had becometheeffective "a convenient whiletheConfederacy fiction."Ethnohistory (New York. 400."Iroquois An Encyclopedia. AnthonyF.JackCampisi.that interior opportunities groupsto gainaccessto trading view the nearer is.and thosehistorians theory.

apartfromMenton.85.26 on Sat.46nlll.ed. 39Gehringand Starna. Fenton"NorthernIroquoianCulturePat38IvesGoddard. 1988).Y." "Konossioni.Authentication ot theLeague."Richter.fromaboutthesecond of numbers to theRevolution. 15 Aug 2015 18:25:26 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .40Evidenceforsuch in WilliamN. meain form and some is thattheIroquoiswereboundtogether mented sureofan alliance.Volume15. Starna. N."Synonomy. A journeyinto Mohawk and vandenBogaert(Syracuse." "Honontonchionni." as previously (1743) and noted. Gehringand WilliamA."in Handbookof NorthAmericanIndians. 295.or all theIndianstogether. "Canossoené. ReubenGold Thwaites.and eds. The hisstate-organized productof a unitary. 120. 563. 17.DocumentsRelative." terns. is Haudenosaunee.offers whether Notor its clueswhatever structure. docuwhatcan be said withsuretyand is thoroughly withstanding. ¿b$. referred to bythe was mostcommonly The Leagueor Confederacy Nations "Five and les as the Nations.." Iroquoisesbythe cinq English in theirownlanguages. wMorethanmostscholars. no in Iroquoianlanguagesor as glossedbyEuropeans. and Englishrecordsappear"Hotinnonchiendi. 46nlll ("Kanosoni ). for thegrandmetaphor as someformof"thepeopleofthelonghouse. translates Itsmembers' French. in use common amongIroquoistoday spelling The appearancein thehistoricalrecordof termsforthe League." their of Iroquoispeoplethrough theLeagueand itsdrawingtogether 'theexacceptanceof theGreatPeace. who yearsago wrotethattheLeague "was a leagueof villages."The called."or "theMohawks"shouldbe read writing of a particularleaderor groupof leaders. regarding organization.Journey." "Canossioone. operation.THE LEAGUE OF THE IROQUOIS 291 ratherthana reactivemovement..it was a leagueof village thirty thereachof theLeague'spowerin realisticterms. one where Leaguewas an initiating and demonstrawere the mover sociocultural impulses prime Iroquois tiveofIndianself-interests.38 French In mid-to late-seventeenth-century a 1634-35Dutchmanuscript.1610-1791.provided"thosewhomakeup a house. likely Morgan's Cabin"and tions.ad hoc alliancesoperatingin themidstof oftenintensefactionalconflictand narrow This content downloaded from 132.(Cleveland."Then.trans.41:87 ("Hotinnonchiendi"). 320." and"Caenoestoery.and on numerous occasions. Ordeal.Periodglossesofthesetermsinclude"thecompleted itwillbe re"thewholehowse.4:78. Northeast(see note32).thereare Pyrlaeus's "Aquanoschióni" other attestaThere are "Ho-dé-no-sau-nee" (1851).In Mohawkit is kanuhsyúmi.236. halfoftheseventeenth through century or villagesappearto have actedin concertin the theircommunities pursuitof commonpoliticaland economicgoals. CharlesT. 79. O'Callaghan."39 Pyrlaeus. self-designation. theallies..1896-1901). TheJesuitRelationsandAlliedDocuments:Travelsand Explorations oftheJesuitMissionariesinNew France.a family.73 vols. ofthetermis "Kanosoni"in Theearliest documentation tendedhouse'. chiefs.7.ratherthanto the to theactivities "as references formof decisionmaking."Daniel Richterhas characterized thathisuse ofsuchphrasesas "theFiveNations. 1634-1635: TheJournalofHärmenMeyndertsz Oneida Country. toricallyexperiencedIroquoispoliticalsystemwas one of autonomousvillagesand shifting.

Jennings. disciplinary 127-53 (quotationon 127).Y. quois nationabouttheseconddecadeoftheeighteenth century. Snow." thatthebasic remaintaining landsand. TheTuscarorasbecamethesixthIroofColonistand Mohawk(Philadelphia. ThomasS. to gaugethereleit is important ritualbehavior. BruceG. Iroquois Empire. N. clearlydescribed in 1743 whenPyrlaeusalmostcertainly collectedinformation on the ThatJune.236. eds." Dean R. on treaty-making vanceof WilliamFenton'sobservation againstthe certain ritual evolutionoftheIroquoisLeague:"Although [in patterns theywereadaptedto treaty-making] appearin therecordsrepeatedly." in FoundationsofNortheastArchaeology. 1994).ConradWeiserreceived LeaguefromtheIndianSganarády. searchunitis thevillageand associatedhorticultural that"thehistoriesof theIroquoisnationscan be understoodbestin termsof thesenodes of settlement. Hayes III.. of the League are wherethe generally acceptedcriticalcomponents itis fromthesametime andidentifiable. Museumand ScienceCenterResearchRecords23.ConradWeiser. Abler..See Jennings.292 WILLIAM A."Thenhe listenedas a speaker"repeatedall thatwas said An oftenoverlookedindicatorthatthiswas thecase is theplainfactthatnot self-interests.a convenient culturaland administrative coland by no meansa consolidatedpoliticalor military lectivity body.French. ed. forall intentsand purposes. 2 (Rochester. Snow." in Proceedings ed."41 thatan accountsurfaces ofa council It is notuntil1743.The Historyand CultureofIroquoisDiplomacy:An InterGuideto theTreatiesoftheSixNationsand TheirLeague(Syracuse.Y."Iroquoiansand Europeans:DisunitedNationsin theEarlyContactPeriod. reportedthat. 42 1696-1760: Friend iroquoisEmpire."AmericanIndianQuarterly19. W Wallace. 15 Aug 2015 18:25:26 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .and time. thebeginning oftheUnionofthe "theOnondagoesrehearsed opening.1-50 (New York.. one treatywas madebetweenan entity itselfas theLeagueor Confederacy and representing The terms"FiveNations"and "Six NatheDutch. Rochester of the1992 Peopleto PeopleConference.. Weiser at the council's days later.3 (2004): 464-65. Trigger. PaulA.1985). STARNA of Irois in theformof numerousexamplesand descriptions activity whose value liesin to 1645 the earliest dating quois treaty-making of treatyprocessesand theassociated theoftendetailedpresentation In thiscase.42 Weiserand his 21 reached on the council entourage Onondaga August. fiveNations. Starna. ordersfromthegovernment ofVirginiato proceedto Onondaga.No singlemodelaccurately changesof situations.26 on Sat. 145-46."On theRoad to Canandaigua:The Treatyof 1794. 1945). "Prehistoric Social and PoliticalOrganization: An IroquoianCase Study."SenecaMoieties and Hereditary The Early-Nineteenth-Century PoliticalOrganizationof an Chieftainships: 51.JackCampisiand WilliamA.1981).85.. Iroquoia: The Developmentof a Native World(Syracuse. furthermore. Dean R. N.however.in particular. reissues. 41FrancisJennings et al. 2003).379."Ethnohistory voiceto theissueof Iroquoiscommunities and "territories.4 (1995): 467-90. See also William Engelbrecht. Archaeologyhas lentan important IroquoisNation. tions"represent. This content downloaded from 132. CharlesF. p. flects thespanofhistorical actuality. begannine absent the Sénecas.N.however.or Englishcolonialgovernments.He was sentthereto meetwithand pacifythesix Iroquoisnationsin the betweencertain"Virginiabackaftermath of a violentconfrontation woodsmen"and a partyofIroquoison itswaysouth.Y.

Cassell. also Sonnawantowano Brother.you TogardHogon our councilwith"Brethren and Tuscaour Son."theolderson": "Sagoch(Cayugas). 46Pyrlaeusattributed to theSénecaswhatis knownfromall othersourcesto be theCayugacouncilname. toryand Biography 45Pyrlaeus.57. tinuedthrough the UnitedNations.thedesignations Iroquoisnations.namely."Sonnanwantówane" sanogéchte" Weiserlisted son."Nittaruntaquaa."43 sharednotes thatWeiseror Pyrlaeus Thereis no evidenceto suggest at anytimeon whattheyhad observedor recordedabouttheLeague at theOncamefromhisattendance Weiser'sinformation thatsummer.382.ourYoungerSons."Pennsylvania 1. Pyrlaeus a detailforwhichthereis no basisfordoubt.Lebenslauf."Ceremonies Chiefsthatestablish'd theNamesofthoseAncient the The nextday a speakerreconvened theafternoon. IroquoisEmpire.Tatotárho(Onondaga). "Tgarihógu" "thebrother".butthatPyrlaeuscarefully spelledout.Otatschéchte and Satagarúuyes(Sénecas).3 (1877): 321.in fact.""our 43Weiser'sreportcitedinJennings.theywerediscouraged said that hissourceon theLeague did notgo. and Ganniatario Togaháyon(Cayuga)."theyoung (Onondagas). 15 Aug 2015 18:25:26 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . This content downloaded from 132.namesthatWeiserheardrecitedat Onondaga founders Toand didnotrecord.45Additionally.THE LEAGUE OF THE IROQUOIS 293 in a Singingway.44 Lebensondagacouncil."Notes on theIroquoisand DelawareIndians."Niharuntagóa"(Oneidas)." Son" (Oneidas).Weiseroffered description "Each nationof thesix tribessendsDeputiesto thegreatCouncilat Iroquoisgovernment: AbrahamH.walkingup and downin theHouse.ourabsentBrother Ounghearrydawy dionenHorarrawe. ganawita(Mohawk).bothmenmentioned and Pyrlaeus's oftheLeague.you.trans. "our "our Brother" (Mohawks).85.Helen Onontogoonceor twicea yearto conferwitheachother. was Sganarády." a list of "council both Second.26 on Sat. 44In a [1746-49] letterto Christopher of a one-sentence Saur. 163. Nittaruntaquaa roro.The kinshiptermsattachedto the councilnames of the"extendedhouse"used bytheIroquois completethemetaphor furnished to ordertheirLeague.236..repeatedall conit.ConradWeiser. to visitOnondaga. See alsoWallace.had concludedsometwo weeksearlier.also. "Tuscaroro. younger sons". The relevantpointsof comparisonto be drawnbetweenWeiser's the accountsare as follows:First. while he andhistravelcompanionhadwished writes that lauf. "Sonnawantowano"(Cayugas).. (Oneida).indeed." "TogardHogon." Magazineof HisBell. provided each of the chiefs from forthecouncilsof League is."46 "the and "Tuscaróro" (Tuscaroras). Thereis nothingin therecordto suggestthatPyrlaeuswas awarethata councilat Onondagahad beenscheduledor. In his where he was a principalparticipant.HerePyrlaeus (Mohawks).comp.addedmorein Praiseof theirwiseffathers [sic]and of thehappyunion.Pyrlaeus fromdoingso and. that names" or "counciltitles.

294 WILLIAM A. 48It shouldbe said thatrecognizableformsof thecondolenceritual .brothers theOneidas.therenowned was elicited. 18.In his reportof a 1750 councilat OnondagaWeiserlisted"digarihogon" (Mohawks).315.In thislisting..and "Onughkaarydaawy" hookaraw"(Sénecas)."Neharontoquoah"(Oneidas). glottalstopis represented bythesymbol'.'name bearers'.47 inthe oftheLeaguesurfaces on thesekeyelements Nothingfurther in 1. Here and elsewherethe personalcommunication. Similarly." is thenameof one of theSenecavillagesin 1743.85.Boyce.Helga DoblinandWilliamA.48 to record until 180 answer Then.Transactions at Onondagain 1753 he supplies: 1994). Weiserdoes notrecordthecouncilnamefortheOnondagas.and eds."Ganunawantoowano"(Cayugas).B. 49 thequestionnaires do notsurvive. In a margincommentPyrlaeuswritesthat"Onuchgarritáwy.are foundin thedocumentary remetaphors cord chiefly fromtreatycouncilsand otherface-to-face meetingsbetweenIroquoispeople and colonialauthorities heldthroughout theseventeenth and eighteenth centuries.49 tonat Six Nations(Ontario)thatJanuary. questionnaires documentary Mohawkleader.Hanni Woodbury.and theabsent"Brother""OunghearrydawydionenHorarrawe"(Sénecas). BrantsuppliedthecounciltitlefortheCahowever.whichall agreehas considerabletimedepth. "Sanonowantowano"(Cayugas)."dyiontsin Hogararow"(Sénecas).DouglasW. "Sagochsaangechter" and "Dyionen(Onondagas)."A GlimpseofIroquoisCultureHistorythrough the EyesofJosephBrantand JohnNorton."ShonfromtheOnondagas.and"Tuscarroro"(TuscaDaniel roras).4 (1973): 286-94.Wallace.and "Kanyadariyoh" and "Shadekaroinyis" fromtheSénecas. chief'sname. IroquoisDiplomacy. 2006.1750.he furnished yugasin place of thefounding an outlineofthemythmentioning twoofitscentralcharacters.andJohnNorputbefore JosephBrant.In addition."Proceedings of theAmericanPhilosophicalSociety 117. from from the fathers to the Mohawks. to-nihokce-'wçh (S)]. arethenamesofthefounders First.He also stated " Senecaros47"[D]ionenHorarrawe is a formofthelastlistedchiefon theeight-person ter:Deyohninhohhakarawenh 'thedooris open'(M)."Dyionenhogaron" and "Sagosanagechteront" caroras).2 (Philadelphia. itis nonetheless Although possibleto inferwhatquestionshad beenasked. This content downloaded from 132. (Ononda"Togarihoan"(Mohawks). osophicalSociety84."Niharontaquos"(Oneidas).sons to theMohawks. "Sasgosdanagechteront" (Onondagas). Starna.and nawitagh" "Adergaghtha.In an accountattributed to Weiserand publishedin TheAmericanMagazineand HistoricalChronicle(1744): 665-66."425."Sagosanagechteront" (Sénecas).. See Jenningset al.236. N."Thadodarhoagh" "Thado(also to theMohawks.trans. thefollowing oftheLeague:"TekanafromBrant. Oneidas.26 on Sat." Weiser's"Ounghcarrydawy.and "Tuscoraro"(Tusgas). 15 Aug 2015 18:25:26 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . "Sanunowartowan" (Cayugas). "Nittaronhaquoa"(Oneidas).ConradWeiser. "Tekawhom he and identified as Mohawks. "Sasgosdanagechteron" in Mohawkofshagohsènagehde' areWeiser'srenderings (On) 'he is theirtitlebearer'." oftheLeague placedthepointofgeographical originfortheformation "[a]t thelowerend of theGermanflatsabovetheLittleFallson Mohawk River"some seventy-five mileswestof Albany.sonsto theMohawks."League. [teyoninhokarâ-wç See Tooker. thesenamesare rendered"Docaryhoogou"(Mohawks).itsceremonyand .TheJournals ofChristian Clausand ConradWeiser:A Journey oftheAmericanPhilto Onondaga. STARNA YoungerSons" (Tuscaroras).brothers darhowagh") to ónawendówane" fromtheCayugas. widagh" "Otatsighte" theOneidas.

Agaenyony .1970).TheJournalofMajorJohnNorton.thefirst is "Hayouwaghtengh" In Norton'sversionthecentralfigure (Ayonto to the next from one who wanders seeking form hwathah).THE LEAGUE OF THE IROQUOIS 295 a curiMohawkthatsaw theDutchwas Atyósongh. as "myson"andnamed is addressed as them who. Morgan'sdistribution of chiefs. Thetwotravelwest." tarho"and givetheOnondagasthecounciltitle"Roghseanakighte.Taiman.is thatof theSenecaphysician JacobJameson."52 and consequently theirchildren and dean extensive Nortonprovides hispublishedjournal.288-89.butall in [the] inthenationhadtherightofchoosing families samemannerparticular a chieffromamongthemselves.1816 (Toronto.was nineMohawks.theyreceivecounciltitles:"Harontakowa" (Oneidas)." that"[t]hefirst MorAnd preceding not foundelsewhere.Onondagasand ScncoftheSénecas and Shatekaróny theOnidas&cCayugustheycalled cas [sic]calledeachotherbrothers. 50Ibid."51 one is of Of JohnNorton'sseveralresponsesto thequestionnaire.54 oftheLeague. village in a Mohis arrival in earnest His efforts theLeague.derivedingreatpart 1819 description Heckewelder's The first. 98-106. following begin mileswestof hawkvillageat themouthofSchoharieCreek. of theLeague:"The namesof thedifferent to theformation relevance it[theLeague]arewordedas followsTekanawidagh chiefswhoformed of theOnidas stiledhis son." theOnondaga"Thatoencounter on Continuing they "Odatsheghte.tenCayugas.and theothershad a muchgreaternumber.236. fromSix Nathathe mayhavegathered information ofLeaguechiefs. 291-92.thirty-five to thechiefthere.HanniWoodbury.Kanyadariyon hóaghof the Onondagas. Thatodarof theMohawksOtatshighte of the Cayugus.and "Ronninhohhonte" (Sénecas). nineeach.League. 54Carl F.repeatedbythosewho have followed. 53A Mohawklanguageform. ofitskind.however. tailedaccountoftheDeganawidahepic.theMohawks.meeting alongthewayan Oneida. personal 2006.26 on Sat.shagohsènagehde' inOnondaga. 64-65. datedabout 1821-25. (Deganawidah).. communication. 52Boyce."Shonnounaweantowa" (Cayugas).. Fenton.is followedin timeby two briefmentions.however. In thesecalledeach otherbrothers.85.50 ous pieceof information and distribution on the numbers Brantremarked ganbya halfcentury. tions:"The Onidas[sic]and Mohawkshad thesamenumberofchiefs.GreatLaw. 51Ibid. "The Sénecasare connected who in replyto a questionnaire reported.."293. fromPyrlaeus. 193-94."Tekannawitagh" and withhisintroduction Albany.and eightSénecas.290. 15 Aug 2015 18:25:26 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . "A Glimpse.fourteen Onondagas. This content downloaded from 132.nineOneidas. along withthe Oneidas.greeting "myfather.eds.KlinckandJamesJ."53 Nortondoes notnamethechiefsoftheCayugasor Sénecas.

becomingtheTuscaroras. "therewas a particu"Of thiscompany.especiallyincomparsomething chiefswithCusick'ssix families. Fenton observed first Tuscarora."Hi-a-wat-ha. thepossibility mustbe givendue consideration. J. 58Up to thispointthestorymirrors ofPyrlaeus's account. thefourth. It is notknownwhether Village.35. "Sho-nea-na-we-to-wah. whoat a laterdatewouldrejointheirIroquoianbrethren.oftheseweresixfamlarbodywhichcalledthemselves to preserve thechainofalliance intoa resolution iliesand theyentered in anymanner.Lewiston. the third"Seuh-now-kah-tah. 15 Aug 2015 18:25:26 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .See Hale."leadsa partyofnativesto thebanksofthe hecontinues.Oneidas& Tuscaroras. accountin Heckewelder's however.The greatcouncilfireof theSix it is at Buffalo.Northeast(seenote32). Contrary to suggestions League literature. 64. The sixth continues the Sénecas..58 west.85. Tharonhiawagonis unrelatedto Pyrlaeus's"Thannawáge"or the variousformsof Ayonhwathah. J/1haronhia wagon is the Good Iwin or bapling. "Tethe and thefifth." "Ne-haw-retah-go". .a 16.at present Nationswas formerly he is the statement Of noteinJameson's emphasis placedon theSénemostlikelylinkedto hisnationality." is diThe first whichshouldnotbe extinguished family thename on theMohawkRiver.Cusicktellsus.2 (1969): 132.59 55WilliamN.receiving rectedto takeup residence theMohawks.Cayugas. 1828).thecultureheroor the cosmological 'He Who GraspstheSky'and also 'Holderof mythof theIroquois. as thefirst and theyconsiderthemselves and the Cayugas. STARNA withtheOnodagas[sic]. published from butin theestablishment Cusick'saccount"is notin hischronicle inthe element sourcesofan important undoubtedly eighteenth-century of the plot".See WilliamN.Hewitt.a perspective The secondmentionis froma bookletwritten byDavid Cusick."55 builtat Onondaga. ofNorthAmerican in someof thelate nineteenth-century offered 2. Fenton.Y. This content downloaded from 132. idem.chap.David Cusick'sSketchesofAncientHistoryoftheSixNations(Tuscarora Cusickhad readofPyrlaeus's N.e.Mohawks.N. Seneca[ca. family how-nea-nyo-hent. Beauchamp. WilliamM.B.ed.236.."Ethnohistory 56Fenton."Northern IroquoianCulturePatterns.GreatLaw. Fenton.296 WILLIAM A.26 on Sat. History. 1821-1825].the secondbecomesthe Oneidas."Cayugas. named"Tarenyawagon tiny.56 i.57 onehousehold. .GreatLaw.thenceto theMississippi. 16-18." theSmithsonian Institution for1918 (1920): 539-40. takinga circuitous nallyto thesoutheastand NorthCarolina.theroleof Adodarhonh(Thadodaho)in theformation scruof Cusick's that bear are several Yet there story aspects League." and firouteto Lake Erie.a in thatthevalue of 1825. "Te-hawre-ho-geh." Journalof AmericanFolk-Lore4 (1891): 298." Indians.First. Book of Rites.. "Answersto GovernorCass's QuestionsbyJacobJameson. cas. Theycall the Onondagas& Mohawks Brothers." HudsonRiver. Oneidas& TuscarorasChildren." the Onondagas.Volume15. 319. inghissix founding 59David Cusick. in rankamongthesenations."A Constitutional LeagueofPeace in the AnnualReportof StoneAge ofAmerica:The Leagueof theIroquoisand Its Constitution.His nameis translated in Handbook theHeavens'. a supernatural theHolderoftheHeavens.

Morgandidprovidea roschiefs'titlesin whichare foundthenamesofthefounders: terof fifty (Oneida). gaihógçh 60Thissentiment See to theSénecasinthenineteenth was echoedbya missionary century. This content downloaded from 132. representativestheirseveralnations." appearsto have accurately ofthemid-nineteenth nativetheory century.THE LEAGUE OF THE IROQUOIS 297 LewisHenryMorgan(1851) spentlittletimewithnativetradition oftheLeague."Da-gä'-ä-yo"(Cayuga). Leaguewas an elaboration theirciviland sothattheseties"werecarriedthroughout furthermore to tribe..236."60 Nonetheless."He was waryof whathe had beentoldabouttheLeague'snot from"one probutinsteadarisingfull-blown havingevolvedgradually his of tractedeffort legislation."Ho-däs'-hä-the" "Da-gä-no-we-dä" and ho" (Onondaga).and on theIroquoisfamily. (Sénecas). uncle] "Shadekaronyes" [Kanadariyu's henyonh's Hale alsolistedtheLeague'scouncilnames:"Tehadirihoken" (Mohawk). (Mohawk).76. confederacy": (Ato(Oneida) [the"politicalson" of Dekanawidah]. Book ofRites. Fenton. 64-65. 62Hale.formed great "Otatsehte "Dekanawidah" (orOdadsheghte)" (Mohawk).60-61."SenecaIndiansbyAsherWright(1859). reflected thenationsto theLeagueitself.and"Sonnontowanas" (Seneca).remarking thefounding simplythatintheir surrounding account"theIroquoisinvariably pego backto a remoteanduncertain riod.26 on Sat. Excepting "Sä-dä-gä'-o-yase" inthelistsfortheotherfournations.theirsources werewiththeformand function concerns thevoicesand pensof Iroquoisculturebearersand intelwerechiefly lectuals. League'sformation and OrientalJournal4 (1881-82): 74-75."Wathadodarho uncleand Dekanawidah'sbrother].Thadodáho1(Onondaga)."Ameri"Linguistic publisheda yearearlierbyAlbertS.ed. "Sakosennakehte (Onondaga).Foremostamongthesewas HoratioHale.85. 4.fromtribesto nations. 15 Aug 2015 18:25:26 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . who in 1883 pubIn his book Hale named"thesix lishedhis IroquoisBook of Rites."To-do-dä'(Mohawk).League.and "Gä-ne-o-di'-yo" these names Mohawk the title. "Kanadariyu"[Aka(Cayuga) [Wathadodarho's "Akahenyonh" and cousin](Sénecas). withoneimportant consistent exception.I havenotincludeda confusedand whollyignoredaccountofthe Notes. 61Morgan. tarho)"(Onondaga)[Otatsehte's son]. can Antiquarian 63Hale. " " "Nihatir ontakowa" (Oneida). explanationthatthe on kinshipties. 78-79.61 arerankedfirst AfterMorgancametheworksof severalscholarswhoseprimary oftheLeague. fundamentally versionof the 1912 Gibson-Goldenweiser essentialand authoritative first rankedtitlesofchiefs:Deprovidesthefollowing Leaguetradition Ho'dátshehde1 (Oneida). Gatschet. Sotinonnawentona"(Cayuga).and from fromindividuals cial system.63 chiefs'titleshaveremained FromMorganto thepresent daythefifty the To illustrate." Ethnohistory 309-10.3 (1957): WilliamN. Book ofRites.62 the of as chiefs who.

a substitution thatdates fromHale's Book of Rites(1883) and therollcall of chiefshe reproducedtherefromJohnBuck'smanuscript.is notfound..arguof thefounders. Woodbury. University anthropologist Concerning xi and oassim. 1994). Book ofRites. byPyrlaeus 1743. SeeWoodbury. 68Hale. repr.68 It was onlyafterMorganthat Norton.is recDekarihokenh."The Pagan Iroquois.65 yuga).3 Ini. was not to be perpetuated.67 this has not been the case. replacedbyDekarihokenh.¿1. as thethirdrankedMohawkchiefbyMorgan.66 ognizableas thecouncilnameor titlefortheMohawks. ablythemostinfluential listsoffifty thus. 104-16.thenameshouldnotappearon anyofthesucceeding chiefs. Gibson. theLeague. A partialexplanation forthisoccurrence. Book of Rites.Y.who dictatedthe only completeversionof the League traditionpublishedin an Iroquoislanguageto Columbia Alexander A.itappearson everyknownlistofchiefs.298 WILLIAM A.129. STARNA andTsha'degáchyes (Sénecas).15 (1950): 59-67. historically in mentioned first and then Brant and ganawidah.26 on Sat. 86-96. evenso.andlisted byPyrlaeus. This content downloaded from 132."League.Thadoda'ho1(Onondaga).85.and Sganyadáiyo1 In addition.1961.Conn. Syracuse.Deganawidah. Conservatism.64 Haga'çyijk(Cayuga). Ohsweken.1897). Chadwick. 1U4.Whether came fromMorganor was Hale's readingof whathe contendshad been dissuggestion" cussedbetweenthemis unknown. 15 Aug 2015 18:25:26 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . AfterOnondaga chiefJohnA.in the 1950s includedDega'iho'gë(Mohawk). drawnfrominformation foundin theLeagueepicitself.177-78 (Toronto. David Boyle. Miimony.See also Tooker.1898).69 This adjustment suggests thatimportant aspectsoftheLeagueepichavechangedovertime. 69Hale.therollcall ofchiefscollectedat theSix NationsReserve. Conservatism amongtheIroquoisat theSix NationsReserve(New Haven.andNorton. fromanother explainsthatitwas an "erroneoussuggestion.apparently it willbe recalled. See also E.ThePeopleofthe Longhouse(Toronto. M. Concerning o/beeHale. one ofthesixfoundotherlistscompiledafterMorgan. HookofKites. ersoftheLeagueas reported Brant.reportsthatthetitleorAyonhwathahwas also notto be perpetuated." Smithsonian MiscellaneousCollections111.unin responseto factorsinternal and perhapsexternalto Irodoubtedly 64Gibson-Goldenweiser. Obviously.Ontario.Ontario. JohnBuck carriedthe Onondaga League chief'sname Skanaawadi. BeingPartof theAppendixto theReportoftheMinisterofEducatheLeague.Haga'a'eyonk(CaIn thisand and Skanyada'iyoand Sha'dega'ohyes(Sénecas). N."Shatekariwate (in SenecaSadekeiwadeh)"withDeganawidah(Morgan's"Da-gä-nothephrase"erroneous we-dä")intherosterhe publishedin League oftheIroquois. Fenton.. by is on 1851 roster."AnnualArchaeologicalReportfor1898. Hoda'tshehde1 (Oneida). is thatthetitleof Deganawidah."424."The Roll Call ofIroquoisChiefs:A Studyofa MnemonicCane fromtheSixNationsReserve.withan introduction byAnnemarie Shimony. 65Annemarie AnrodShimony. tion.236. 66For a treatment of severaloftheremaining listsseeWilliamN. source"thathad led Morganto mistakenly Mohawk replacethenameof thethird-ranked chief. Goldenweiser. Morgan's thistitlewas supplantedby Dekarihokenh.Dehowever.

and its affairs. of Brantwhilebothwere Norton. deputy.5.236.2 (1912): 230.THE LEAGUE OF THE IROQUOIS 299 Thismightextendas wellto thedeference accorded quoiscommunities.85.(2) thecouncilnamesortitlesattachedto each through nationalso remainthesamethrough time.70 public thedocumentary recordoftheLeaguefortheperiod Summarizing described 1743-1883. name. 15 Aug 2015 18:25:26 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .nonetheless."ProceedHistoryoftheConfederacy of theRoyalSocietyof Canada. Abler.Iroquoispeopletouse the noun in place of Deganawidahin "Peacemaker" day English discourse.Norton. thereis nothing thisrecordthatwouldraisequestionsabouttheexistenceof theIroquoisLeague. above. important Pyrlaeus(1743) and Brant(1801). In assessingthedocumentary evidenceon theLeague'sorigins. Finally."482n4. First in documented 1912 is the edict.yieldsthefollowing:(1) thereweresix chiefs thefiveIroquoisnationswhosenamesare founding representing consistent time. terpreter. that"the onlytimethatit shall be is whentheCondolenceCereproperthatmynameshallbe mentioned moniesare beingperformed or whenthegood tidingsof Peace and PowerwhichI haveestablished and organizedare beingdiscussedor In a continuing rehearsed."Traditional oftheSixNations. tapped Norton'sinformation on the League'soriginsmustbe consideredin thislight.and thenCusickand Hale.thecouncilnamesreported byPyrlaeuswereseparately ratedbyWeiserduringhismeeting withtheOnondagasthatsameyear.allegedly Deganawidah's issuedby Deganawidahhimself." observance ofthisedict.on theotherhand.71 It is conceivable deeplyinvolvedin thecommunity thatCusick(1825) had accessto Heckewelder's treatise. itis to note that the earliest those of accounts.(3) intheearliestaccountby followed Pyrlaeus.26 on Sat. This content downloaded from 132.Hale (1883) in citesit.was an intimate at GrandRiverfromthe late 1790s untilBrant'sdeathin together 1807." servedas hisinand and was be to his successor. 71See Klinckand Taiman.thatis. the theLeagueis said to have begunin theMohawk processof forming considered to be Mohawkcountry.observesthattherewas no prohibition againstusingthenameDeganawidahuntiltheveryrecentpast. and Valleyor in whatis generally Brant that there were nine Mohawk and nine (4) although specified Oneidachiefs. He was regardedas Brant'sadopted"nephew.thelasttwo to threedecadesor so. are originaland independent of each other.Morecorroboover.althoughhe did spendanotherdecadeor so at GrandRiver.. Scott."Seningsand Transactions eca Moieties. by Brant. emissary.Journal.3rdser. itsprecisestructure andhowitmayhavefunctioned remained unknown until 70DuncanC. thereis no completeenumeration ofLeaguechiefsuntil Morganin 1851.

1958).Secretary N. 15 Aug 2015 18:25:26 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . any Superiority any has continuedso long thatthe Christiansknow nothingof the Original of it."Finally. Knowledgeablepersonssuch as New York'scolonial governor Cadwallader Colden. .Y.236. are stillthe acknowledgedHead of thatAlliance.theIroquois situatedfarthest west. Indian peoplehe wrotein presumablyIroquois.WILLIAM 300 A. The Documentary Historyof theStateof New York. 1850-51).4 vols. (Albany. xvii. theredo exist severallines of evidencethatpoint themotivationsleadingto itsformation.This Union of one without inces.. . by all accounts. could reportonly that "[t]he Five Nations (as theirName denotes)consistof so manyTribesor NaliketheUnitedProvtionsjoyn'd togetherby a League or Confederacy. Christopher ofState.theyare much at a Loss to account forthem."73 Beginnings Althoughit may be impossibleto determinea precisedate of originfor the Iroquois League.tho' they still retain many Ancient Customs. who were the first among the Iroquois to experiencesustainedcontactwithDutch interof the fur lopersand.so as to renderit Extremelydifficult.. "the Mohawks . writingin 1727. This content downloaded from 132. 73E.werepivotalin theestablishment 72CadwalladerColden.The Historyof theFiveIndianNationsDependingon theProvinceofNew-YorkinAmerica(Ithaca. Evidencebearingon and the context thehistoryof theMohawks as linkedto theDeganawidah epic and also the concerningtheirencounterwithEuropeansis keyto understanding creationand evolutionof the alliance that came to exist betweenthe fiveIroquois nations. to SeparatetheTruthfrom as to renderit [a] matterof greatdifficulty it. if not impossibleto Trace theirCustoms to theiroriginor to discover theirExplication.who a centuryearlier ace* of had been visitedby FrenchJesuits.quartoedition. O'Callaghan.Y. "solely supportof the Ancient usages."72And in spiteof havingspentmore than threedecades residing among the Iroquois and servingmost notablyas New York's Indian Sir forthe northernIndian department.Johnsonconcluded. 4:270." Insofaras the League per se was concerned.ed. . in which its creation took place."Those who "are a degreefartherremoved. to itsapproximatebeginnings.& have blended some withCustomsamongstourselves."cannot give a satisfactory theiroriginalsignification.85. afterall. STARNA Morgan.It was the Mohawks. and have so blendedthe whole with fable.N.Johnson remarked. B. . have altered theirsystemof Politicks. Morgan.in proximityto colonial settlements. on oral Tradition for the who relied 1771. over the other. agentand latersuperintendent WilliamJohnsonhad littleto offerabout the League.26 on Sat.Arranged UnderDirectionoftheHon. have lost [a] great part of them..

See also America(Leiden.ed. 18-22. 15 Aug 2015 18:25:26 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .74 on theHudsonRiversoonafterHenry Dutchshipsbeganappearing in 1609.governor This content downloaded from 132."His PresentExcelly"is SirEdmundAnofNew York. importance. of New YorkIndianTreatyMinutes. in house on an island the HudsonRiverbehind smallfortified trading thattodaymarksthe a largetributary whichflowedtheNormanskill. For a contrarianviewon the buildingof FortNassau. 11-12.thefirst Hudson'sexplorations to engageinthefurtradeinwhatwould vesselknownto be dispatched in 1611.26 on Sat. one that came directly upperHudson.. the Mohawks a of occupy place singular Iroquoispeoplethemselves. PieteroutofAmsterdam be calledNew Netherland of the Van a commissioned Company. Castle Island has been knownat varioustimesas MartinGerritsz's Island.75 reference to an earlyDutchpresenceon the The firstdocumented fromthevoicesoftheIroquois. Recordsofthefirst 1959). was theSi.moreover. J.1677-1691.236.He was mistaken. datesto 1678: "The Sachimsof the Onnondagessay thattheythen whichtheywould remind theAncientBrotherhood came to confirm subsisted from thefirst InstanceofNavhas theirBretheren [inAlbany] in the time of a Govr called use here (at Jacques)& hath igationbeing to thetimeof Old Corlaer&cfromOld Corlaerto hisPrescontinued of whichtheymightrejoice& now fortheContinuance entExcelly. Othersquicklyfollowed. onnondages. In 1689 Renewthe ancientCovenant& makethe Chain Bright. 76Thisand thedocumentthatfollowsmentioning "Jacques werefirstbroughtto theatLinksin theCovenantChain:Previ"Rediscovered tentionofscholarsbyDaniel K."76 assemand againbyIroquoisemissaries "Jacques"is againmentioned. andSayTheyarecometo RenewtheoldCovenant ofAlbany trates 74Hale.179.thecommissary who had forgedveryclose tieswiththeMohawks. The trading housewas namedFort southern limitofthecityofAlbany.1909). "Old Corlaer"is Arentvan of Rensselaerswijck and founderof Schenectady.New Netherland:A Dutch Colonyin Seventeenth 2005).Although therecordis sparse. 54.FranklinJameson.theoral history as toldby trade. 1969).Patroon'sIsland. -Century JaapJacobs. Tweenhuysen by group investors. 75SimonHart.1623-1639 (Baltimore.theislandbecamebestknownas CastleIsland.85. 47-48.is theonlywriterto linkthe"whitepeople"and "Europeans" ofPyrlaeus'saccountto theFrenchand Carderratherthanto theDutch.HendrickChristiaensz. see Van Cleaf Bachman.In 1613-14 thecompanysentout theForand crewwould builda tuyn^whosecaptain.27. 76.Peltriesor Plantations:The EconomicPoliciesof theDutch WestIndia Company in New Netherland. Oneydes Speakto theMagisCayouges. dros." ProceedTranscripts ouslyUnpublished ingsof theAmericanAntiquarianSociety92 (1982): 48. 30-37. Book ofRites.Md. Narrativesof New Netherland1609-1664 (New York. bledinAlbany: TheSinnekes.and WesterloIsland. of thepatroonship Curler.The Prehistory Notarial of theNew NetherlandCompany:Amsterdam DutchVoyagesto theHudson(Amsterdam.THE LEAGUE OF THE IROQUOIS 301 in theDeganawidahepic. Nassau.. Richter.

reissued.8c in thisCountry& the onnondagesdesiredhimto Establishhimself andthat Sinnekes & CayougestheydrewintothatGeneralCovenant.History.springfloods had forced Dutch tradersto permanently abandon FortNassau and do theirbargainingfromshipsor temporary quarterson shore. In 1615-16 Eelckenswas back at Fort Nassau.Elkens.returning Schildpadin the employof his uncle HendrickEelckens'scompany.New York.Sometimethereafter he late in 1618 as skipperof the sailed again to theNetherlands.3:775.and Elekes. now as its commander. and not easyto livewith. especiallyour desirewas to know what was withinherBelly. 16..oneydes. My own subserecord.Elckens.DocumentsRelative.born in Amsterdamin 1593 and raised in Rouen. . Eelckens'snamealso appearsin theprimary sourcesas accuracyof Richter Eelkens. Transacted byPeterWraxall(1915. and introd.reachingthe 77Ibid. STARNA madewithJacquesmanyyearsago who camewitha Shipintotheir Waters&crecdthemas Bretheren.leavesno doubtas to the 's identification.ed. quentanalysisof thedocumentary director oftheNew YorkStateLibrary'sNew NetherlandProject.85.236. Charles HowardMcllwain. 80Chronicler NicolaesvanWassenaer'sview. beeingthemeeting place of the Jacques onnondage fiveNations& thistheynowrenew&cConfirm.fromtheYear1678 to theYear1751.oneydes8c onnondages came to that in. 81. 15 Aug 2015 18:25:26 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Theysaythatthe had allwaysbeendutifull didcarrytheAnkoroftheShipthat Maquase..302 WILLIAM A. & thenthemaquase.87-88. 79Richter.Elkins. Near the end of the year he sailed fromTexel as supercargoon the WitteDuyf.An Abridgment Containedin Four of theIndianAffairs Folio Volumes. .in additionto discussionswithCharlesGehring. accord Planted the Tree of had with one 8c Understanding good they to thisGovernment. See also Colden.79Eelckenswas supercargoon the 1613-14 voyage of the Forin establishing tuynto the upper Hudson Riverand was instrumental theIndian tradethere.77 "Jacques" is named a finaltime by the Iroquois two years later in a meetingwithNew York'sGovernorSloughter:"We have been informed by our Forefathersthat in formertimes a Ship arrivedhere in this Countrywhichwas a matterof greatadmirationto us. 1624. 78O'Callaghan. "Rediscovered Links.Eelkes. in theColonyofNew York.In the interim.48-49.26 on Sat. with Hans JoriszHontom at the helm. . and always eversincekeptinviolable. Narratives."78 HistorianDaniel Richterhas sortedout theidentityof "Jacques"as one JacobJacobszEelckens.amongstthe restone Jaqueswithwhom we made a Covenantof whichcovenanthath since been tied togetherwitha chaine friendship. 67.87-89."49-55. Jameson. See also Richter. Ordeal.In thatShip were Christians. This content downloaded from 132.Bothhe and ship'scaptain Christiaenszreturned to Amsterdamon the Fortuynin July1614."leavingthetraderswith littlechoicebutto movetheiroperationselsewhere.80Eelckens marriedin Amsterdamin mid-summer 1619. was thattheIndiansnearestFort Nassau were"somewhatdiscontented.1968).ca.

Bynow thetrade madea secondvoyageto New Netherland infurshadgenerated a gooddealoffierce andoftenviolentcompetition betweenDutchcompaniesand theiragentsoperating up and downthe at least one encounter with nativepeople. tionof his merchandise and. On Eelckens. After a stopover keyto themission.however. Further forat least year landCompany. theWitteDuyf.presently ForabouttwoweeksEelckenscarriedout a livelytradewith smack. scribedas "beingwell acquaintedwiththesaid Indians.a porEelckens's Hontom.afterfurther questioning sentoutto sea.As soonas the of the natives beat some soldiers withEelckenson board. What can safelybe assumed. of Eelckens'sabilitiescomesfroma 1633 dust-uphe had withDutch on theEnglishshipWilliam. 15 Aug 2015 18:25:26 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .was accompasituationquietedtheWilliam. The dateofEelckens's 44.withhalfpikes. forgood measure.seeHart. caravel anda smaller a Dutch-manned trailedby FortOrange.profitable theregionwhopackedtheirfursto FortNassau.of course.54-55. ofits nieddownriver to NewAmsterdam and.94.236.THE LEAGUE OF THE IROQUOIS 303 HudsoninMarch1620.Withhisconsiderable experience reaching his own bolstered with its native and residents. withtheVan Tweenhuysen Companyis "beforetheyear1614. confirmation a of its existence.musof FortOrange.82 . by familiarity region motivesobviouslydivorcedfromanyloyaltiesto patria.fewspecifics documented." O'Callaghan.New Netherlands 47. in 1621.and a hoy.swords. 82Eelckensmayhavegoneashoreneartheformer siteofFortNassau.Thathe was successfromhis beingfavoredwith fulin theseendeavorsmay be inferred fortheNew Netherthemainbase ofoperations commandofthefort.O'Callaghan. can be of Eelckens'sactivities As Richterpointsout.26 on Sat.a caravel.is satisfactorily a serviceable levelof andthenmaintained thatEelckensearlyon forged traderelationswiththeIndiansin amicableand.In theensuingtumult was confiscated. One deponenttestifiedthattherehad beenthreevessels:a pinnace.until theIndiansfroma tenthe and his crewhad pitchedon shore "therecameabouta dozendutchmen. Jameson. Wouter wheretherewas a to and frowiththenewlyarriveddirector.81 attended by deadly valley.againwithEelckenson board. whileserving as supercargo authorities The Williamanditscrewhad beensentto theHudsonto challenge and theircontrolof thefurtrade. Eelckenswas deIn a depositiongivenin regardto theincident. to the William sailed overtrading vanTwiller.Prehistory Narratives.Hans Jorisz kettsand pistolls"led bythecommander tentwas pulleddown.1:75. Dutchclaimsto New Netherland in the theriverin lateApril. crewbyDutchofficials. upriver justbelow rights. This content downloaded from 132.DocumentsRelative.85.Eelckenswas ofseveraldaysinNewAmsterdam. employment DocumentsRelative. '.havingoften 81The bestdiscussionon thefirst 31decadesofthefurtradeisJacobs.the who had come to trade.

74. kommandeur vanNieuw-Nederland (1595-1645). captainHansJoriszHontomhadtakentheheadmanprisoner withtheransomin hand. PequotheadmanTatobem. Eelckensis reportedto have extortedzewant froman Indianon theConnecticut where the Dutch were tradRiver.DocumentsRelative.wampum in 1622. 148. STARNA tradedwiththemand speakingetheirelanguage.butthenmuron Hontom is in dered. thereare documented one or two unsavoryexceptionsto what one mightpresumeto have been Eelckens's withtheIndians.calledtheMaques wouldcomedowne.2 (1992): 15-16. 85O'Callaghan.93-95.pdf. Jameson.26 on Sat.. Starna.Sometime largelyunimpeached reputation . The depositionscitedfromDocumentsRelativeweretakenas partof a claimfordamages broughtbyEelckensagainsttheDutchWestIndia Companyforthelosseshe allegedlysuffered.1993): http://www. Gehring.BastiaenJansz.1:79-81.85 Butinthetwodecadesdur83Ibid."83 Fromthepreviousdecade. see CharlesT.. xxv-xxxi.org/nni/Annals/2001.krankenbezoeker. Eelckens'sname appearsinthepreliminary on hisclaimdated25 October1634.demanding fromthemana largeransomin zewantor he wouldcutoffhishead. Gehringand WilliamA."It is notknownwhatpartEelckensmayhaveplayedin thiskillas supercargo on Hontom'sship. Nieuwegegevensvoorde kennisderestigen koloniaalgezagin Noord-Amerika(The Hague.Gehring ence.Narrakommiesen tives.236.He had seizeda headmanfromoneofthelocalgroups.Krol. lendssupportto an earliersuggestion thattheIndiantakenon theConnecticut Riverwas the Manitouand Providence: Indians. Ibid.and thattheywerea to tradewithhimthen[sic]withtheDutch.possiblyat the hands of Eelckens.85.The translatedinterrogatory CharlesT.would have been unrelatedto any settlement. 84Forthebesttreatment oftheseincidents.PossiblythatsameyearEelckens was indirectly involvedin a secondextortion thistimeinvolvattempt.1500-1643 (New York. beaverskinnes." greatedealemorewillinge Tradeindeed.1982)."Dutch and Indiansin theHudsonValley:The EarlyPeriod.calledtheMahiggins[Mahicans]. Andanothernation. 15 Aug 2015 18:25:26 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .304 WILLIAM A.In a sworninterrogatory andthen. wouldcomedownethither withthreehundredskinnesmore.thesefigures shouldbe takenat theirfacevalue. 78. ing.however. Information on thisepisodeis ibid.Europeans.84 ing.The largenumberoffursthathe apparently arrangedto be deliveredbytheMohawks and Mahicans. and theMakingof New England."The Hudson ValleyRegionalReview9.Ledyard."cut out themale organsof the aforesaid chief.I ingvan ons kerkelijk thankCharlesGehringfortranslating forme Krol's30 June1634 interrogatory in Eekhof.. finding This content downloaded from 132.. 91-95.Conn.186-89. thus.See Neal Salisbury.however. Gehringadds. "The Dutchamongthe at the2nd Mashantucket PeopleoftheLongRiver"(paperpresented PequotHistoryConferIn hisessay."a nation.thatit mayhave beenTatobemwho a decadelaterwas againcaptured. itwas disclosedthat inga Mohawkheadman. Eelckcompletion deposition ensdisappearsfromthehistorical record."A seconddeponent addedthatEelckens"was muchbelovedofthem.and bringewiththemfowerthousand [Mohawks].nnp.butat thetimehe was serving the of his in November Upon 1633. The headmanapparently complied. 1910).71-81. See also AlbertEekhof.One deponentallowedthatiftheWilliamhad beenpermitted to staylongeron theupperHudson. 76.however.

oneydes. "Rediscovered Links. byIroquoisleadersmore lateras "a GovrcalledJacques.History. first seenthereinthatarea. Hayes III.I maintain. 89Heckewelder. werefirst seentherein thatarea.this cans and Munsees."Manyyearsago."89FortOrange.236." 87Richter.whoprovidedthefurshe soughtand interacted with I believe. CharlesF.Moreover. beforethewhitepeople builtAlbany. was builtin 1624. Ordeal. Rochesin Proceedingsofthe1982 Glass TradeBead Conference.beforethewhitepeoplebuiltAlbany. thispassagefromPyrlaeusthus:"one age (or the 56nl.marking lageofBeverwijck. 26 (Rochester.88-89. terMuseumand ScienceCenterResearchRecords16."76. around theyears1614 to 1617. therecan be no doubtof his in thedevelopment as a centralfigure oftheearlytrade.Richter." inThe operativewordis thetemporally of whenthealliancewas formed.has placedEelckensin theappropriate him. N." ed.thatis.THE LEAGUE OF THE IROQUOIS 305 in particularthe years ing whichwe have evidenceof his activities.Y.It wouldbe similarto saying. 81.85.aroundwhichgrewtheviltheearliest laterAlbany."87 The covenantwithEelckensthattheIroquoisrecalled.or however." had actuallywritten "one man'slifeago. In thatearliestdocumented accountof the League'soriginsrein are noted. severalpointsof reference First. likely oftheIroquoisLeague. p.."who manyyears thana halfcentury previoushadcome"witha ShipintotheirWaters& recdthemas Bretheren. cultural contextand as he mayhave beenviewedbynativepeople:"Eelckens wouldhaveappearedto be thelocal Dutchheadman:he was theprinwho dealtwiththem.26 on Sat. 15 Aug 2015 18:25:26 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ." This content downloaded from 132."86It is little hispeople. GeorgeHamell.but significantly.and he gaverichpresents then. a determination definite "before.Severalindepenverywellsignaltheinception dentlinesofevidencetellthetale.he was theapparentspokesmanfor cipalfigure in Europeangoods. "one man'slife"before1743 and Pyrlaeus'srecordingofwhatSganarádyhad toldhim. were oneman'slifeago.88 cordedby Pyrlaeus 1743. to thetradehe had first is linkeddirectly organizedandthenconducted fromFortNassau on theupperHudson. 88Readersare askedto referto thetranslation of Pyrlaeus'saccountpresented earlierin thisessayfromwhichthequotedpassagesthatfolloware taken.thatEelckenswas remembered wonder. forSganarády'stellingof thestory.""One man'slifeago" maysimplybe a timereferent rather. 86Richter.and standing to Indianpeople. 1983).beWhatmatters is that"one man'slifeago" is unrelatedto forethewhitepeoplebuiltAlbany. rendered Pyrlaeus lengthof a man'slife)beforethewhitepeople (theDutch)came intothecountry.His clientswerelocal Mahialso Mohawks. whenFortNassau was up and running."Tradingin Metaphors:The Magic ofBeads.thatthealliancebetweenthefiveIroquoisnations"was formed or rather. may which most dates covenant. sugarrivedEuropeansmay have been perceivedas the "'returned'culture geststhatrecently hero(es).&connondagesdesiredhimto Esin thisCountry& theSinnekes& Cayougestheydrew tablishhimself intothatGeneralCovenant.& thenthemaquase.

" anda second. Toganawíta.someconfusion on thepartof eitherPyrlaeusor or ofbothmen.perhapsseventy yearsofage in 1743. 15 Aug 2015 18:25:26 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .1985).Ganniatarío. A fulland fairreadingofPyrlaeus's accountsuggests thattherehad beentwoseparatealliances:thefirst betweenthefiveIroquoisnations. measuredtimeat contactis unknown. 2003).The Chronology of Oral Tradition:Questfora Chimera(Oxford.does notmaterially 91Otherthantheusualnotationsto a calendardate. See David Hénige.26 on Sat.90 comeswhatfromall appearancesis a secondalliance.inoraltradior expanded. JanVansina.However. hisfather himwas alsotwenty. specific in particular to spansof timeor numbersof yearsago.."namely.howalterthetimingoftheevent." a generation interval ofthirty Assuming years.references to periodsoftime. ShepardKrechIII.Beverwijck: A Dutch Villageon theAmericanFrontier. second however place reading. Otatschéchte.Sganarády wastruly an oldman.Here. thecollectivity referred to as the"Aquanoschióni. the"credIroquoisandtheDutch."to whichplacetheMohawksfirst FortOrange camefortheformationofthealliance."The namesof following the5 specialchiefs whowerethedeputies ofthenationsthathadformed thepeacealliance. 90See JannyVenema.In theend. In.236.thegrandfather ible old Indian"who had relatedto Pyrlaeusthestoryof theLeague. ifonlyas a safeguardforthemselves.or.this alliancewouldhavetakenplaceabout1650.however. Andhereinliesan ambiguity in háyon. alliancehad obviously beenan earlypost-contact event. STARNA Then permanent presenceof theDutchin theupperHudsonValley. If. before thenthedateofthealliancemight be pushed backto about1630."Immediately thiscomes. ever. siderstheadditionaldetailsthatPyrlaeusoffers suggestssomeoverofthenarrative thesealliances. could also be a nod to theDutchpresenceat FortNassau.thepassageoftimewas linkedto specific events."Bringing LinearTimeBack 53.perhaps. Tatotárho.amongAmericanIndiansgenernaturalor socio-historical ally.thisbetweenthe ofSganarády. Oral History(Madison.306 WILLIAM A.intenton keepingorderlyrecords.undoubtedly oftheirsystemof absolutechronology. theyare. Togaand Satagaruuyes. Sganarády. are exceedingly rarein therecordof relationsuntilafterthemid-seventeenth How theIroquoismayhave Iroquois-Dutch century. fact.Wis."Ethnohistory This content downloaded from 132.and hisfather was twenty at Sganarády's and birth.85.It is understood that.91 The Iroquois-Dutch allianceis said to have takenplace nearthe .a peace between the and the Dutch that seemsto havetaken agreement Iroquois . 1652-1664 The phrase"werefirstseentherein thatarea" (Hilversum.timeis oftentruncated led Indiansto adopt something Europeans.3 (2006): 567-93.whichflowsintotheHudsonbelowtheformer Normanskill siteof .on the Iroquois-Dutch otherhand. This.New Netherland. Jacobs.that lap ifnota coalescence surrounding in one and the same. builta decadeearlier. thetale. was one of thedelegates"sentto forman allianceof peace withthe whites(Europeans).1974).one thatconA sometime thereafter. suchcalculations areprobably otherthanto underscore thepointthattheIroquois-Dutch meaningless.persistent and long-term contactwith tions. 174-76.

however.the same name as Sganarády'sgrandfather."[B]ecausetheMohawkshad been and incouncilis Tgarihógu.85. Enter. their to enterthealliance. of theDeganawidahepic presented The gathplacewheretheallianceswerestruck. 15 Aug 2015 18:25:26 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .92 itis likelythat thesenamesarethoseoftwodifferent persons. thePattern..all traceitsbefromPyrlaeus accountsoftheLeague'sorigins. to whichplacetheMohawksfirst theNordmanns thattherehad ofthealliance.themeeting nations.thatthetwoallithesix "special a singleevent. ritory.theopeningskirmish liamA.. whether this is The to the same refer person.93 92ThatSganarádywas a Mohawkand hisgrandfather a Cayugadoes notcomplicatematline.236. fromtheseveral It is understood in alliance. oftheallicamefortheformation "to whichplacetheMohawksfirst included ance. ters."Again.The Iroquoistraceddescentthroughthemother's 93The Normanskill takenbytheMohawksto reachtheHudsonand was a routeroutinely a partyof also to tradewiththeDutch.thisstatement formation suggests thealliancebetweenthefiveIroquois beentwo separateevents:first. as Mohawkterwhat was or Mohawk to the regarded Valley ginnings onceagain. Eelckens'scentral above confirms recordpresented The historical ofFortNassau at themouthoftheNorroleinthesitingand building manskillin 1614. rounding theirvillagesin the MohawkValleythatMohawkscame withtheir Once FortNassau was abandoned. Indian-Dutch the resulting oftheDeganawidahepic.THE LEAGUE OF THE IROQUOIS 307 withtheDutchthatTokaháyon. ancesare relatedand represent thosewhosenamesappearin theseveralversions chiefs"are precisely thereis thequanabove."and second.discussedabove. first Mohawks which "the to came.Eelckenscontinuedon and furs.fora periodoftime.See WilMahicansand Dutchin 1626."FromtheMohawk-MahicanWarto theBeaver 51. Although from the Normanskill was down it and Mahicans Munsees.thatthejourneyof versions and theacceptanceofhismessagehad begunwiththe thePeacemaker Mohawks.Finally. thefirst titul[us] It willbe recalledthatnative-derived thisnationis calledthebrother. It could be assumedthat whomPyrlaeusrecordedas Tokaháyon. grandfather.As Pyrlaeusreported it.26 on Sat.JacobEelckens. Starnaand JoséAntonioBrandão.It was herethatMohawk warriorsoverwhelmed of theMohawk-MahicanWar."Thefive(actuallysix)"specialchiefs"whowerepresent the CayugaTogaháyon. difficultydetermining they forboththealliancestruckbetweenthefiveIroquois manwas present nationsand thatbetweentheIroquoisand Dutch." Wars:Questioning Ethnohistory This content downloaded from 132.Further.or.was in commandof operations the surclients were immediate Eelckens's well established.4 (2004): 725-50." to Hale. That he organizedand thenexpandedthetradein thereis fursand. daryoverthemeeting "near took to the place peace agreement Iroquois-Dutch eringleading cameforthe Kill. The peace agreement Sganarády's had attended as a delegatewas heldon theNormanskill.

One approachofarchaeology has beento discoverwheninthepast thelevelofwarfare as depictedintheDeganawidahepicmayhaveprea temporal threshold fortheLeague'sgenesis. 15 Aug 2015 18:25:26 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . mayhave constituted warfarein thecontextof theepic is fullyunderstood.Thomas S.96 byevidenceofprisoner 94See Eekhof.236.and sorcery Iroquoislife. IroquoisLeague. made doublydifficult the held belief that the by widely Leaguewas formed andfunctioning a century ormorebeforethearrivalofEuropeans.revealsthat theLeaguearoseduringa timeoftroubleandstrife."95 eviClosingthecirclethen.xxv-xxxi.94 is thatit was on theNorhowever.WILLIAM A. all oftheefforts made then. themouthoftheNormanskill to the Iroof that. 81. dominated narwar.thatvirtually to confirm claimsabouttheLeague'spresenceand itsreasonsforbeing . scarcely anything to theappearanceofthePeacemaker and theinception of theLeague. "Rediscovered Links.Krol. . "The Florescence and DemiseofIroquoianCannibalism:HumanSacrifice and Malinowski's This content downloaded from 132.Despitethatcompelling oftheseconditions. Logan. thosefoundedin oraltradition Butevenheretheoutcomeshavebeenuncertain.It comesas no surprise."at thetimeof a governor called"Jacques. ^ Richter. 96See Engelbrecht. manskillthat.Bastiaen Jansz. whenfactionalism. can be attested the traditional methods of The taskis through history."Jacques"is assuredly JacobJacobszEelckens. STARNA 308 offto tradeintheupperHudsonRiver.thusfixing tialto thisundertaking areseveralassumptions: thattheDeganawidah is based on historical that what epic actuality. Ablerand Michael H.And I propose thatwithintheboundsofthiscircleand itswell-documented historical lies the source of the context.and thattheendemicwarfaredescribedin theepic is signaled sacrifice and ritualcannibalism.according testimony a momenquois headmenin thelastthirdof theseventeenth century."who is said to havecome"witha ShipintotheirWaters& recdthemas Bretheren.including .withlinesofbothdirectandcircumstantial dence. whicharesaidto haveled rative.26 on Sat.Essenvailed.Returning on theWilliaminthe in of an Eelckens once again set up employ Englishcompany 1633. Snow. Iroquoia.accordingto Sganarády. Equallyimportant. itwas almostcertainly at quoisand Dutchwas negotiated. thatpalisaded terrain are unambiguous indicators of hosvillagessitedon defensible tilities."76. the alliancebetweenthe IroAndfinally. touseventhad takenplace: "thefirstInstanceof Navigationbeingin use here. Forming the League That greatmythological charter-the Deganawidahepic.havebeenin archaeology.85.near the in him what to was familiarterritory tradingoperations Normanskill.Iroquois.

"Social and PoliticalOrganization. MethodsSeries5 (CD publication). 98Snow."See also "Archaeology 33-35. CompareSnow.98This date. Problems. clustersuntilAD 1560.26 on Sat. idem. to tight autonomouscommunities completetheirshiftfromdispersed.236.Italy. Archaeological in Archaeologyof the Appalachian "The Lessons of NorthernIroquoian Demography."in The Colloquia of theXIHe CongrèsInternational ed." Change." 71. Sullivanand SusanC."97 indicators oforganizedwarfareofa suffivillagesare. Poulton.Y. makingit impossibleto speakof fivediscrete nationsthatmightthenhaveunitedintoan alliancesuchas theLeague as it provides is ofcriticalimportance Thisinformation beforethen." Tenn.1996)."UsingViewshedAnalysisto Ex"Social and PoliticalOrganization. can do littlemorethantellus whetheror notwarfarewas common. CompareSnow. 1987). Snow.in fact.see Christine This content downloaded from 132. LynneP.Paul A. 15 Aug 2015 18:25:26 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . As fortheintimate fromhufashioned cutmarks. Prezzano.ed. humanbones. 34-35.100 Man in theNortheast35 (1988): 1-26.Iroquois.99 It does not.Iroquois. JamesW.David G. of the for the formation theterminus League.230-31nl0. Trigger.first archaeological appear aredescribed andritualcannibalism sacrifice Although prisoner tury." Proceedingsof ColloquiumII.And of hostilities haveconcludedthatthereis no evidenceof whilesomearchaeologists a consensus startdate before themid-fifteenth warfare century.see Dean R. Iroquoia." Trigger. Forsimilarevidencerrom F.38.some scattered natureofwarfare. Onondaga Iroquois:Accommodating See also EricE. Dana R.absentadditionalcorto at minimum century as too early.Whatis missingfromthepre-Iroquois formanycenturies "is notevidenceofviolence. idem. southern Ontario.159-68 (Forli.Italy. Smith. wouldbe viewedbymosthistorians evidence. but see 31-33: Engelbrecht.. Jones. Bradley. Ian Johnson(Forli. pervasive conflict was a factoflife thatintergroup fortheLeague. my genesis evilinesofdocumentary and independent contactevent."GIS and NorthernIroquoianDemography.othersmaintain beforethis. 97 Iroquoia.1500-1655 (Syracuse.alongwithartifacts burnedandshowing in centhe twelfth record in the manbone.thereis no realwayto determine theIroquoisengagedin priorto Europeancontact. archaeological Butifitis agreedthatfortified butratherofsettledfortified villages. UISPP XIHth Congress.Evolutionof the Hypothesis.N."American Antiquity ploreSettlement (2006): 523-38.. roborating is thatIroquoisvillagesdidnot A morecompelling however.43-44. 100Engelbrecht. postquern of the that the contention alter Leaguewas a posthowever.29.3 Choice:A Case StudyoftheOnondagaIroquois. reality. Ian and Methodological Vol.THE LEAGUE OF THE IROQUOIS 309 thescaleor kind Fromtheoutset.1997).Iroquois.1. Lennox. Highlands.2001).thenestimates cientlevelto meetthepresumed requirements oftheLeaguemustbe pushedbackat leastanother forthebeginning AD 1350. chaeologicalApplications ed. Préhistoriques ArJohnson.goestheargument."GIS Applica"For Iroquoisvillageclustering des Sciences tionsin NorthAmerica. Theoretical etProtohistoriques. of GIS. Dodd. and theAD 1560 date.85.264-77 (Knoxville.concrete oftheepic.The multiple in about fixtheterminus antequern and heresecurely dencepresented theseconddecadeoftheseventeenth century. record.

IroquoisEmpire.Volume15. ChrisJ. Onlylaterwas it appliedand restricted group. ed.although had nothalted thehistorical recordthattheLeagueinitially or combinedwithotherfactorsovertimeit did mitigatehostilities thethreatof hostilities betweentheIroquoisnations. theLeaguedid whether notdeterIroquoisvillagesfrom theirownself-interests. By numerousnativefoesfromin and aroundthe St.See Ives in ThomasS. century.26 on Sat.102 historicenmitybetweenthe Onondagasand Mohawksis well documented.85. Abler. Ablerand ElisabethTooker.heretheOnondato thewesternmost gas. 1650.104 Irohowever. IroquoianCannibalism. pp. 15 Aug 2015 18:25:26 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 104See Fenton.101 matterson thesubjectof warfareare hintsearlyin Complicating ."Ethnohistory lu¿SeeGehring.Neb. Northeast(see note32). someofwhomappearto haveformed Valley."in Handbookof Goddard'ssynomomy NorthAmericanIndians. and GaryA. OnondagaIroquois.182-85.in diplomacy.Therewas no recognition at anylevel. 103 IroquoisEmpire.theSénecas. "The MiddleOntarioIroquoianStage. FactNot Fiction. servershad noticedand written about suchpractices."Seneca."in TheArchaeology ofSouthof the ernOntarioto A.103 Whatis evenmoresignificant. ThisepisodecoincideswithcomplaintstheOnondagashad madeto theDutchof beinghaand var."Sinnekes"(Sinnekens Dutchas a collectivefortheIroquoisnationslivingwestoftheMohawks. Jennings.1990)."Yourfyreshall burnno more":Iroquois PolicytowardNew Franceand ItsNativeAlliesto 1701 (Lincoln. OntarioArchaeology Society5. conceding be riskyto projectsuchspecificbetheIroquois.GreatLaw.105-09..as discussedbelow. JoséAntonioBrandão.4 (1980): 309-16.For example. theycontinued unabatedamongtheIroquois(andothernativepeopleinthenortheast) wellintotheeighteenth century. ThomasS.IroquoisCannibalism: 27.Mohawkheadmenasked meetings forhorsesto draglogsoutofthewoodsso theycouldrepairtheirpalisades. Bradley.CourtMinutes.304-06. STARNA in thefirstdecadesof theseventeenth in historicaccountsbeginning the conservatism ofnon-state societiessuchas and century.DocumentsRelative. Lawrence fighting allianceswiththeFrench.nordidvillagessurrender theirautonomy centralauthority eitherto theirnationor to theLeaguecounciland itsheadmen. 1997).D. O'Callaghan. A to sendtheirwomenand children to FortOrangeforprotection. Ordeal.moreover. onceestablished. 51. This content downloaded from 132.in withtheDutchin mid-June 1657. Richter.Nonetheless.310 WILLIAM A. pursuing in thefurtrade.Thisrequireddoing"incase theyshouldbe involvedinwarwith in theeventofa wartheywantedpermission theSinnekes".Jennings.Ellisand Neal Ferris.Ontario. 321-59 (London.13:72-73.236. 1U1 Ablerand Logan. ofa or inwar. Warrick.)was usedbythe rassedbytheMohawks.It was exacerbatedby the arrivalof Europeansand thefur trade.OccasionalPublications LondonChapter. Bythefirsttwo decadesof theseventeenth level and that well the warfare had reached a scope may satisfy quois were of the then these Indians requirements Deganawidahepic.it wouldnonetheless haviorsfouror fivecenturies deeperintothepastto explainthesefindto pointoutthatafterEuropeanobit is important ings.

IroquoisPolicy.reflect oquoia.and also ofEuropeantradegoodsfoundon Iroquoissites.RobertD.107 however. norpresent an Iroquoisinvention ment.evidencefortheLeague. Case StudyinArtifact kndysis. 15 Aug 2015 18:25:26 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .it mustbe said. notonlyintheCondolenceCouncil.inparticular are said to signalnotonlyexchangebut.Fenton.104-05. and workscitedtherein.butalso intrade. century. Engelbrecht." DuringtheLateSixteenth Smallquantitiesof marineshellbeginto appearon Iroquoia.62-71. 161.236.105 nature of thedevastating havealso proposedthatevidencefortheLeaguecan Archaeologists and formsof nativemanufacbe foundin thedistribution. century. operateson themistaken thattheLeaguewas alreadyin existenceand all thatremainsto be done is to findevidence "New Approach. on of exotic pipe styles Iroquoissites.THE LEAGUE OF THE IROQUOIS 311 and takenwarto theverydoorstepofIrtheirarmedsupport. is thatthefreeexchangeand movement Heretheworkingassumption ofgoods. conditionfor. Iroquoia.forexample. (MonOnondagaIroquois.diplomacy. thought.134-35.26 on Sat. itis allegedlyevito thisinstitution. pean tradegoodsand themannerin whichthesesamegoodsmayor maynothavereachedtheIroquoisnationsweremuchmorevariedand alliancesof whatever Furthermore. Bradley. Engelbrecht. 107 Nativesand Newcomers:Canadas HeroicAge Reconsidered BruceG. recovered inpoliticalprotocol. role whichplayedan important truewampum. denceof a functioning League.Proceedings. inHayes. received oral Period histories. Iroquoia."JournalofAnthropological betweenmarineshelland theexistenceoftheLeague.132. tureditems. suggesting thatpeacefulrelathehypothesis In linewiththisevidenceis generated of theseitems tionswouldhaveallowedforan equitabledistribution moreto their access than direct with less communities sources. members. among between ties acted to have would their League strengthen over.becauseoftheir fromthesitesofanother. LynnCeci. complexthanpreviously 105 Brandão.1 (1982): 97-107. theywerelinkedin an alliance theLeague.allianceformation. 106 It has beenproposedthatmarineshellis a materialsymbolortheCondolenceCouncil. This content downloaded from 132."The Value ofWampumamongtheNew YorkIroquois:A Research38.See Kuhnand Sempowski.marineshellandclaysmoking pipes.133. and adornotherceremony.norproofof."301-14.wouldfirst of an alliancehave requiredan arrangementthe establishment This basic patternwould also hold true betweenIroquoisvillages.106 trade. Kuhnand RobertE. Patterns Century. Iroquoianand Algonquianalike. frequency. See also Engelbrecht.Thereareanynumberof importance presumed withintheLeague.are nota pretiming as is thecase withseveral Moreproblematical. Thereis no one-to-one correspondence thosethatweremanufactured bymenofone Iroquoisnationbut Smokingpipes.thatcouldexplainthepresenceand otherthanactivity possiblescenarios.Smokingpipes. inanyquantity untilaftercontact. this conflict. thekindand ithas beenreported. Mohawksitesinthefifteenth However. regularcontactbetweenpersonsand groups.85. treal. forit."Mohawk Interaction 11. Funk." correlates as "one ofthefewarchaeological accordingly.withoutimpediment.was neither GreatLaw.Goods would maketheirway to thevilforIndian-European onlyif lagesof all fiveof theIroquoisnations. is thatthishypothesis otherarchaeological assumption attestations.1985). 226-27. Earlyin theseventeenth amountofEuropeangoodson Iroquoisvillagesitesassumeda noticeable similarity. exchange thatthesourcesof EuroRecentworksuggests. Trigger.

21.1600-1664.are noteasilyanswered."ibid.1994) . WilliamFentonputitbestintheopeningofhisdiseighteenth.3 (1986): 8. 525-36. CharlesT. 2003)..236. in Canada. century.108 alliance or of some kind was 1656. VolumeXII of theDutch ColonialManuscripts(Syracuse.111 To findan we mustinsteadreturn to Pyrlaeusand theearlyhistory explanation.85.Thwaites. PetrusStuyvesant.312 WILLIAM A.See also Shimony. idem. thecolotheypetitioned for a on the lower Hudson. 111 Ibid. According toJesuits at thehandsoftheMohawkssentthe Onondagasnorthto tradewiththeFrench. "The Iroquois:The GrandRiverReservein theLateNineteenth and EarlyTwentieth Centuries. saveforthehintofJohnChristopher a Moravian Pyrlaeus. dence1654-1658. This content downloaded from 132. ofNew Netherland. of a partyof(presumably) Onondagasshowedup intheneighborhood Manhattanwithbundlesoffurs. 109William A.To avoidany suchtroublein thefuture.182-212 (Toronto..52 and passim.44:151. Weaver."Seventeenth-Century Dutch-Indian Trade:A Perspective fromIrotrans.109 post ny'sdirector.Bradley." FirstNations. are beyondthescopeofthisessay."The Iroquois:The ConsolidationoftheGrandRiverRein AboriginalOntario:HistoricalPerspectives servein theMid-Nineteenth on the Century.N. STARNA between formwereno guarantee thatgoodscouldorwouldflowfreely one of several available Citingjust examples.GreatLaw.1875-1945.JesuitRelations.a timewhenan league operational. EdwardS. and theLeague. cussionon theDeganawidahepic and theLeaguein The GreatLaw so basicto Iroquoispoand theLonghouse:"How is itthatsomething liticalphilosophy the notice of writers on Iroquoismanearly escaped nersand usages?Arewe to inferfromthesilenceof colonialwriters thatthelegendwas unknown andtheleaguewas notfunctioning? Why.Y.2007). idem. SallyM. Corresponquòia. to take the short been harassedby Mohawkswhentheyattempted routeeastfromtheirvillagesto theDutchat FortOrange.Theirmorethantwo-weekjourneyto tradehad beennecessary.Volume15. Theseissues. missionary. Rogersand Donald B. Smith. becausetheyhad previously theyreported. Gehring.Ontario. althoughFentonclearlyidentified themotivesbehindthecodification and preservationofIroquoisculture.suchilltreatment 107.ed.." de Halve Maen 59. 51.. CapitalRegion. Relationsinthe BeforeAlbany:AnArchaeology ofNative-Dutch N. New YorkStateMuseumBulletin509 (Albany.26 on Sat. trading andhistory haveaddedlittleto whatis knownor underEthnology and well intothe stoodabout theLeagueforall of theseventeenth. inPyrlaeus's Contained accountarethenamesofthe"specialchiefs" saidbytheIndianSganarády to havestruckan alliancewiththeDutch.213-57. 108 SeeJamesW. Conservatism. .in Iroquoisvillages.in thelatenineteenth century. 15 Aug 2015 18:25:26 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ."in HandbookofNorthAmericanIndians."Six Nations oftheGrandRiver. Starna. havewe to awaittheemergence ofethnology at themid-nineteenth cenoftheleague'sinstitutions andceremonies?"110 turyfora description Thesequestions..however.and ed. ofcourse. Northeast(seenote32). 11U Fenton.Y.

MoravianJournals.inspiteoftherepetition to Pyrlaeus.threeofthesesixnamesarefoundin thehistorical Otatschéchte to Pyrlaeus's Otachecté. Pyrlaeus'sOtatschéchte Otatshete(1784).Y. 14 vols. 1861).. FranklinB.. Amongits provisionswerethe betweenthe Dutchand Iroquois.forall intentsand purposes. Pyrlaeus'sTatotárho= Wathatodarho(1765). is Sganarády's Whatis also of interest namingof thefiveIroquois with nationswhoseheadmenhad allegedlyenteredintoan agreement aboutthese theDutchknewmuchofanything theDutchat a timebefore Indians. N.and eventhen.often Dutchroutinely acknowledged DocumentsRelative. Togahaju (1766).N. 113 The followingthreenamesfromPyrlaeus'slist.tookanynoticeof. surface. once.Y.2 fairsAppointedbyLaw fortheExtinguishment vols.or documented thatthey of theMohawksand Oneidas. ThePapersofSirWilliamJohnson.m The others.andWilliamN. 11:709. Otacheté. = Tegaaia (1768). 15 Aug 2015 18:25:26 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Beauchamp.141.exposedas suchin 1987. "HereatTawagonneverbeenseen.9:385 (first name). Hough.it is doubtful native told about these had been what understood people. Gehring.Odat-sighte.theyhad recited clineinthefurtrade.appearinthehistoric recordafter1743 andto 1800: Pyrlaeus's others Togaháyon= T'gaaju (1752)."a locationon the Normanskill.This termsof a tradingagreement is an elaboratehoax.also in 1691. Tcka-eãyon(1756).theyappearin a As faras can be deterfashioninmostsubsequent consistent reportings. Proceedingsof theCommissioners of IndianAfofIndianTitlesin theStateofNew York. shi.THE LEAGUE OF THE IROQUOIS 313 AlongwiththecouncilnamesoftheIroquoisnations. Fenton.andbegins.. it was not untilthemid-1630sthattheDutchwere theIndianslivingwest madeaware.thefirstlistingof thefiveIroquois record.(Albany. [William ed.85.is dated21 April1613. TawagonshiTreaty New YorkHistory68. Otasseté.DocumentsRelative. reckoning: Odatsichta. document. This"treaty.26 on Sat. obviously.and to thebestof myknowledgeno . in 1688.That is.7:133.236.Before1634-35 the nationsto thenbe putintoa contemporary theMohawksand theOneidas.4 (1987): 373-93. theyare. thatis notreadilyexplained. Odatsichte. 219. Odaksichte.3:774 (secondand thirdnames).oncein 1691.ed. (Sadegarees).114 however. 8:113.In they fully madetheirwayfromFort thedeadofwinter1634-35.Yet. 1921-65).JamesSullivanet al.. 114 WilliamA. 112O'Callaghan.113 thatledto thealliance on theNormanskill Thereis also themeeting betweendeputiesof thefiveIroquoisnationsand theDutchpriorto no recordofitwas knownto exist. of 1613: The FinalChapter. Satagarúuyes ofnamesintheseveralaccounts arenot. 1:39."The CharlesT.Whilevisiting to them.absent subsequent an absence fromthe voluminousrecordof colonialadministrations.in theMohawklanguage. Starna. and first Ondaghsighte). recordprior mined." This content downloaded from 132. (Albany. Odatrighte.thatis. Johnson].in although Albany'sfounding. O'Callaghan." theoriginalofwhichhas a record did such 1968.Togaháyon(Dagaeyse).threeDutchmen OrangeintotheMohawkValleyto learnwhattheycouldabouta dean Oneidavillage. (Otatchette.

and patterns of marriageand residence movement ofbothmenandwomen all playedimportant inter-village allianceformation.Social and PoliticalOrganization". gelbrecht emerging Iroquois with individuals and neither nor entities.116 variablein assessingthefrequency and intensity ofthedifferent forms of socialinteraction to alliance formation is distance. Thus. signifier It remainslikelythatthemostimportant archaeological judgments.). 116SeeTrigger.culturalbehaviors. leading interactions betweenwhatare understood to be Mohawkand Oneida morecommonand perhaps villages.whatever the reasonsmaybe. This is in interspiteofthegenerallackofevidenceofpre-contact villagetrade a traditional of alliances and a number of now earlier. 15 Aug 2015 18:25:26 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .118 115Gehringand Starna. thecontrolof .117 logical Ifthereis. 117See FloydG. In additionto the information fromPyrlaeus'saccountjust presentedis thebroaderyetessentialquestionofallianceand allianceformation. beensuggestions thatrealor perceived externalthreats. and ideas..the and accessto resources. "Social and PoliticalOrganization.The forceoftheLeague'splacein history shouldnotcloudthe factthatbeforethearrivalofthePeacemaker andhismessage. alongwith. Northeast(see note32). therereferring cordis silenton thoseIroquoiswhosevillageslay farther Inwest.314 WILLIAM A. dated. Lounsbury.15.forexample.at minimum.85." 31. brecht.Snow.forinstance."in HandbookofNorthAmericanIndians. Iroquois communities did not standin isolationfromone another.wereundoubtedly moreenduring thanthosebetweenMohawkand Cayugaor Senecavilthatis partlyborneout bylinguistic and archaeolages. groups entering leaving. century ognizedthefiveIroquoisnationsbynamewithanyregularity. As archaeologist WilliamEnpartsin pre-contact reminds "The nations were notclosed us.is Dean dynamicssurrounding R.we simplydo not knowhow sucharrangements cameto be madeor howtheymayhavefunctioned.However.128 and passim. Snow." thisgenerallyacknowledgedmovementof people betweenvillages."MohawkDemographyand theEffects of ExogenousEpidemicson AmericanIndianPopulations 15 (1996): 160-82.236.otherwise.materialgoods. and althoughtheevidencemaybe incomplete or imperfectly therehave long understood. STARNA to thelatterpeopleas "Sinnekens"(var.26 on Sat.Iroquois. toldaboutthe"ONNEDAEGES" (Onondagas).An excellentexampleof thecultural theemergence of one of theIroquoisnations.theMohawk. 335-36. OnondagaIroquois.Bradley. a theoretical andpracticaluniversal among kin-basedsocieties. .115 it was not until the mid-seventeenth thattheDutchrecdeed.See also Trigger. "IroquoianLanguages. That is.Ibid. 118fcngel Iroquoia. it is theirtendency to formalliances. Whileat theOneida villagetheDutchmenwere Journey.VolumeIS.a supposition data. 16-17. is perforce on some kind or several kinds of predicated arrangements alliances."JournalofAnthropological Archaeology This content downloaded from 132.The Iroquoiswereno exception.

Tooker. position then century. European worlds. extent.to a considerable pean to thesenativepeople:to mationofallianceswerenotat all unfamiliar or againsta keepthepeace or to join as alliesformutualprotection . English.as described historians and as searched for unreachable using by Deganawidahepic nota pre-contact theepicas a guide. theimpetusforand timingof fromall oftheLeague.236.120 single recordbe setasidein voicesnotbe heard.Indianor European commonenemy madebyIrodeclaration trade. and Ordeal.Richter.not isfactorily areto be employed.an allianceseparateand distinct theformation cannotbe satothersthatmayhaveinthepastlinkedIroquoisvillages.130. See. andmeans. Fenton.and to sustainand facilitate .119 The questionof thesource.made it a shortstepforIroquois arrived usefulallianceswiththerecently peopleto enterintosimilarly in French Canada and the the Dutchand. This content downloaded from 132.thereasonsbehindtheforAnd.85. by tempered oftheLeaguewas a processand nota thattheformation qualification. 120 "Ordeals.26 on Sat. byacknowledging hedged ofIroquoisculture an understanding canceoftheepicin approaching whileat thesametimeplacingheavyrelianceon "upstreamhistory. An AbridemenU 195.GreatLaw. Engelbrecht.It in and to on oflayering justificationsresponse challenges was a matter to therelatively rapidculturalchangethatembracednativeand Euroalike."16. answeredsolelyon thebasisoftheDeganawidahepic. methodsofhistory ifthetraditional Manyhistorithesignifibets their have nonetheless.thatis. be takento meanthatIroquois None of this should event.31-32.thegenesisoftheLeague."League.THE LEAGUE OF THE IROQUOIS 315 was notlimitedto Indian-Indian Allianceformation arrangements. ofSganarády andthetestimony in theempirically To begin. 119McIlwain.undoubtandpoliticalstrategies the same social Employing edlydevelopedovermanydecades. ofthe and regularized portrayal ing"LewisHenryMorgan'spatterned is this Once the fifteenth well into held. League unassailable and the often theoretically factually repeated. 15 Aug 2015 18:25:26 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .itmust "Trade& Peacewe taketo be one thing" typifies their interconnected what had become views on be admitted.The oft-cited theincreasingly important in 1735affairs Peter Wraxall for Indian to quoisheadmen secretary nativeand.was inall likelihood phenomenon.it is thehistory in thesecondhalfof theseventeenth mento colonialofficials century inthe1740sthatcompletethestory.shortly thereafter."418-22. lroquoia.norshouldtheearlyhistoric to a deference plainlysynchronie accounting mid-nineteenth-century theirwordswere andall thatfollowedandactedto sustainit. ans. 72.forexample.Although offered byIroquoisheadputto paperbyEuropeans.

SnowandWilliam Demography." A.and 1691 The threemeetings discussedpreviously .109-11. response thefurtrade and theneedto havea strongsocioeconomic systembywhicha more effective redistribution of tradegoodswouldbe ensured.236.Stone Age Economics(Chicago.1521-1704. "CreekConfederacy BeforeRemoval. This content downloaded from 132.Volume14. European-introduced had sharply reducedthepopulationoftheinterior southeast. Indiansand Europeansin theAmericanSouth. 2004).welldocumented hawks. CharlesHudsonand Carmen ChavesTesser. makesa similarargument fora politically morecomplexpeople. ThisdevastationtookplaceaboutthesametimethatEngland.occurredduringtheEnglishadministra121See thediscussionin MarshallSahlins. 122See Snow.393-420. RaymondD...1689. "The Formation oftheCreeks."Sixteenth-Century Depopulation:A View fromtheMohawkValley. PatriciaGalloway. as. thattheraisond'êtreof theLeaguehas beentiedbyIroquoispeoplethemselves toeventssurrounding theDutch tradeearlyin theseventeenth An alliance the century: League. in particular theMoease.373-92 (Athens. .it is also suggested thatother factorsactedto reinforce overtimewhatbecametheLeague'sstated purpose to securetheunityoftheIroquois. overtimeandwithitsconsiderable to skillfully ideocapacity adaptitself and to the circumstances.Lendingweightto thispointofview begantheirrivalry is thatassertions thattheCreekconfederacy existedearlierremainunconfirmed orhistorical research. as a Solutionto Ga. 15 Aug 2015 18:25:26 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Dean R.C. STARNA To thisis addedtheinutility.85. 1994).ed.may have beencreated.betweenone or moreoftheIroquoisnationsand officials inAlbany where"Jacques"was named.ed.123 byarchaeological Notwithstanding.26 on Sat. VernonJ."in Handbookof North AmericanIndians. League logically structurallyrapidlychanging functioned an Iroquoisinvention. Southeast. Spain." ibid. confederacy."Confederacy ChiefdomDissolution:HistoricalEvidencein theChoctawCase.121 Although notof immediate momentto thisessay.It is proposedhere.ofarchaeological modelsandevidenceto detecttheLeaguewithanysurety in thepre-contact period..nonetheless."Mohawk and Iroquois. thusfar."in TheForgotten Centuries: D. 185230. to whichmaybe addedthreatsposed by otherIndians..1972). comesfromthehistory oftheCreek ampleofjustsucha circumstance which did not to to cocoalesce. begin pointing emerging between local until diseases operation polities.in substantial as a to part.122 not a a nevertheless exinformative Although preciseanalogy. Walter.andFrance overtheregion.The mostwidelyfavored ofvirtually has beenEuropeaninexplanation everymodernhistorian cursionsintothenortheast.in 1678.316 WILLIAM A.KnightJr.374-75 (Washington. Anthropologist 123 See WillardB. Fogelson."American 91 (1989): 142-49.Not examinedbutworthyof seriousconsideration are theeffects of severepost-contact populationloss fromepidemicdisforIroquoiscommunities. andwouldremain. Starna.

"[WilliamJohnson]. reseveralmeetings from weremadebydelegations or representations cordedforthisperiodwherepropositions butthesedo notmeetthetestofa treaty one or moreIroquoisgroupsor byEnglishofficials.13:18. Severalearmentioned said to havebegunwithJacques. 125O'Callaghan.127 a treaty and efficaciously Thereis littledoubtthatfortradeto be properly suchas theNew Netherconductedbetweennativepeopleand entities ofsomesortwouldhavebeennecessary.in thepresenceofMohawkdeputiesactingas mediators.noneof whichnameEelckensor a person froma 1659 called"Jacques. Historyof New Netherlands concludedbetweentheDutchand theRiverIndi1:355-56. 15 Aug 2015 18:25:26 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . summary Library or.26 on Sat. In earlysummer1645.nonetheless. (New York. 1666-1723 (Gettysburg.A recordofthis was lostinthe1911 New YorkState translation. O'Callaghan. DocumentsRelative. they English the made between known to be the Englishand compact only appears at leastsomeoftheIroquoisuntiltherenewalofthecovenantthatwas in 1678. or covenant.forwhatever describetheevent:inApril1643 theDutchhad concluded to correctly ofpeacewiththeIndiansofthelowerHudsonValley. O'Callaghan.2 vols.1:158. Kiefttraveledto CourtMinutes. appearsin E. 1956).457.thatour firstFriendship Commencedat theArrivalof thefirstgreatCanoe or Vesselat Albany. arrangements that Thekindsofexchange non-state. 191.Therewas a secondpeacetreaty inAugust1645. landCompany. Of specialnoteis a mentionoftheseearlyagreements bySirWilat Onondagain 1748: "It mayseemstrange hisfirst conference whileattending liamJohnson shouldknowthis.13:14. Therewere.DocumentsRelative.Dutchgovernor FortOrangeto meetwithMohawks. fundamentally egalitarian-to-ranked 124Supporting made bytheSchaahkooks is thedocument"Propositions thischronology Indiansthe 24th of Sepr1703." theupperHudsonat 1618. 126Gehring. an the and the intowith "Maques" was entered "Synicks"[Sinagreement fromthe nekens]thatthey"shallhaveall suchwaresand commodities This from the Dutch.and otherunnamednatives. spokesman andbrothoffriendship sixteen treaty yearshadpassedsincetheir"first withanyIroquoisnationfrom1643 survives.thespokesman althoughitis possiblethat."126 failed reasons. Papers. alongwitha nineteenth-century materials on these based a however. fire.3:67. Leder. ans."125 heretofore had the as for future.ed.at whichyou were whatit containedpleasedyou so muchbeingThingsforyour muchsurprizedbut finding Purpose."he toldtheassembledchiefsofthefiveIroquois to youhow I a Foreigner whichwas of our Forefathers nations.236.THE LEAGUE OF THE IROQUOIS 317 Lessthanthree tionofwhathadbeenthecolonyofNew Netherlands24 weeksafterthe takeoverfromthe Dutch on 6 September 1664..New YorkUnderthe Dutch..first liertreatieshad beenconcludedwithIroquoispeopleduringthetime theDutchheldthecolony. Thereinis thisdeclaration:"It is now Eightyfive thenwee tyedthemwitha Roap but cameherein thisCountrey first Christian since ye years havestood nowtheyare fastnedwithan IronChainto yetreeofwelfairso thatwee hitherto ThisputsthedateofthearrivalofEuropeanson firm to VeCovenantChainwithourfather.Mahicans. 127O'Callaghan. Butno treaty erhood. The LivingstonIndian Records. This content downloaded from 132. Pa."ButI tellyou I foundout someof theold Writings thoughtto have been lost and in thisold valuableRecordI find. B.85.DocumentsRelative." LawrenceH.1846)."The firstis knownonlyby a reference that recounted the Dutch where councilwiththeMohawks. conference.

analogiescan be drawnrelatively securely An Ethnography Bulletin oftheHuronIndians.DocumentsRelatingto New Netherland1624-1626 in 1JUA." whichusheredin the in takeover carried over the fullrangeof English September1664.By 1625 and theappointment ofWillemVerhulst as director ofthecolony.. 15 Aug 2015 18:25:26 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .or shortsticksheld inthehand. 35-37. Md. Christophand FlorenceA.85.presumEelckens. Huntington Library(San Marino. 52.236. tiallyvolatileaffairs fortradeto occura socialrelationship or a socialstrategy first needed to be established.whoseown systems . generally Jennings 132 For"Articles ofSurrender Consentedto byColonelNicolls. 1:62-65. inturn. to theHuron.26 on Sat.and ed. Trigger.3:67. D. ChildrenofAataentsic. Eelckens and his crew would or could havetakenplacewithout Jacob an agreement anditsassociatedconventions. Thiswas a practicealtogether familiar to of protocol Europeans. the"Articles ofSurrender.Vol.Ca.186.Economics.129 Whethertheymay have extendedto his interactions withIndiansis unknown. 39. 1924).C. 128Sahlins. 1980).New Netherlands 34-36.1615-1649. Book of GeneralEntriesfortheColonyof New York. eds.131 As fortheEuropeans.. and contracts made the Dutch administration ofthe agreements during theOctober1664 treaty between theEnglishandIrocolony. Jacobs.and DirectorGeneralStuyvesant's Delegates. STARNA societiessuchas theIroquoisenteredintowerecomplexand potenembeddedin mutualsuspicionand unease.whichoperatedundera charterissued by theStatesGeneralin theNetherlands. O'Callaghan.F. 1964).See ElisabethTooker.trans."Prehistory. Christoph.thattradebetween. ensuredthe Indians'access to tradegoods "as quois representatives heretofore had from theDutch. 25-31.DocumentsRelative."128 Basicto theprocessis theconceptofreciprocity and a directexchangebetweenthepartiesin whichsocialand economicinterests are served. 1: 1664-1673 (Baltimore.customarily madeuseofa reiterative mnemonic formulary employing devicessuchas strings ofwampum. kernels ofcorn.Thus."132 This continuity in formand they substance was ofobviousimportance to all ofthepartiesinvolved..Moreover..J.318 WILLIAM A.His Delegates. It is unlikely.theMohawksand then. shallSahlinsreferred to as "statusetiquette.130 At thisjunctureit is important to recognizethattheseveralreferencestoJacquesand theassociatedearlycovenantin thestatements of headmen to officials were intended as reIroquois English undoubtedly minders of pastagreements.to recalleventsfrompastcouncilsor othergatherings. 129 33-34.."see PeterR. IroquoisDiplomacy." van Laer. BureauofAmericanEthnology 190 (Washington. ablyconductedthetradein compliancewithdirectives prescribed by thecompanyforwhichhe worked. 131See et al.usuallywithoutdelay. ofearlyIroquoistradeare foundin Althoughno descriptions theliterature. forexample.. Hart.exinstructions had been on how best to deal withInplicit promulgated diantraders. whatMarrepletewithall oftheattendant protocols. This content downloaded from 132.but also to theIroquois. theHenryE.

133 in without the corroborating independent. Great that the and fostered intellectuals.of course. epic genesis the existence would confirm that record or thehistorical archaeological oftheLeaguebeforecontact. This content downloaded from 132. means to be a scholars bywhichpeopletheworldover by knowledged 133On oraltraditions see David Henige. ofHale and othersthatfollowed. Myths. counterpart.Persuading manyto linkedto the deferto theseclaimsare certainIroquoisoral traditions of theDeganawidahepic.On thisbasis.and unknownMohawks.to a timewhenthe agreement FromthepointoftheviewoftheIroquois.As a handfulofscholarshave structure totypic oftheLeague. agreement had beenwithJacobJacobszEelckensat FortNassau. nativists. As a matterof legitimacy on a pointoforigin.itwouldbe unrealiseventsset to acceptoral accountsdescribing tic to expecthistorians evidence.Oral Historiography and oralhistories. date. can be foundin all in nearlockstep.thatfirst struck.itsfifty hereditary froma timemuch mannerso oftendescribed didexistintheregularized beforethearrivalofEuropeansin theNew World. century. .thatis. byIroquois the Great its "constitutional" Law.then. past deep WhattheDeganawidahepicmostprobablyand surelynotsurprisis a formofmythbuiltaroundvariousbitsand pieces inglyrepresents .whichis takento be not receivedsanctity oftheLeague's the underpinning only ideologicalbutalso thehistorical in there is nothing set is But once the and evolution.It is oflittleconreferences to thecovenantbyIrodocumented sequencethatthosefirst didnotmencentury quoisheadmeninthelastthirdoftheseventeenth werelimitedto Eelckens. theLeague.theyshouldbe mentswouldbe dependent was first traceableto a firstinstance. or theeighteenth recordfromeithertheseventeenth thedocumentary insisted on and Yetthenotionpersists amongmanyhistorians.are widelyacsynthesis.northose neither Morgan's1851portrayal acknowledged. (London. Peace.The remaining at leastat this fourIroquoisnationsweremostlikelyoutofthepicture.and all therest.85.26 on Sat.on thepartof the tionthattheparticipants New Netherland Company. aside. 15 Aug 2015 18:25:26 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . proorigins explanations oftheIroquoisLeague. early Recapitulation calls intoquestion evidencepresented A fairreadingof thehistorical andpresumed for the mainstream theaccepted. 1982).thatforIroquoispeoplerequiredexposition.realevents of history and thenrationalization.THE LEAGUE OF THE IROQUOIS 319 of agreethecontinuity and validation. leaders.accompanied by sachemsand theirtitles.236.

plays understanding Nor can history. suggested The seventeenth-century worldviewoftheIroquoiswas.a frame ofa socialandceremonial myths explicateandhistoricize relationships naturewithintheframework of a symbolically The chargednarrative. purpose. flowing tionswiththearrivaloftheFortuyn andJacobJacobszEelckens.26 on Sat."377. STARNA Theirfundamental explaintheoriginsofonethingor another.had sailedintotheirworld.thedetailssurrounding theLeague'soriginsthat it describes. History. its historical and ideologicalunfolding. hapsargue. represents past thanitdoesa culturalcharter. forgeda first The mostdifficult matterto address. 23-24. it has beenargued. in a thegroupand itsactivities situating knowableandcontinually social environment.236. optionsis being here.and withwhomtheyhad covenant.whose ship. forwhatgoeson ina society.givenits statusas a sacredtext.thatis. Theepicobviously a in role thenatureoftheLeague. toldthetale:Sganarády in 1743.converge on one placeand one time:theearlyDutchtradeconductedinitially with theMohawksand localAlgonquians at themouthoftheNormanskill in theseconddecadeof theseventeenth Andwhatis of great century. withoutquestion. itwas theIroquoisthemselves whoprovidedthecluesand significance. is whatto do with theDeganawidahepic.320 WILLIAM A.loaded with goodsto trade.The covenantwithJacqueson the Normanskill was thestarting and thenexpanpointfortheinitiation sionofalliancesthateventually and involved all fiveIroencompassed 134See Vansina. It mustbe conceded.is to providea concurrent or postfactumjustificaofreference. 15 Aug 2015 18:25:26 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . thechiefsgathered to Pyrlaeus at Onin the of Conrad Weiser the same and ondaga presence year. Knight. Iroquois headmenin thelastthirdoftheseventeenth whoreminded ofcentury.however. revealed"history. ficialsin Albanyof a man namedJacques.Oral "FormationoftheCreeks. Actual events the current of in news all direcity.thatalthough is knownaboutthetimingof itsappearanceor itsdystated.85. somewouldperyetitcannotstandaloneas evidence. Morespecifically.ofcourse.nothing namicsthroughtime.would of necessity have beenincorporatedintothatworldviewso as to makesensenotonlyof theinitial eventbut also of whatfollowed.itsmeaningto Irohistorians.and thebuildingof FortNassau.after quois peopleand also interested thestorylineandmeaningbehindtheepicareclearly all. This content downloaded from 132.134 evolving On theotherhand. neither of these black and white However. tion. and. in itsmostexpansivespatialand temporalcontextand perceived realrational.all ofthelinesofdocumented evidencerelevant to theLeague'soriginsand purposedo." less a chronicle of events however.

Not onlydidmylongtime he encouraged meto takeon thetaskin thefirst moreimportantly. tionandwriting This content downloaded from 132.Thisstrikingly a that we unbeenwovenintoa familiar ideologicaldomain. JackCampisi essay.inparticular.THE LEAGUE OF THE IROQUOIS 321 wouldhave new.26 on Sat. sionswithfriend matters.The firstpersonknownto offer fortunately of sort of was theMohawkSganarády. ofthisessay. matters concerning MarianneMithunandHanni andcolleagueCharlesGehring. place.85. andtranshertranscription missionrecordsfromtheperiodand.236. this comments on drafts of for and Dean Snow reading offering helpful early final confederate read the draft. (andpatiently) providedguidanceon linguistic Woodbury generously ofMoravian whosetranslations I am mostgrateful to CorinnaDally-Starna. The elements any explanation of history thatprecededits his accountand themorethana century to Pyrlaeusin 1743. dencedbythehistorical recordand as toldto us byIroquoispeople.The restwas processand evolution.On I benefited fromdiscusthehistory of New Netherland. process can knownothingabout. fromPyrlaeus's wereessentialintheformulalationoftheexcerpt dictionary.MarthaDickinsonShattuck. Acknowledgments and I wouldliketo thankJoséAntonioBrandão.offerstrongsupportto theidea that presentation to thearrivaloftheDutchand thegenesisoftheLeagueis tieddirectly as evithetradeat FortNassau. 15 Aug 2015 18:25:26 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .momentous experience quois nations.