described. Some improvements in conventional genetic algorithms such as sequence
crossover, multi-points crossover and multi-points mutation methods are proposed. In
addition, the optimum managemenot f an irrigation problemw as solveda sa n exampleo f the
application of the above algorithms. Finally, the algorithms are implemented in C + +
language. 0 1997 Elsevier Science B.V.

© All Rights Reserved

8 views

described. Some improvements in conventional genetic algorithms such as sequence
crossover, multi-points crossover and multi-points mutation methods are proposed. In
addition, the optimum managemenot f an irrigation problemw as solveda sa n exampleo f the
application of the above algorithms. Finally, the algorithms are implemented in C + +
language. 0 1997 Elsevier Science B.V.

© All Rights Reserved

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You are on page 1of 11

18 (1997) 117-127

ELSEVIER

Computers

and electronics

in agriculture

genetic algorithms

Yu-Ming

Chen *

Tile Institute of Intelligent Machines, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 1130, Hefei,

Anhui 230031, Peoples Republic of China

Abstract

In this paper, definitions for several genetic algorithms and algorithm proceduresare

described. Some improvements in conventional genetic algorithms such as sequence

crossover, multi-points crossover and multi-points mutation methods are proposed. In

addition, the optimum managementof an irrigation problemwassolvedasan exampleof the

application of the above algorithms. Finally, the algorithms are implementedin C + +

language.0 1997Elsevier ScienceB.V.

Keywords:

1. Introduction

The management of irrigation plays an important role in a districts lack of

water, especially in some northern parts of China (Xiong et al., 1995). It is an

urgent problem how to distribute the water resources in the most reasonable way.

The optimum management of irrigation is a problem of multi-goals and multi-constraints. Conventionally, the hill-clim.bing method is used to solve these kinds of

problems, but cannot satisfactorily make out the resolution because there are too

many factors involved. In our lab, we try to adopt some biological-based algorithms. Genetic algorithms are introduced.

* Tel.: + 86 0551 5107506; fax: + 86 0551 5591100; e-mail: chengj@public.hf.ah.cn

0168-1699/97/$17.00 0 1997 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

PII SO1 68-1699(97)00024-O

!18

Y.-M.

Chen /Computers

and Electronics

in Agriculture

18 (1997)

117-127

natural selection and natural genetics. They have become increasingly popular in

recent years as a approach to solving complex search problems in many computer

application fields.

In this paper, the improvement of conventional genetic algorithms is investigated

for a task of the irrigation optimization.

The advantage and the shortcoming also

are discussed. At last, based on the blind, Iparallelism and robustness of GAs, a

schedule of water resource management can be implemented.

2. Genetic algorithms

Genetic algorithms have been developed by John Holland (Holland, 1971), his

colleagues and his students at University of Michigan. GAS are an example of a

search procedure that use random choices as a tool to guide a highly exploitative

search through the coding of a parameter space. They combine the survival of the

fittest among string structured yet randomized information

exchange to form a

search algorithm with some of the innovative flair of human search, Goldberg

(1989).

GAs differs from other optimum seeking methods in some fundamental ways:

1. GAS work with a coding parameter set, not the parameter themselves.

2. GAS search from a population of the points, not a simple point.

3. GAS only use payoff (objective function) information,

not other auxiliary

knowledge such as derivative, etc.

4. GAS use probability transition rules, not deterministic rules.

The efficiency and the simplicity of the operation are two main attractions of the

genetic algorithms approach.

Generally, genetic algorithms are composed of three operations:

1. reproduction

2. crossover

3. mutation

3. Irrigation

optimization

problem is to figure

out the fitness. In our lab, a project on the irrigation optimization

in Shijing

Irrigation Network was under way. The fitness function of the problem will be

defined through analysis of the irrigation model.

ShiJing Irrigation Networks is located at the eastern foot of TaiHang Mountain,

southern part of Hebei plain. There are good soil and temperate climate that are fit

for growing wheat and cotton. This area is the important agriculture-base in China.

But in recent years, the water in the reservoir is lacking seriously due to the

long-time dry weather. So, how to distribute reasonably limited water resources

become a much-concerned problem.

Y.-M.

Chen /Computers

and Electronics

in Agriculture

18 (1997)

117-127

119

From March to April every year in the ShiJing Irrigation Networks, there are six

areas distributed in 13 counties where the Spring wheat and cotton mainly need. to

be irrigated. To manage the water source reasonably, an irrigation plan must be

made by the irrigation management station #ahead of time (see Fig. 1).

Through analysis of the irrigation networks and discussion with the dornain

experts, a model of economic profit and irrigation management can be made out.

For the irrigation model, some parameters are assumed as follows:

Q

sj

i= l,..., 6, the total area of district i

Rj

i= l,... ,6, the proportion

of the area of wheat field to the total area of

district i, thus 1 - Ri represents the proportion of the cotton

C, the price of water per unit volume that the irrigation management station

sold to the user

C, the price of water per unit volume that the irrigation management station

bought from the reservoir

Lj i= l,... ,6: the ratio of loss water to the total water quantity on the way

from the station to district i, respectively

Wj i=l ,...,6: the total water quantity of well irrigation which can be applied

in district i, respectively

Some variables, used in the model, are shown as follows:

Xi,

X2.

i =

l,..., 6: the ratio of water distributed into wheat field to total area in

district i

X3; i = 1,. . .,6: the ratio of irrigated area to the total area in wheat field of

district i

station

1-6: six districts

-/

LID

1

120

x,

i= 1,. . .,6: the ratio of irrigated area to the total area in cotton field of

district i

i=l ,. . .,6: the economic profit of district i, respectively

the total economic profit of six districts

Ei

E

follows:

optimization

for economic

profit is expressed as

E= CE,

i=l

Ei =((xkJs;3T)

Gq

-Rsjx3,

w,>(l

+f()RiSi(l

x3i>

&J

C1

(l

)six4i

g()(l

Ri)siC1

x4i)

KISiXdi

with a constraint

*1

----<Q

j=lc 1 -Li-

In the first formula the total economic profit equals the sum of economic profit

of each district.

In the second formula the economic profit of every district equals the economic

profit in the irrigated area plus the economic profit in the unirrigated area minus

the cost of water, and f(x) and g(x) above are the economic profit function of

wheat and cotton respectively when x is the irrigated water quantity per unit area.

According to the analysis of statistical data in previous years, f(x) and g(x) are

approximately a quadratic curve. In addition, j(O) and g(0) are the economic profit

of the unirrigated area in the wheat field and cotton field (see Fig. 2).

Thus, these economic profit functions can be regarded as the fitness function in

the genetic algorithm.

4. Gas-based irrigation

optimization

Through the analysis of the irrigation optimization problem, it can be found that

the search space of the irrigation optimization model is very large, which involves

24 variables (six districts, and there are four variables in each district). The

conventional GA appears to be incompetent in actual operation when confronted

Y.-M.

Chen /Computers

and Electronics

in Agriculture

18 (1997)

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121

Yield

by so many variables. The direct use of conventional crossover will cause a slow

increase in the numbers of the strings which involves useful information in every

generation and slow convergence in the process of searching optimum solutions In

order to reduce the searching time and the complexity of the problem, the selection

of a good initial population becomes much more important. The initial population

which involves sufficient information and uniform distribution will be in favor of

the better resolution. So, the whole problem will be divided into six local sub-problems where it is assumed that only the local irrigation management will be

considered. After these local optimum solutions are obtained, they will be included

in the initial population.

4.1. Local irrigation optimization problem

Tn the optimization

of local irrigation management, the respective econiomic

profit function will be regarded as their fitness function. Then the genetic algorithms are used to solve these local irrigation optimization problems. But instead

of directly using the simple genetic algorithm, the conventional genetic algorithms

are improved by a number of steps to fit this kind of problem. The approaches

which are called sequence crossover and homo-crossover will be introduced.

Suppose the district i will be considered. The first stage of GA is establishin,g the

initial population of the problems.

(a) A total of ,V experience values of previous years, each are represented as (X1(,

X,, X3, and X,), are selected to form initial population of the local optimization

problem, searching can begin with this population.

(b) When the initial population is obtained, each decision variable XI.: X2,, XSl

and X4, in the initial population is coded as a unsigned binary string with length

Lh:, i = 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. The solution strings are constructed to link all

the coded variables together. The length of the solution string is Cq= 1 LN,. Thus,

the solution set that includes 2 C:= I LN, possible solutions is obtained.

122

Y.-M.

Chen /Computers

and Electronics

in Agriculture

18 (1997)

117-127

After the preparatory steps of the genetic algorithm, the main searching procedure can be going with the three operators: reproduction, crossover and mutation.

4.1.1. Reproduction

Reproduction begins from initial population. According to their objective function values (E,), reproduction is a process in which each string is copied, and strings

with higher fitness value have higher probability contributing one or more offspring

in the new population. For example: Let String 1 and String 2 be the two members

of the initial population; Fl is the fitness of String 1; F2 is the fitness of String 2; n,

is the offspring number of String 1; n, is the offspring number of String 2, then in

the population after reproduction, the distributing of the strings comply with the

ratio:

generator where each current string in the population has a probability sized in

proportion to its fitness (Ei). In this way, strings with higher fitness have a higher

number of offspring in the new population.

Once a string has been selected for reproduction, an exact replica of the string is

made. This string is then entered into a mating pool, a new population, for further

genetic operator action. Here the number of the population after reproduction in

kth generation is defined as Nk.

4.1.2. Sequence crossover and homo-crossover

In the process of actual operating, the simple crossover was not suitable for fast

created new strings due to only new strings being created in an action. Since that,

two new crossover approaches proposed by the author, which are called sequence

crossover and homo-crossover, are adopted to deal with this problem.

For sequence crossover, firstly, two integer series S, and S, are produced. S, is

an integer series with length Nk. All the members of S, are produced by selecting

randomly among the integer numbers 1,2,. . .: Z;= I LN,-S2

is a permutation of

1,2 ,..., Nk.

After the two series are produced, the whole population may undergo sequence

crossover as follows: Integer i,, the mth member among S,, represents the position

where the crossover may take place along the mth string. Integer j,, the m th

member among S,, represents from which string in the population the mth string

will absorb information. Utilizing the order integer pairs (i,, j,), the new string m

is created by replacing all the characters between i, + 1 to Zf= lLNi to from string

A,,.

In the process of sequence crossover, homo-crossover will take place in the mth

string when j,,, happens to equal m. .Homo-crossover is a kind of crossover that

changes information with itself: suppose j, is in the range [LN, + 1, LN(, + I& the

creation of the new string may be created by sweeping all characters in the range

[LN, -t 1, m] to the range [m, LN(,+ 1J for string m.

Y.-M.

Chen /Computers

and EItctronics

in Agriculture

18 (1997)

117-127

123

The following example will give further explanation. Suppose the two series S,

and S, have been produced by a uniform random generator.

S1 = {3,5,10,7,12)

Sz = WA%11

and there are five strings in the population.

A, = 10110 00100 1010 101+4

A,= 1111 010111 1000 000+2

A,=0001

10101 01011 01143

A,=0101

010111 1100 100+5

A,=0011

11001 01010 llO-+l

In the above strings, the dependence of four variables X,1, X,, X,, and X, are

maintained and they are separated by space. The members of S, areindicated by

the separator symbol I according to its corresponding position along each string

and the numbers following each string are the members of S,.

Following the definition, the strings A,, A, and A, will be processed as a

crossover with the sequence indicated in S, and S,. For example, the integer order

pairs corresponding to string A, is (3,4). An offspring of string A, will be created

by combining all the characters before the 3rd position of string A, with all the

characters after the 3rd position of string A,. The string A, and the string A, will

generate their offspring similarly. However, for the integer order pairs of string A,

and string A, are (5,2) and (10,3), they will undergo a crossover with themselves

which is called a homo-crossover. For it to be more reasonable, and not to destroy

the independence of each variable, the homo-crossover is constrained to being

processed within the same variable. The offspring of string A, is created by

swapping all the characters between the position range [4,5] to the characters

between the position range [5,9], string A, is same as A,.

After the action, the new changed population were obtained:

A, = 1011 01011 1100 100

taz= 1111 01110 1000 000

A,=0001

10101 0110 011

A, = 0101 01001 0100 110

A,=0011

11001 0100 101

The implementation

of sequence-crossover overcomes the limitation of conventional GA where the numbers of strings in each generation must be even. Comparing the offspring of the population with its upper generation in the sequence

crossover, the similarity between them is very low due to large changing made in

every crossover action, which manifests that information

of each string is exchanged sufficiently during this kind of crossover. In this way better strings can be

found easily.

4.1.3. Mutation in the home -crossover

Mutation plays an important role in the operator of conventional GA. Generally,

the initial population which is selected randomly or artificially from the solution set

cannot involve all the probability solutions in the solution space. Occasionally, they

may lose some potentially useful genetic material (at particular locations), even

:24

Y.-M.

Chen /Computers

and Electronics

in Agriculture

18 (1997)

117-127

though reproduction and crossover effectively search and recombine extant notions.

In artificial genetic systems, the mutation operator can protect against such an

irrecoverable loss.

Conventional

mutation is the occasional alteration of the value with small

probability in a random position of a string.

In our system, the conventional mutation is omitted. To some extent the above

homo-crossover has contained this mutation process. Homo-crossover, that randomly exchanges the characters by itself, protects it successfully against the defect

of important loss of material. This procedure is favorable for the population to get

a string involving the new information, these information are not involved in the

upper population. Due to the homo-crossover and the sequence crossover being

processed simultaneously and parallelly in our approach, the new generation is

produced more quickly.

Following reproduction, sequence crossover and homo-crossover, the new generation is obtained. They will be decoded and tesSted. By decoding the new strings and

calculating the fitness function values E,, the unreasonable solutions which have

contradiction with constraints are wiped off. A. moderate threshold value is selected

to judge whether the average value oE the population fitness is converged.

Finally, through repeating these procedures, the local optimum solution population can be obtained.

4.2. Multi-points

After the local optimum solution of each district is selected, the initial population

of the whole problem has been formed. The heuristic information expressing the

experience of some experts is also included in it. In this initial population, each

string contains six sub-strings, which are the local optimum solutions for each

district, and the experience values, which are linked together randomly. After that,

operators called multi-points crossover and multi-points mutation have been introduced, Here, the total economic profit E is regarded as the fitness function.

Reproductions

are similar to the operation mentioned above. Multi-points

crossover is a kind of strategy, that not only a. single point but many points in the

string, selected for crossover. For example, suppose the string B, and B, in t.he

mating pool are selected to crossover

B, = (101. ! . 100)(100.

. 100)(010. . . Oll.)(lOl..

. 111)(00~0..

110)

(011.. . 1p1>

B, = (001. . ! . lll)(lOl.

. . OlO)(lOl.

. . lOl)(lll.

. OOO)(lO!l. . 010)

(100. .OOl)

The first and the fifth sub-string of B, and B, are selected according to a certain

probability P, to crossover. The separator symbol I in theses sub-strings indicate

the randomly chosen positions. The new pairs of strings will be created by swapping

all the characters behind I in corresponding sub-strings.

Y.-M.

Chen /Computers

and Electronics

En Agriculture

B, = (001. . . 100)(101. . . 010)(101. . . lOl)(lll.

18 (1997)

117-127

. 111)(001.. .010)(011..

125

. 101)

Multi-points mutation is also a process where more points are selected to mutate.

It is performed as follows, supposing that the string C, is the arbitrary string which

is going to mutate.

c, = (101. , . 100)(100. . . 100)(0~0. . . 01 l)(lOl.

. 11 l)(OOO. . . 110)

(011. . . 101)

In the above string, each sub-string can be chosen to participate mutation

according to the probability

P,. But in each selected sub-string, whether the

mutation happens or not is due to the mutation probability P,. Assume here that

the first and the third sub-string are chosen, the 3rd position in the first sub-string

and the 2nd position in the third sub-string; are selected randomly, and mutation

only takes place in the first sub-string. The new string is created as follows:

c, = (100. . . 100)(100. . . 100)(010. . . onl)(lol.

. . 11 l)(OOO. . . 110)

(011.. . 101)

In each generation, the new strings are decoded and the fitness function values

are calculated. The average values, the maximum values and the changing rate are

calculated and compared with those of previous generations. Some constraints

according to the experts views also can be put forward to reasonably restrain the

strings.

Through analyzing the strings fitness of each generation, it has been found that

the maximum and average economic profit values have a gradually increasing

tendency. Finally, after several generations, the satisfactory results are obtained.

4.3. Programs

flow

chart

solved using this improved GAS and implemented by C + + language in the lab,

the flow chart of the program is shown in Fig. 3.

5. Conclusions

problem using the improved GAS are described in

this paper. The methods that divide the whole searching space into several

sub-spaces and that process the actions simultaneously are adopted. Through that

the period of searching is decreased. On the other hand, in the process of the

searching algorithm approach, the selection of constraints are more important that

more fields-knowledge and heuristic information are introduced to make the system

perfect. In the next step, we will go further into the genetic algorithm applica.tions.

26

flow-chart.

121

References

Goldberg, D.E., 1989. Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization and Machine Learning, AddisonWesley, US.

Xiong, F.-L., Chen, Y.-M., Li, M., 1995. The management of water resources-using the improvsed

genetic algorithms. Proc. Pacific-Asian Conference on Expert Systems, HuangShan, China. 15- 18

May 1995, pp. 578-583.

Chen, Y.-M., Jing, D., Xiong, F.-L., 1995. Genetic algorithms for irrigation optimization, Proc. 2nd

IFAC/IFIP/EuragEng

Workshop in Agriculture, Wageningeng, Netherlands, 29-31 May 1995, pp.

155-160.

Grefenstette, J.J., 1989. A system for learning control strategies with genetic algorithms, Proc. IJCAI89,

Morgan Kaufman, Fairfax, VA.

Dejong, K.A., Spears, W.M., Gordon, D.F., 1996. Using Genetic Algorithms for Concepts Learning,

pp. 161-188.

Liepins, G.E., Wang, L.A., 1991. Classifer system learning of Boolean concepts, Proc. IJCAI&,

Morgan Kaufman, San Mateo, CA, pp. 318-323.

Tcherg, D., Lambert, B., Lu.. S., Rendell, R., 1989. Building robust learning system by combining

induction and optimization, Proc. IJCAI89, Morgan Kaufman, Detroit, MI, pp. 806-812.

Holland, J.H., 1971. Proc. and processors for Schemata. In: Jacks, E.L. (Ed.), Associative information

processing. Elsevier, New York, pp: 127-146.

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