You are on page 1of 2

APPENDIX: TYPICAL MATERIAL

PROPERTY VALUES USEFUL IN
MODELING MECHANICAL, ACOUSTIC,
AND HYDRAULIC ELEMENTS

Mass Density, ρ, [kg/m3 ]
Solids
Aluminum:
Copper:
Rubber, hard:
Rubber, soft:
Steel:
Titanium:
Liquids
Hydraulic oil, well de-aerated:
Water, fresh, at 20◦ C:
Water, sea, at 134◦ C:
Gases
Air at 1 atm. and 20◦ C:
Air at 1 atm. and 0◦ C:
Hydrogen at 1 atm. and 0◦ C:
Modulus of Elasticity, E, [Pa = N/m2 ]
Aluminum:
Copper:
Hard rubber:
Soft rubber:
Steel:
Titanium:
Bulk Modulus, B, [Pa = N/m2 ]
Water at 20◦ C:
Hydraulic oil (well de-aerated):
630

2,700 kg/m3
8,900 kg/m3
1,100 kg/m3
950 kg/m3
7,700 kg/m3
4,500 kg/m3
900 kg/m3
998 kg/m3
1,026 kg/m3
1.21 kg/m3
1.29 kg/m3
0.09 kg/m3
71,000 N/mm2 = 71 × 109 Pa
122,000 N/mm2 = 122 × 109 Pa
2,300 N/mm2 = 2.3 × 109 Pa
5 N/mm2 = 0.005 × 109 Pa
206,000 N/mm2 = 206 × 109 Pa
110,000 N/mm2 = 110 × 109 Pa
2.18 × 109 Pa
1.52 × 109 Pa

System Dynamics: Modeling, Simulation, and Control of Mechatronic Systems, Fifth Edition
Dean C. Karnopp, Donald L. Margolis and Ronald C. Rosenberg
Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

and 0◦ C: Hydrogen at 1 atm. at 20◦ C: Water.0 × 10−3 Pa · s 1.40 .96 Pa · s 1.40 1. c.40 1. sea.APPENDIX Speed of Sound.5 m/s 1481 m/s 1500 m/s 1.8 × 10−5 Pa · s 0. γ = cp /cv Air Carbon dioxide (low frequency) (high frequency) Nitrogen 631 343 m/s 332 m/s 1. fresh. [Pa · s = Ns/m2 ] Air at 1 atm. [m/s] Air at 1 atm. and 20◦ C: Castor oil: Water. and 20◦ C: Air at 1 atm. at 0◦ C: Coefficient of Shear Viscoscity. fresh. μ. at 20◦ C: Ratio of Specific Heats.30 1. and 0◦ C: Water.269.