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Working in Groups: 5th edition

Isa N. Engleberg
Prince George’s Community College

Dianna R. Wynn
Nash Community College

Chapter 2:
Group Development
Presented by: MBA. Đàm Nguyễn Anh Khoa

OBJECTIVES
1. Group development stages
2. Goal setting
3. Hidden agendas
4. Group norms

5. Characteristics of effective groups

Group Development Stages
Bruce W.Tuckman (1965)

Match the Group Development Stages __ Members focus energy on Stage 1: Forming achieving group goals Stage 2: Storming __ Members compete for status Stage 3: Norming and try to resolve conflict Stage 4: Performing __ Members become acquainted Stage 5: Adjourning and consider their task __ Members resolve conflicts and develop “rules of engagement” __ Members achieve the group’s goal and may begin to disband .

Forming Stage Challenge: Balancing Individual and Group Goals  Members are socially cautious and polite.  .  Members learn about their tasks and test personal relationships.

Primary Tension The social unease that accompanies the gettingacquainted process in groups .

 Be patient and open-minded.Resolving Primary Tension  Be positive and energetic.  Be prepared and informed. .

 Group members may become argumentative and emotional.  Some members lose patience with the norming stage and some compete with one another to determine status and to establish group roles.Storming Stage  Disagreements arise. .  Groups confront the conflict ↔ cohesion dialectic and leadership ↔ followership dialectic.

 How to resolve these secondary tension? .)..  Many groups try to skip this stage but its an essential part of the group development process as without it member roles.  Conflict is also necessary to establish a climate in which members understand that its necessary to disagree with one another..  Secondary tension emerges (.Storming Stage  Most confident members begin to compete for social acceptance and leadership. leadership responsibilities and the group’s goal cannot be established.

Secondary Tension The frustration and personality conflicts experienced by group members as they compete for acceptance and achievement .

.  Groups develop norms or ground rules.Norming Stage  Challenge: Balancing Conformity and Nonconformity  Groups resolve primary and secondary tensions.

.  The group is eager and ready to work as a committed and unified team.  They develop methods for achieving group goals and establish norms and “rules of engagement”.Norming Stage  Members learn to resolve tension and start to work as a cohesive team.  Feelings of trust and clear goals emerge.  Members feel comfortable with one another and are willing to disagree and express opinions.

task requirements (structure ↔ spontaneity) and adapting to member characteristics (homogenous ↔ heterogeneous). .”  There is more order and direction  Members have begun to resolve a wide range of group dialectics. with special emphasis on norms  (conforming ↔ nonconforming).Norming Stage  “…communication becomes more open and task oriented” as “ members solidify positive working relationships with each other.

.  Groups adapt and change if necessary.Performing Stage  Challenge: Balancing Task and Maintenance Dimensions  Group focuses on productivity and member satisfaction.

laughing. the members are jovial. and verbally backslapping each other. rather. loyalty and morale are generally high. Group identity. roles and responsibilities are fluid. loud.” .Performing Stage       Members are fully engaged and eager to work. “interaction patterns reflect virtually no tension. they adapt and change according to group needs and task requirements. Almost everyone shares in and supports a unified effort to achieve a common goal. boisterous. Members focus their energies on both the task and social dimensions of group work as they make major decisions and solve critical problems. Disagreements still occur but they are usually resolved intelligently and amicably.

Adjourning Stage  Challenge: Balancing Engagement and Disengagement  Upon completing the group task: ◦ The group may disband. . ◦ Members may leave the group for personal or professional reasons. ◦ Some members may take on a new group task.

recognizing the loss felt by group members. Some writers describe this stage as “mourning”. In other cases group members leave for personal or professional reasons or to join another group.Adjourning Stage         The group achieved its common goal and may begin to disband for many reasons and there is no other reason to continue. . Members are proud of what they have achieved and may feel a sense of loss when the group dissolves. There is stress resulting from relinquishing roles and responsibilities. Individual goals become more prominent. Members seek to find ways of keeping in touch. The dialectic balance shifts from engagement to disengagement.

Jurors don’t know each other but do know the court case details.Group stages at work      The forming stage begins as soon as members enter the jury room. Members may exchange some personal information and engage in small talk rather than jump into a discussion of the case. . During the storming stage jurors voice opinions about the case and challenge one another’s positions with comments such as “ I thought the defendant was telling the truth” or the “The defence attorney was too slick” Jurors form impressions of one another and look for procedures and rules to control conflict.

Group stages at work       During the norming stage. . Members are comfortable with each other. the jury settles down and develops an orderly method for dealing with the issues. and voting in a certain order. They are moving toward a consensus on the issues. the jury reaches adjournment stage. For example. Finally. During the performing stage the roles are clear. Norms might include listening respectfully to others. their opinions and differences. one or two people can be asked to give accurate account of witnesses’ testimony. after reporting its decision to the court. not interrupting. another one who is good at encouraging other jurors to give their express and justify their positions and another one who is good at detail may be asked to review documents presented in the courtroom. In other words they are doing they job well. the group is disbanded and the court is adjourned. After its decision has been recorded the jury is dismissed.

 accepted by group members.  used to evaluate performance.  Challenging (hard) but realistic.  linked to feedback and rewards.  allow for member growth.  .Goal Setting Effective group goals are: specific.

Group in balance Anticip -atory Antec -edent Encounter Socialization Assimilation Exit phase .

Is the goal challenging. money. and attainable? Compatibility. and observable if achieved? Challenge.Developing Group Goals       Clarity. and thought-provoking? Commitment. Do members see the goal as meaningful. Does the goal require member cooperation? Cost. realistic. Does the group have adequate resources (time. materials) to achieve the goal? . inspiring. specific. Is the goal clear. Can both group and individual goals be achieved? Cooperation.

Setting Group Goals .

Setting Group Goals .

Initial discussion could include the following questions: What are the group’s goals? Does the leader have any personal concerns or goals that differ from these? Do any members have any personal concerns or goals that differ from these? What outcomes do members expect? . Hidden agendas represent what people really want rather than what they say they want.Hidden Agendas A hidden agenda occurs when a members private goals conflicts with the group’s goals.

◦ define appropriate social behaviour.”  Group norms: ◦ express the values of the group. good or bad. ◦ help the group survive.Group norm  Communication Scholar Patricia Andrews defines norms as “sets of expectations held by group members concerning what kinds of behaviours or opinions are acceptable or unacceptable. appropriate or inappropriate. ◦ help the group to function smoothly. right or wrong. .

They affect how members behave.Group norm  Norms are the groups rules.  Some norms can work against a group and its goals such as permitting members to arrive late and leave early.  According to Nicky Hayes. dress. “they are intangible and often difficult to express in words. People joining groups often try very hard to conform because the price of failure may be exclusion from the group. . speak and work. or even ridicule.

easy to recognize ◦ Example: ________________________________  Implicit Norms ◦ Rarely discussed or openly communicated.Types of Norms and Examples  Explicit Norms ◦ Put in writing or stated verbally. not as easy to recognize ◦ Example: ________________________________ .

Types of Norms  Interaction Norms  Example _________  Procedural Norms  Example _________  Status Norms  Example _________  Achievement Norms  Example _________ .

Conformity ↔ Nonconformity  Conformity Choosing a course of action that group members favor and that is socially acceptable  Nonconformity Choosing a course of action that does not meet the expectations of the group .

Conformity Conformity occurs when group members adopt attitudes and notions that a majority favours or that adhere to the group’s social norms.  .  People are likely to conform to norms when one or more of the following factors are present: ◦ you want to continue your membership in the group ◦ you have a lower status than other group members and don’t want to risk being seen as an upstart ◦ you feel obliged to conform ◦ you get along with and like to work with the group members ◦ you may be punished for violating norms and/or rewarded for compliance.

 Groups need to examine and if necessary adjust their norms in the light of nonconformity.  Destructive nonconformity occurs when a member resists conforming to norms without regard for the best interests of the group and its goals. Example.  In some instances non-conformity can improve group performance. members may deviate from the group when they have a legitimate concerns and alternative suggestions.  Constructive nonconformity contributes to more effective group decisions and creative solutions.Nonconformity Occurs when a member does not meet the expectations of the group.  Constructive nonconformity occurs when a member resists a norm while still working to promote a group goal.  .

Types of Nonconformity  Constructive nonconformity Violating a norm while still supporting the group and its goal  Destructive nonconformity ◦ Violating a norm that negatively impacts the group and its goal ◦ Responses to destructive nonconformity:  Accept  Confront  Exclude .

Strategies for Changing Norms Fill in the Blanks: Identify ways to change group norms 1. 4. 3. 2. Through suggestions or actions of high-status members or a leader __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ .

Norming D. Storming C. Adjourning ___ Individual ↔ Group Goals ___ Conflict ↔ Cohesion ___ Conforming ↔ Nonconforming ___ Task ↔ Social Dimensions ___ Homogeneous ↔ Heterogeneous ___ Leadership ↔ Followership ___ Structure ↔ Spontaneity ___ Engaged ↔ Disengaged ___ Open ↔ Closed System .Match Group Stages and Dialectics Which dialectic(s) operate during: A. Performing E. Forming B.

Characteristics of Effective Groups         A clear. elevated goal Results-driven structure Competent team members Unified commitment Collaborative climate Standards of excellence External support and recognition Principled leadership Larson and LaFasto. TeamWork .

as in dress style and speech patterns ◦ Through the suggestions or actions of high-status members ◦ Through the suggestions or actions of highly confident members ◦ Through the suggestions of consultants ◦ Through group discussion and decision making (for explicit norms) ◦ Through continued interaction (for implicit norms) The natural development of most groups requires changes in goals. .Groups in Balance   Change norms as needed: ◦ Through contagious behaviour. membership and norms.

did the strategies succeed? If not. too  Critical thinking about the case study ◦ What verbal and non-verbal behaviours tell you that the group of community volunteers are meeting for the first time and negotiating the forming stage of group development? ◦ Which of the members are most likely to compete for status and influence as the group eventually enters the storming stage of group development? ◦ Briefly assess the communicative effectiveness of each group member and how that member could become more effective in terms of helping the group achieve its goal? ◦ Did the group use any strategies to reduce primary tensions? If yes.Case study: Nice to meet you. what strategies should they have used? ◦ Which dialectic tensions are most likely to affect how well the community volunteer group achieves its goal? ◦ What implicit norms emerged during the discussion and did these norms help the group move through the forming stage? ◦ In the long run. do you believe this particular group has the potential to succeed as a highly effective group that will achieve its common goal? Why or why not? .

Thanks for your attention! Group Development for Success! .