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Race Prejudice, Class Conflict, and Nationalism

Author(s): Oliver Cromwell Cox
Source: Race/Ethnicity: Multidisciplinary Global Contexts, Vol. 4, No. 2, Reworking Race
and Labor (Winter 2011), pp. 169-182
Published by: Indiana University Press
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2979/racethmulglocon.4.2.169
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and gradually. California and other Pacific states had their Chinese and Japanese problem.” No matter how great the lure of higher wages. and Cuba. winter 2011 169 © 2011 The Ohio State University/Office of Diversity and Inclusion/The Kirwan Institute This content downloaded from 181. they were used as substitutes for slave labor in planFrom Race: A Study in Social Dynamics.Race. they came because the relatively high wages in California enticed them. The great wave of Asiatic common labor began to move upon the Western Hemisphere after the decline of the Negro slave trade—after 1845 especially. On the Pacific Coast. and Nationalism Oliver Cromwell Cox T he United States has set the pattern of Oriental exclusion for such countries as Canada and Australia. pp. its Chinese problem.  The Asiatics came into California because there was a great demand there for their labor. a distinct and rather involved racial situation has developed. among others. some form of indentured-servant relationship. we approach this one also from the point of view of the white man’s initiative—he is the actor in chief. 2000. 29 May 2016 00:50:01 UTC All use subject to http://about. Like all racial situations. their East Indian problem. Caste. 50th Anniversary Edition of Class.131 on Sun. Class Conflict. and Race. and in California especially.  These “Coolies” came mostly as contract laborers.jstor. Trinidad and South Africa.197. 98–113. New York. they could by no means have “invaded” the Coast if the encouragement and inducement of certain hardpressed white employers did not facilitate it. the Pacific Coast of America. and even South and East Africa received their quotas. The West Indies. the Asiatics react to their best advantage. perhaps it may be thought of as the completion of a “race-relations cycle. because of the rapid cultural advancement of these colored people.org/terms . and “Wherever they were imported.19.” Here. Prejudice. Reprinted with the permission of Monthly Review Press. But the “pull’ was far more significant than the “push. the natural history of race relations has been greatly expedited. The Asiatics came not as slaves but mainly as coolies. New York.

Thus in 1910 the United States Immigration Commission reported: With the strong demand for the common labor prevailing in the west. 4 / no. in 1886. and in some instances assistance was given in other ways to those desiring to reach the mainland. however. induced many to come to the United States. Some of these contractors were for a time regularly represented by the agents sent to Honolulu. Millis observes with respect to the agricultural interest: “Many farmers faced the practical problem of finding substitutes for the disappearing Chinese. came to the Coast as workers—mainly as common laborers. As early as 1868 these interests had “practically stolen” 147 Japanese for plantation labor in the islands.19. and in 1940 about one and one-half per cent. the Japanese. the Japanese contractors on the Coast.2 Following the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. A. recourse was made to advertising in the Japanese papers published there. 29 May 2016 00:50:01 UTC All use subject to http://about. The Asiatics were always a smaller minority in California then Negroes have been in the South. at the height of the anti-Japanese agitation in California. then. Carey McWilliams summarizes the process of their coming: With the conclusion of the Reciprocity Treaty of 1876 between Hawaii and the United States—which opened the islands for American capital—the sugar interests of Hawaii began to clamor for Japanese labor. The execution of the Reciprocity Treaty was followed.Oliver Cromwell Cox tation areas. it may be well to observe the numerical relationship among the races involved. cheap rates were secured. 2 170 This content downloaded from 181.org/terms .5 And this is probably the principle source of antagonism in this racial situation—a conflict between workers of different races. It was this agreement that. who had shaped their investments and methods. The Chinese population fell from about nine per cent in 1860 to six-tenths of one per cent in 1940. the Japanese constituted about two per cent of the population. came later and probably with somewhat more personal initiative. the class which we have attempted race /ethnicity vol. In 1920. by the adoption of the Hawaiian-Japanese Labor Convention.”1 The Japanese. were returned to Japan in response to a sharp note of protest. and especially those doing business in San Francisco and Seattle. however.197. Most of these initial immigrants. As H.131 on Sun. and a much smaller number of East Indians. Before discussing this.”3 A large fraction of the immigrants came by the way of Hawaii. however. A remarkable fact about the California anti-Oriental movements is that they have been mainly initiated by white workers instead of exploiters of labor.jstor.” Under the terms of the agreement approximately 180. Chinese workers on the Pacific Coast became less available and employers began to look to the Japanese for the supply of their labor deficiency.000 Japanese were sent to Hawaii—the largest single body of workers that Japan sent to any land.4 The Chinese. for the first time. “officially opened the doors for the immigration of Japanese laborers to the outside world.

The influence of organized labor in politics has been stronger in California than in any other state of the United States. workers will react to inanimate objects. white workers reached consensus against the Asiatic worker.”7 Ever since the middle of the nineteenth century. in a characteristic way if the latter is introduced suddenly as a significant substitute for labor. to machinery. from the early fifties to the present time. then. But competition with substandard workers puts standard workers in an even more disadvantageous position in their struggle with capitalists. however. workers merely approach the problem differently. Machinery has left them in rags and without any wages at all. . As one anti-Oriental puts it: winter 2011 171 This content downloaded from 181. the one measure on which it has always been possible to obtain concerted action. when California was indeed a very young state.Race Prejudice. In 1844. the attitude is not lost. But first let us review briefly the role of labor in the anti-Orientalism on the Coast. and apparently no small part of this influence is due to the solidarity which labor has been able to develop about a continuing menace to its welfare—the threat of competition from Asiatic labor.19.8 Although today trade unionists do not express themselves in this way. Workers have been known to riot and attack machines in a way not unlike their attacks upon other workers who. In this respect the California situation appears to be the very opposite of the Negro–white relationship in the South.197. According to Lucile Eaves. Machinery has crowded them in cellars. I look upon all improvements which tend to lessen the demands for human labor as the deadliest curse that could possibly fall on the heads of our working classes.”6 And further: “By the persistent efforts of the working people of California first the state and then the nation have been converted to the policy of Oriental exclusion. .131 on Sun. because of lower standards. Indeed.jstor. has immured them in prisons worse than Parisian bastilles. is not peculiarly a racial phenomenon. They insist upon sharing the profits which accrue to the employer because of the increased productivity of the machine. there have been organizations in which all classes of wage-workers joined to promote the exclusion of Asiatic labor. “. the leader of a British trade union wrote: Machinery has done the work. has forced them from their own country to seek in other lands the bread denied to them here. are favored by employers. This reaction of labor. Class Conflict. 29 May 2016 00:50:01 UTC All use subject to http://about. It is one subject upon which there has never been the slightest difference of opinion. and I hold it to be the duty of every working potter—the highest duty—to obstruct by all legal means the introduction of the scourge into any branch of his trade. and Nationalism to show is responsible for all modern racial antagonism. The history of white-worker-Asiatic antagonism in California is one of considerable agitation and periodic violence against Chinese and Japanese. the conflict is essentially between employer and worker.org/terms .

or on Sundays. they formerly worked twelve to fourteen hours per day.9 It should be noted that this attitude is not an exploitative attitude. . In 1910 the platform of the Socialist party of California contained this plank: We favor all legislative measures tending to prevent the immigration of strike breakers and contract laborers and the mass immigration and importation of Mongolian or East Indian labor. it is a conflict between two exploited groups generated by the desire of one group of workers to keep up the value of its labor power by maintaining its scarcity. 29 May 2016 00:50:01 UTC All use subject to http://about. tireless. . in almost identical terms. In all these matters the Japanese were more acceptable to their employers. except a representative of the non-resident manager. At present all the employees. who cuts wages. there is no racial antagonism between Negroes and East Indians in Trinidad. .10 and between 1930 and 1932 Negroes on the South Side of Chicago demonstrated against the employment of white “foreigners” by certain public utilities. when the demand was such as to make long hours profitable. Every conflict between strikers and “scabs” produces similar attitudes among the strikers. mean-living.” We may cite. a small town southeast of Sacramento. though paid by the piece. Millis presents a case of labor displacements in Florin.197. or work overtime. fought against the continued introduction of indentured East Indian laborers. did not wish to work more than ten hours per day. Paid by the piece. works for a pittance and lives on less. 2 172 This content downloaded from 181. In Trinidad. and on Sunday. Negro workers. who are white men prominently connected with shipping firms in Sacramento.12 Professor H. which has been called “the best locality in the United States for the study of Japanese agricultural life”:  The basket factory [in Florin] was established ten years ago. A.13 race /ethnicity vol. of course. At first most of the employees were white women and girls of the community. 4 / no. British West Indies.131 on Sun.jstor. perhaps. caused or stimulated by the employing classes for the purpose of weakening the organization of American labor and of lowering the standard of life of the American workers. Selfprotection is sufficient ground on which to base exclusion. with the early anti-Irish attitude in the East. field and factory hand. unalterably alien.11 However.19. and presents the American workman the alternative of committing suicide or coming down to John Chinaman’s standard of wages and living. They were found to be unsatisfactory in certain respects and were rapidly displaced by Japanese. as it was thought the interest of the business required. many illustrations of this attitude among whites in the United States—beginning.org/terms .Oliver Cromwell Cox Our grievance is against the humble. and it would be somewhat of an inversion of reason to expect Negro Chicagoans to have race prejudice toward white “foreigners. are Japanese. It is said that the white women were difficult to manage. could not be depended upon to report for work regularly and. dwells in tenements which would nauseate the American pig.

1879). .197. the Workingmen’s Party in 1878 practically succeeded in controlling the California Constitutional Convention and got into the new constitution a considerable part of its “radical” platform. . then is in fact.19. . outspokenly anti-capitalist assemblage. In California both Chinese and Japanese proved to be exceedingly intractable as a permanent labor force.”15 And Sandmeyer observes: The Chinese were charged with contributing to monopoly in connection with the great landlords and the railroads .’ the Chronicle observed. . cheap labor. and he will remain and continue to increase so long as there is money in him. . These great landowners were regarded as worse than the plantation owners of slave days. indeed not unlike the way in which early handicraft workers reacted against the machine. not race and labor. town. The issue is capital and labor. “is here because his presence pays. and hamlet to organize branches of the Party at once. When the time comes that he is no longer profitable that generation will take care of him and will send him back. city.”17 In fact. The anti-Chinese element in California looked upon these “monopolists” as among the chief mainstays of the Chinese . . 29 May 2016 00:50:01 UTC All use subject to http://about. and extension of the modern political-class conflict.jstor. and prepare for a campaign that would enable them to draft a constitution which should place the government in the hands of the working people. Capitalist exploiters of labor have some necessity to keep their labor freely exploitable. is actually interested in racial questions only in so far as they affect competitive conditions in industry . Carey McWilliams (quoting the San Francisco Chronicle) says: “By 1905 the fight had been narrowed down to the Japanese. and one means of accomplishing this end is to keep it degraded. The leaders “called upon the workmen and their friends in every county.org/terms . ‘The Chinese. . White workers then react violently against the Asiatics. ‘are faithful laborers and winter 2011 173 This content downloaded from 181. while strenuously opposed in its public utterances to Oriental migration. . Class Conflict.”14 On the Coast the Oriental may be thought of as one significant aspect of the subject matter in the conflict between capital and labor. “The Chinaman. Concerning the situation after the Chinese had been fairly well subdued.18 The workers were able in large measure to defeat the exploitative purpose of the ruling class in California partly by the help of that class itself. more expensive labor with them. Since these landed interests were among the most ardent advocates of continued Chinese immigration the charge was frequently voiced that California was in danger of having a “caste system of lords and serfs” foisted upon it .” says the Sacramento Record Union (January 10. and Nationalism This apparently racial conflict. The employer needs labor.16 The famous California Workingmen’s Party organized in 1877 was a radical. and this tended to bring the primary elements of racial antagonism into play. . he finds this in Asiatic workers and displaces white. One this point Eliot Grinnell Mears observes: “The organizedlabor attitude .131 on Sun. .Race Prejudice.

20 On the farm these extraordinarily temporary laborers economized their earnings in wages and aspired forthwith to become independent farmers. Yet the masterly attitude of the employer group may be indicated by a suggestion to Governor William D. the Asiatics were not brought to California to become farmers. Therefore. .’”19 In this connection the United States Immigration Commission also observes: The representatives of several . when a government survey reported:  “There are probably more white laborers working for Oriental farmers than there are Oriental laborers working for American farmers. a less general desire to acquire possessions of land or to engage in business. also. The reasons advanced for the favorable opinion of the Chinese as against the Japanese were their superiority as workmen. they were brought or encourage to come as wage workers. boards of trade. Millis points out with reference to both the businessman and farmer:  Laundrymen in San Francisco and elsewhere. stated that their communities would gladly make use of more Chinese if they were available.131 on Sun. . . and we could get along very well without our Japanese . Stephens by a California businessman: “ . The growers of vegetables about Tacoma and Seattle.”21 the anti-Oriental antagonism of the farmer became aggravated.19. Chinese and Japanese are out of their place.Oliver Cromwell Cox do not buy lands. barbers. As H. and others have protested when the Japanese have entered the circle of competition and cut prices or brought about a loss of patronage. as we have seen. The cry of “race problem” has been employed to accomplish economic ends. 2 174 This content downloaded from 181. . . employers have been on the whole more in favor of than against them. A. and the growers of berries about Los Angeles have protested ineffectively when the acreage has been increased by Japanese growers and prices have fallen. They are looked upon by other businessmen as foreign competitors. In California a number of laws were enacted which more or less effectively excluded the Oriental from the privilege of farming. even while opposed to the immigration of Japanese. The newcomers “ruined the marker. proprietors of small tailor shops.197. 4 / no. But. As businessmen. the white farmers could do the managing and superintending of the farms. . . The Mexicans are employed to do practically all the common labor in the Imperial Irrigation District . they are indeed friendless. If this Mexican labor could be extended up through the entire state. To be sure. 29 May 2016 00:50:01 UTC All use subject to http://about.” it was said.”23 race /ethnicity vol. Confronted with the negative sanctions of the latter group.org/terms . as the Japanese and Hindus do now. in the agricultural pursuits of the state. their faithfulness to employer.”22 As business competitors the Asiatics meet their most powerful white antagonists. . The Japanese are unfaithful laborers and do buy lands. and the absence of a desire on their part to associate with others on equal terms.jstor. with the characteristic relationship of a struggle for markets.

of course. as a consequence white labor was considerably degraded. on the Pacific Coast it is stronger. one of them the discovery of gold in California.jstor. White labor had no voice at all against the immigration of black workers into the South.197. is a problem of the Federal Government. the South came to the rescue of California not because of an interest in the white workers or dislike for the exploiters of Oriental labor but because it wanted to develop a national tradition to the effect that when the interests of a colored people come into conflict with those of white people the former must always give way. And yet it was probably the weight of the Southern vote in Congress which made it possible for California to put over its national policy of anti-Orientalism. the white common people of the South were so thoroughly propagandized that they actually helped the master class to fight the Civil War in the interest of the continued exploitation of black labor on an extremely low level. 29 May 2016 00:50:01 UTC All use subject to http://about. The alternative was to organize and stop the tendency toward the situation which developed in the South. All the whites could not take the position of a small ruling class because they always outnumbered the Asiatics. Class Conflict. This logic was possible in spite of the fact that the articulate white people in the South winter 2011 175 This content downloaded from 181. the latter may not have achieved the purpose of Asiatic exclusion so completely had it not been for their favorable alliance with Southern politics. especially when it is in the interest of workingmen mainly in one state. It may seem strange that the politicians of the South. and the influencing of national policies may not be easy. The prospects on the Coast after 1850 were very favorable for the development of a biracial system. indeed.Race Prejudice. Immigration. The South has been powerfully dominated by a white exploiting class. that white labor has never been able effectively to organize against it. then white people in the South should be conceded the right to control “their” Negroes without interference from the national government.19. should deem it advisable to take the side of the workingmen of California in their struggle against their employers’ desire to exploit cheap Oriental labor. so much so. brought a great wave of highly independent white workers into violent competition with the Asiatics. The problem was defined as a conflict between the whites and the Asiatics in California. with Asiatic coolies taking a place similar to that of Negroes in the South and part of the white common people assuming the status of poor whites.  In the South organized labor is weaker than in any other section of the country. If this were admitted. the work which Negroes ordinarily do also tends to be degraded. thus frustrating the tendency toward a bipartite racial system.26 However. and since the Negroes are degraded.131 on Sun. and Nationalism Although the sporadic aggression of the employers gave considerable encouragement and stimulation to the anti-Asiatic movement among white workers.25 In the South there is a biracial system.24 In fact.org/terms . But certain historical events. who advocate the interest of a ruling class that has fairly well subdued white labor through the widespread exploitation of black workers.

Ordinarily their assimilation is to the advantage of white workers. the first generation of Asiatic workers is ordinarily very much under the control of labor contractors and employers. The assimilated colored worker is either lost for exploitation or becomes intractable. therefore. They will naturally use every means. to demonstrate the “impossibility” of assimilating the Asiatic. there has been very much argument on this very question. however.org/terms .27 But did the white workers of California have no other alternative? Suppose a very significant number of Asiatic workers had actually established residence on the Coast. Carey McWilliams puts it in this way: This correlation between the Negro problem and the Chinese question is clearly indicated in the vote in Congress on the important measures introduced after 1876 affecting the Chinese.jstor. the East Indian low-caste worker on the Coast became sufficiently Americanized to adjust easily to the policies and aims of organized labor. they would have been organized just as Negroes are being gradually organized. Without exception. workers may become frantic when it is argued that since the Asiatics are assimilable they should be allowed to immigrate in unlimited numbers. It would probably have taken two or three generations before. Although it must be quite obvious that Orientals have been. On the other hand.197. Success in this conviction will tend seriously to retard assimilarace /ethnicity vol. the white workers decided not to listen to arguments from other interest groups concerning the possibility of assimilating him. Moreover. 29 May 2016 00:50:01 UTC All use subject to http://about. are being. 4 / no. Again and again. and can be assimilated to Western culture.19.Oliver Cromwell Cox were masters. The latter were conceived of as being in alliance with the employer. Southern Senators and Congressmen lined up with representatives of the Pacific Coast to railroad through Congress measures aimed at driving out the Chinese. The cultural bar between the European and the Asiatic makes it difficult and at certain stages practically impossible for the two groups to reach that common understanding necessary for concerted action against the employer.131 on Sun. Clearly this cultural bar helped to antagonize white workers against the Asiatics. including those developed by the employer class. 2 176 This content downloaded from 181. hence it is easier for the employer to frustrate any plans for their organization. for the assimilated Asiatic either ceases to be a laborer or becomes more easily organizable. the assimilation of colored workers is ordinarily against the primary interest of labor exploiters. Nevertheless. these measures were passed by the vote of representatives from the Pacific Coast and the Deep South. while those on the Coast were organized workers. But since the Asiatic was not yet a very considerable element in the population. say. Eventually. it is in the interest of employers to convince a certain public that the Asiatics are unassimilable. could they not have been organized also? They probably could and would have been organized—even though with considerably more difficulty than if they had been white workers.

. In illustration. there are a few marriages here and there. The two peoples run along different lines physically. however. Kawakami tells us: “A number of Japanese farmers and business men asked the leading Americans of the city [i. He may now be treated with a high degree of indifference or even amiability. K. we cannot assume that the Chinese and Japanese culture fell off like water on a duck’s back. a farming town] to be their guests at a dinner. . so that they may not be left as a foreign and isolated group in America. Here again a basic conflict of interest seems to converge in an identical argument.”31 In the end the Chinese on the Coast have been practically gypsyfied. he is no longer a significant threat to the standards of white labor.131 on Sun. of the Chinese.e. . To cut it off the Chinaman may have to go through a terrific personality disturbance. however.” He has withdrawn from the struggle. America should meet the problem with an attitude predicated on the policy of how to Americanize and assimilate the Japanese that are here.Race Prejudice. As they differ in color so do they in tradition. with different customs and steeled against change as they were. 29 May 2016 00:50:01 UTC All use subject to http://about. that we look with disfavor and disapproval on any gathering intended to promote good fellowship and social affiliation between the Japanese and our own people. condemning the American participation in the banquet and declaring: ‘. The following illustrates the nature of the arguments against assimilation: Granting equality. . and Nationalism tion.28 We should recognize. for instance.. habits and aspirations. “Except for a few large agricultural corporations. that many arguments in favor of the impossibility of Oriental assimilation are in reality arguments in favor of the prohibition of Oriental assimilation. . Kuchi Kanzaki declares: Instead of agitation. with no family life. the reaction against them was strong and immediate when they ceased to be objects of curiosity. the simple pigtail.” provide for separate schools and for residential segregation. By legal enactment the anti-assimilationists prohibit intermarriage between whites and “Mongolians. Assimilation is impossible. but they are the exceptions that prove the rule .30 Notwithstanding this.32 “The Chinaman was a good loser. Consider.org/terms .’”29 And without apparently recognizing the intent of the anti-assimilationists. the queue. with queue and different dress. and in this situation it is sometimes difficult to discover the interest behind the rationalization. In fact. K. and there is no possibility of a common trend ever being evolved. . Class Conflict.197. As Millis observes: “With a different language. True. an employer having an immediate need for more labor may even contend that the Asiatic is readily assimilated.19. .jstor. the Chinese are generally winter 2011 177 This content downloaded from 181. the standards of the races are almost as opposite as the poles. Upon the heels of this meeting came a resolution of the Lodi post of the American Legion. Lodi. and to keep it may forever limit the possibility of Americans being at ease in his company.

. Millis observes: “[Japanese] emigrants have been treated .131 on Sun. A.org/terms . . “implies one father and cannot exist between peoples holding entirely different ideas as to the Fatherhood of God and man’s responsibility to man. distrust. As one antiJapanese saw it: “The irrigated part of Placer County is practically a little Japan. 29 May 2016 00:50:01 UTC All use subject to http://about. its religion. of course. may have industry. and intolerance. innate cultural incapacity or inferiority of the subordinate group is demonstrated by this racial situation. they do not seek to dominate. Discrimination against Japanese on the Coast naturally has been taken as insults to Japan. being a masterful people. “Brotherhood. there will be mutual fear. therefore. almost as colonists.”35 The more nationalistic a people. but are always seeking control of the farm and of the crop. . the Chinese cannot be considered a menace for the future. an anti-Asiatic. berace /ethnicity vol.Oliver Cromwell Cox engaged in small commercial enterprises supplying the needs of their countrymen. Controlling the land. nor are they backed by powerful nations intent upon the domination of the Pacific Ocean. the more it will tend to value its culture.”36 Difference in religion may be one basic reason for intolerance for the Chinese and Japanese. it is most difficult to exploit them and consequently they are most undesirable. Moreover. 4 / no. and Japan has been the most determined nation with which the United States has had to deal.jstor. the relationship of whites to Hindus. Moreover. especially its non-material culture. Sometimes it is openly admitted that the Japanese are a culturally superior people. A different god implies a different system of morality. .” says Marshall De Motte. Chinese or Japanese have depended to some extent upon the power relationship of the parent nations of these peoples. . their youthful nationalism prevents them from becoming an inconsequential people on the Coast. Owing to the effectiveness of the Chinese Exclusion Act. It is not.19. “We admire their industry and cleverness.”37 That racial antagonism is not determined by biological. . they can perpetuate the ideas. They are not content to work for wages as do the Chinese . 2 178 This content downloaded from 181. religion and loyalties of the mother country and do this indefinitely. The local attitude toward the Asiatics has been constantly involved with international treaties and diplomacy.”38 David Warren Ryder puts it paradoxically: “Because they are orderly and not in jail. but for that very reason. when two highly nationalistic groups come into contact. On the Coast intolerance for the Japanese has been partly due to nationalistic conflicts. . if not the world. but rather that the Japanese have had to be aggressive in their struggle for position among the actually su­perior white nations. the less will be its tendency to assimilate. race relations on the Coast are internationality relations. that Japanese are more nationalistic than Americans.”33 But the Japanese have never given up. as H. however. On this very account. habits. they are more dangerous.197. but they are not aggressive.34 In some respects. As one observer puts it: “The Chinese and the Hindoo may have intelligence.

Endnotes 1. and Nationalism cause they are thrifty and energetic. The Japanese Problem in the United States. Cunningham. p..’”39 In fact. p. that the Asiatics came to the Pacific Coast as an exploitable labor force. Concerning the Japanese. 6. they are a ‘menace’. There they encountered the violent opposition of white workers.S. pp. socially. 85. The Anti-Chinese Movement in California. the aggressive nationalism and imperialism of the Japanese excited counternationalism. That this attitude is not essentially racial may be indicated by a similar expression of feeling against white immigrants on the East Coast of the United States: “This unlimited and unrestricted admission of foreign emigrants is a serious injury to the native laboring population. Race relations in the Pacific—in the world. 5th ed. Immigration Commission: Immigrants in Industries. 109. The ruling class never had the opportunity to develop and maintain strong racial antagonism against the Chinese.. p. They came to Japanese boarding houses and from there most of them secured their first employment as section hands on the railway. religiously. Ibid. November 18. quoted by Elmer Clarence Sandmeyer. they are ‘dangerous’. 8. by consewinter 2011 179 This content downloaded from 181. Prejudice. Edmund Potter. by overstocking the labor market and thus keeping wages down. p.Race Prejudice. 9. cit. Volume 23. Reports of the U. Millis concludes: “Most of those who immigrated directly or indirectly to the Pacific Coast previous to 1908 came to begin as wage earners on the lowest rung of the industrial ladder. 5. 31. 3. and counterimperialism among American capitalists especially.19. within limits. as agricultural laborers in the field and orchard. set up homes and raise families. 106. 1901. and politically. when the latter ceased to be a threat to labor they were treated with a high degree of indifference. 1920 ed. p. p. 6. morally and religiously. or as domestic and house cleaners in the large cities. 1. socially. head of the Potters’ Trade Union.” Op. therefore. see also W. the greater the opposition from their exploiters. for that matter—have been revolutionized mainly because of the physical might of Japan. quoted by Sidney and Beatrice Webb. Carey McWilliams. A History of California Labor Legislation. 7. p. Dr. Brothers under the Skin. p.jstor. The Growth of English Industry and Commerce. 105. 2. San Francisco Bulletin. However. Vol.. because they marry. We may conclude.131 on Sun.. 29 May 2016 00:50:01 UTC All use subject to http://about. pp. 392-93. 304. and politically.197. 444-45. 4. the greater the tendency of an exploited people to overthrow the harness of exploitation. then. Since both race prejudice and nationalism are based upon a potential power relationship between groups. they ‘threaten white supremacy. intolerance. we should expect Japanese in the long run to be most respected by the white ruling races because of their remarkable facility in modem warfare. 14. The white workingman’s antagonism against the Asiatics was essentially a class-conflict between labor and capital.org/terms . morally. Industrial Democracy. Class Conflict. by unavoidable contact and intercourse.

155. 56. p. cit... Immigration. 93-94. see the Chicago Whip from September 30. See Report of the Committee on Emigration from India to the Crown Colonies and Protectorates.The labor unions stand for the setting of the progressive standards and offer strong resistance when any group of men or set of circumstances in very much the same way in the face of new competition. op. 10.131 on Sun. 17. . delinquencies. because they thought their standards were imperiled. cit. D.. . 36. Ibid. and Eliot Grinnell Mears. op. They were a menace—as workingmen saw them. shoes..197.” From Emigration. 14. live in shacks or under conditions far below the standards required and desired by Americans . Reports of the U. 85. 31-32. making them needy and dependent. pp. p. 12. ed.” Ibid. but those whose only capital was their ability to work were almost unanimous in the opinion that the Chinese were highly detrimental to the best interests of the state. 21. . . . 1910. and crimes. . 11. 94. . 20. London.employers and those seeking employment differed widely concerning the effect of the Chinese in the State. rev. p. 13. Vol.. by a Foreigner. and in the majority of cases. p. 116-17. pp. . p. whereby they become the easy prey or willing tools of designing and unprincipled politicians. 31. p. physically able to do so. including the wife and little children. 173. . 15. needy and subservient: and these realities produce want of self-respect. practically from daylight to dark. 18. . 174. Immigration Commission. pp. 1930. It was potential in any case.” Ibid.S. and Know-Nothings. 23. With few exceptions employers considered them beneficial as a flexible supply of labor. Lucile Eaves. It does not matter so much that their completion never extended far when their immigration was not greatly restricted. Immigration Commission. cit. for example in the manufacture of shoes in Massachusetts. And Millis continues: “Laborers reacted most strongly. Resident Orientals on the American Pacific Coast. For newspaper stories of this movement. to Gov. p. The author continues: “ . op. 32-33. 23. Were not the Japanese also? Did they begin very much as the Chinese?. on Sundays and holidays. American farmers cannot successfully compete with the Japanese farmers if the Americans adhere to the American principles so universally approved in America. The Chinese acquired a firm position to the manufacture of cigars. 33. ‘This report continues: “The Japanese farmers and every member in the family. there was talk of hiring the Chinese to take the places of striking union men to control the labor situation. Quoted by Elmer Clarence Sandmeyer. recklessness. race /ethnicity vol. cit. and efficient.19. California and the Oriental: Report of State Board of Control of California. 29 May 2016 00:50:01 UTC All use subject to http://about. And in this way the native population is deteriorated and made poor. Stephens. 16. op. Ibid. p. Op. January 1. 19.” Pp.. 19. Vol. and labor unionists reacted strongly against them as they do against other ‘scabs’ and cheap workmen. 1922.org/terms . work in the field for long hours. S... .Oliver Cromwell Cox quence of want of employment and low wages. cit. 4 / no. 2 180 This content downloaded from 181. They were used to defeat the ends of organized labor.Were they not employed as strike breakers in the manufacture of shoes in San Francisco? White laborers reacted against the Japanese because they competed on a different level. laxity in morals. submissive. p. . In other parts of the country.jstor. Wm. cheap... and garments in San Francisco. quoted by Lawrence Guy Brown. 115. See also p. pp. p. onward. hopelessness. Quoted in Reports of the U. 242-43. Emigrants.

Vol. “. a master race need not suffer in this way. 27. p. John S. 125-26. p. Steiner: ‘’The American in Japan never intends to become a Japanese—he is not laughed at because of his customs.” The Annals. He feels that his customs have prestige. 24. cit. and on several occasions about this time Southern planters had visited California with this purpose in mind. Class Conflict. op. 240-41.. 23 . Once they realized. the Issei [or first-generation Japanese] were probably no more inclined in this direction than any other immigrant group. Government and Labor in Early America. p. 97. p. p.” Brothers under the Skin. cit.19.” Quoted by Eliot Grinnell Mears. Vol..” Elmer Clarence Sandmeyer. “The Japanese Invasion. cit. op. 1925. p. p. cit.Race Prejudice. 93-94.jstor. the Supreme Court had... California and the Oriental. see also Lucile Eaves. 115. 29 May 2016 00:50:01 UTC All use subject to http://about. Morris. etc.. Vol. that they had again regained control of the Negro. there is a pronounced tendency for an increasing number of Chinese to engage in lotteries and other disorganizing callings. 25. To be sure. 34. their interest in Chinese labor swiftly abated.131 on Sun. ‘’The labor vote had attained such proportions in numbers and solidarity as to make elections to public office almost impossible without its support.” Op.. 29. . Until 1924. Johnsen. They merely transfer the Japanese from the farms to the cities. XCIII.Japanese competition in industry is likely to prove more harmful to American labor than if Japanese remain on farms where white labor is scarce. . cit. op. 10. In some cities. But the Japanese must conform in America. organized labor had considerable influence in the politics of California. For a discussion of faint antagonism of white workers against the competition of free Negro workers and slaves.. cit. 33. And Carey McWilliams explains: “All first generation immigrant groups in America are inclined to be nationalistic. cit. 1925. so to speak. p.” Journal of Applied Sociology. etc. . see also Lucile Eaves. cit. let the bars down so far as the Negro problem was concerned. 23.org/terms . D. notably in border and sea-coast communities. XCllI. January 1921.” “Again the Yellow Peril” in Julia E. McKenzie. It had been suggested in Memphis in 1869 that such a substitution might be in order. Chambers. Op. According to Jesse F. California and the Oriental. Japanese Exclusion. 243. Op. and it was generally understood that in order to secure the labor vote a candidate must declare himself against the Chinese. Prior to this time the South had shown a lively interest in the possibility of substituting Chinese coolie labor for Negro slave labor. has been winter 2011 181 This content downloaded from 181. 83. and Nationalism 22. “The Japanese Question. XCllI. pp. 30. Chambers. there has been a clear tendency on the part of the Chinese to withdraw from competitive forms of labor and business and to enter less productive urban callings.. p. 82. op. January 1921. “The Oriental Invasion. “Is the Japanese Menace in America a Reality?”. p. 31. pp. . John S. but afterwards they did develop. pp. As we have seen.197. . The Annals. 43. 32. 26. January 1921. p. 57.. On this point see R. 176. In this connection Carey McWilliams observes: “With the narrow construction placed on the Fourteenth Amendment in the famous Slaughter House decision in 1873 and the decision in 1875 which held the Civil Rights Statute unconstitutional. pp. . p.. pp. And according to the Tentative Findings of the Survey of Race Relations. 24-25.. cit. Vol. On this point Raymond Leslie Buell makes the following comment: “. 83.” The Annals. see Richard B. ed. they will not solve America’s Japanese problem. 136. 28. p. 25. 182-88. however.if the anti-Japanese laws [prohibiting the purchasing or leasing of land] are religiously enforced. Op. op. . in some cases. 197.

org/terms . persistent industry. their excellent qualities and their virtues render their presence amongst us a pitiful danger. .’ “’The Japanese Issue in California. 17. they said. witnesses before the Tolan Committee advanced the usual stock arguments against the Japanese . their industry. their intelligence and skill.Oliver Cromwell Cox termed a ‘suppressed nationality psychosis. p. 35. for their sobriety.” The Annals. were in danger of developing an inferiority complex and sinking ‘to the low level of Indians. the charge . 95-96. . cit. p. Carey McWilliams also observes: “. ‘The Japanese Bugaboo.” The Annals. p. cit. p. pp. cit. Hon. President emeritus of the State University of California. XCIII. 29 May 2016 00:50:01 UTC All use subject to http://about. California-White or Yellow. Vol. 38. January 1921. Op.’” Prejudice. They thought that the schools would be one means of instilling in their children a sense of pride in their background. .. John P. Their children.197. XCIII. On this point Col. 23. January 1921. 139. Benjamin Ide Wheeler.” The Annals. They thought they might assist in bridging the chasm that had begun to separate the two generations. . Elwood Mead. race /ethnicity vol.Particular emphasis was placed on the language schools. 121. January 1921.. Irish says: “As the Chinese had been condemned for their imputed vices. and the influence of Buddhism and Shintoism upon the resident Japanese. Dr. 37. 249 36. James D. Vol. 2 182 This content downloaded from 181.” The Annals. See also H.19.” Op. 75. op. Vol. A.” The Annals. p. They fought to retain the language schools desire the fact that the schools themselves were an admitted failure. January 1921. XCIII.. 4 / no.’ Nationalistic tendencies increased. for their respect for law and for their honesty. ‘’Why California Objects to the Japanese Invasion. p. XCIII. January 1921. 51. Phelan. so the Japanese are condemned for their imputed virtues. Vol. XCIII. 39. Vol. Millis. . 51. in a speech against them said: ‘Their good taste. “The Japanese Land Problem in California.of dual citizenship.131 on Sun. p. p.jstor.