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Department of Civil Engineering, JUET Guna (M.P.) 1





Instructions for laboratory report writing



To be performed upto P-1 exam


Verification of Bernoulli’s Theorem



Determination of Frictional Losses in Pipes

9 – 11


Determination of Minor Losses in Pipe

12 – 16


Reynolds Dye Experiment for Flow Characterization

17 – 19


Calibration of Venturimeter

20 – 22


To be performed after P-1 & upto P-2 exam


Calibration of V- Notch and Rectangular Notch

23 - 25


Calibration of Orifice meter

26 - 28


Calibration of Pitot Tube

29 - 31


Determination of Metacentric Height

32 - 34


Determination of Cc, Cv and Cd of an Orifice

35 - 38


Performance characteristics of a centrifugal pump

39 – 42


Verification of the impulse momentum equation

43 – 45


Experiments on open channel

46 – 48


Experiments on wind tunnel

49 – 51


Study of various types of pump cut section models and





Department of Civil Engineering, JUET Guna (M.P.) 2

A full report is an extensive account of experiment, such as may be required for external
readers. It should be a standalone document and so is likely to include a description of the
apparatus and a summary of the experimental procedure.
A full report is not to exceed 1500 words (excluding Tables and Diagrams). It is to be
organized under the following headings:


(Including that of errors)


It contains the aim of the experiment and how the student is going to achieve his aim.
Write every experimental setup and instruments you used with their dimensions. Draw a neat
sketch of experimental setup.
It should contain a brief description of experimental method, a neat sketch of experimental
Write theory behind your experiment briefly, including the derivation of formula used.
Write down all data collected by you and also attached the signed lab data sheet.
Give the sample calculations.

Department of Civil Engineering, JUET Guna (M.P.) 3

Represent experimental results in tabulated form and diagrams.
Compare your results with available reported results from standard literature. Give the reason
of departure of your results from reported results.
The conclusions contains a summary (what has been done and what are the main results) and
in addition to that some future prospective.
Analyze error associated with your experiment.
Substantiate the error associated with your experiment.

Failure to submit the report and attend the viva voce will result in a zero mark.

Department of Civil Engineering, JUET Guna (M.P.) 4

Experiment No - 1

To Verify the Bernoulli’s theorem.
The Bernoulli theorem is one of the most important equations of fluid mechanics. The
theorem is based on the law of conservation of Mechanical Energy. According to the
Bernoulli theorem, in an ideal, incompressible, steady and gravity driven flow, the sum of the
pressure energy, potential energy and the kinetic energy per unit weight of the fluid is
constant along the stream line.
The energy per unit weight of the fluid( − ⁄ = ) has got the dimensions of length (L)
and can be expressed in meters of the fluid column, commonly called head. Thus according
to the Bernoulli theorem, the sum of the pressure head ( p /  ), datum head (Z) and the
velocity head ( V 2 / 2g ) is constant, i.e.

Z 
 Constant

In case of real fluids, because some mechanical energy is always used to overcoming
frictional resistance, the Bernoulli equation for real fluids is

p1 V12

 Z1  2  2  Z 2  H L


Where H L is the loss of head from sections 1 to 2.
As energy is always conserved, but still we are saying that energy is lost, why? Since our
only concern is about mechanical energy (or conservation of mechanical energy) hence from
the point of view of energy we are telling that there is loss of energy.
In fact this is not a loss; this is another energy quantity which is appearing in other form
rather than the mechanical energy.
Bernoulli’s theorem states that the total energy of an ideal fluid for steady flow remains
constant along a stream line. The total energy in the flowing fluid is the sum of the flow
energy (displacement work or pressure energy), the potential energy and the kinetic energy.
In fluid mechanics energy of unit weight of fluid is expressed as head. The pressure head,
datum head, and velocity head are represented as p/γ, z, and v2/2g, respectively. Therefore the
Bernoulli’s theorem can be represented by the following equation-

 constant
H= Z 


= total head(total mechanical)
= pressure energy per unit weight or pressure head
= potential energy per unit weight or datum head
= kinetic energy per unit weight or kinetic head
= specific weight of fluid(weight /volume)
Department of Civil Engineering, JUET Guna (M.P.) 5

Apparatus Supply water tank. meter scale. Remove air bubbles from the piezometric tubes with the help of rubber pipe. also measure the area of discharge measuring tank. variable area duct with minimum area at the middle with connections to piezometric tubes(total 11 in number) at different sections. 6. 5. 4. Fig. Open the supply valve and adjust the outlet so that the water level in the inlet tank remains stable(i. Measure the discharge passing through the duct by measuring the volume of water collected in the tank for a selected time period‘t’ in seconds.e. Measure the distances from an end to locate the position of piezometers and calculate the area of cross section of duct at all piezometric points. Repeat step 3.p. discharge measuring tank. is the static pressure(thermodynamic pressure) at a point in fluid. making the problem steady state) 3. 4. . 5 for one more discharge value. Measure the height of water level in different piezometers above an arbitrarily selected horizontal plane (form the flat surface of varying area duct). 2. 1 Experimental setup Procedure 1. stop watch. v is the velocity at that point and z is the height of that point above any arbitrarily selected datum.

Height of duct at various piezometric points Piezometric point 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Height (cm) Table 2. Discharge calculation Run no. Table 3.Observations and Calculations Area of Tank (A) = Length X Width = 50 x 40 = 2000 cm2 Width of the duct = __________cm Table 1.P. 1.h1) / t (cm3/s) 1. 3.) 7 . taking piezometric points along X-axis and velocity head. total energy head along Y-axis. ** As discharge at any area is given by discharge (Q)=a (cross sectional area of duct at that section ) X V (average velocity at that point) so kinetic head can also be written as: = Results Plot the graphs. Department of Civil Engineering. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 -Do- Distance (cm) Area of duct ‘a’ (cm2) Piezometric head * p/γ + z (cm) Velocity head** v2/2g= Total Head H (cm) (cm) 2. Hence the piezometric head means piezometric pressure per unit weight of fluid. Piezometer No. Initial Level h1 (cm) Final Level h2 (cm) Time t (sec) Discharge Q = A (h2 . JUET Guna (M. Observations for determination of various heads Run No. 2. -Do- -Do- -Do- -Do- -Do- * Piezometric pressure at any point means the static pressure at that point + datum height of that point. piezometric head.

Maintain the water level in the collecting tank above the suction point of pump to avoid the entry of air into the system.Discussion Precautions 1.) 8 . 3. Air should not be present in the piezometric tubes and duct. JUET Guna (M. ensure that water level in the supply tank has become stable. At the time of observation.P. Department of Civil Engineering. 2.

Moody’s charts are commonly used in practice for the estimation of the value of f. a.) 9 . Experimental observations by Froude on long. and inversely with the pipe diameter. hf  f Reynolds no in pipe is given by L V2 2gdh f Or. transition or turbulent). Department of Civil Engineering. then as the fluid is real so there will be reduction in mechanical energy. Theory Transportation of fluids through pipes is frequently dealt with by engineers. If we apply our Bernoulli’s equation between two section of pipes. D 2g For accurate determination of h f a suitable value of f should be known. By introducing a co-efficient of proportionality ‘f’. Darcy and Weisbach proposed the following equation for head loss due to friction in a pipe. Therefore. and represent roughness factor. As the pipe is horizontal so change in potential head will be zero.2 FRICTIONAL LOSS IN PIPES OF DIFFERENT DIAMETERS Objectives To determine the friction factor for pipes of different sizes.7cm diameter b. and hence from the value of ‘f’ and ‘ ’ with the help of Moody’s chart we can find the average height of surface roughness. hf  f. where is fluid density and is the fluid viscosity. so the head loss in nothing but this reduction in mechanical energy. As the discharge across the pipe is also constant so average velocity throughout the pipe will also be same. Distribution of water and gas for domestic consumption through pipes is an example. L V2 . called the friction factor.1cm diameter And hence determine the average height of irregularities in pipe.Experiment No . hence the kinetic head across the pipe will be same. d. laminar. So for particular value of discharge flow velocity (v) can be determined which will give us the flow regime (i.e. the distance between the two sections L. straight and uniform diameter pipes on the flow of water indicated that head losses due to friction hf between two sections of pipes varied in direct portion with the velocity head V2/2g. JUET Guna (M. where Re represents Reynolds No. and for Turbulent flows = ( . Above discussion will be clear with the help of following analytical explanation. ). Introduction The Darcy’s Weisbach equation commonly used for the computation of the loss of head in pipes is given below. 1. So the head loss is just measured by the drop in pressure. the value of f is determined from Darcy’s formula and using Moody’s charts we can measure find out the value of surface roughness. f  d 2g LV 2 = .P. For laminar flows = ( ). 2.

Record the diameter‘d’ of the pipe and the length ‘L’ between the sections attached to the limbs of U-tube manometer. 5.6 g/cc = 1g/cc = 50 cm X 40cm =2000 cm2 = 90 cm = 1.1cm ⁄4 = Department of Civil Engineering. Open the supply valve to allow water to flow in one pipe only. Pipes of different diameter. Procedure 1. Observations Density of the manometer fluid Density of water Area of measuring tank Length of the test pipe Diameter of the test pipe Area of pipe ρm ρw A L d a = 13. Record the readings of the two limbs of the manometer. Repeat the above procedure for other pipes. Knowing the area of the measuring tank. 3. Repeat the procedure at least 4 times at different fluid flow rate. 2. 7. 2. 4. 1. 6.P. and ‘ which is water in our case. Record the initial water level in the piezometer fitted to the discharge measuring tank and starts the stop watch and finds the depth of water collected for a particular time by recording the final reading of the piezometer.1cm Two pet-cocks on each side with the help of which flow is regulated A valve fitted to each pipe with the help of which flow is regulated A U tube manometer connected to the pressure tapping of each pipe to determine pressure drop in pipe.7cm. difference of which gives the head loss ℎ by using above formula discussed.7cm. 5.+ = As and = 2 + = + 2 + +ℎ so the above equation will just get recued to = − +ℎ =ℎ =ℎ Now this pressure difference can be very easily measured with the help of manometer attached to the pipes with the help of following equation: = −1 ℎ Where ‘ ’ is the density of manometric fluid. 2. ’ is the density of the working fluid Experimental setup The experimental setup consists of: 1. A discharge measuring tank fitted with a piezometer tube and a graduated scale to measure the depth of water collected.) 10 . 2. 3. 4. flow rate through the pipe can be obtained. JUET Guna (M.

P. Manometer Difference h2 Discharge. h = h1. = ⁄ . 3.y2 Time ‘t’ (sec) 1. No Initial Level y1 Measuring Tank Reading Final Level y2 Difference y = y1 .h2 = ⁄ = Manometer difference cm of water = = − = Note: In the above formulas of frication factor and Reynolds number we have replaced the ⁄ 4) velocity by discharge per unit area (i. Manometer Reading h1 S.e. where Calculate friction factor for each experiment and also Reynolds number.) 11 . Results Discussion Concluding Remarks Department of Civil Engineering. Plot Reynolds number with friction factor in a log graph paper. No. 2.Observation Table S. JUET Guna (M.

and the loss of head due to friction is predominant. Department of Civil Engineering.) 12 . however. the large diameter suddenly reduces to a small diameter. but the turbulence produced may persist for a considerable distance downstream. resulting in a loss of total mechanical energy.Experiment No . The small diameter pipe has a 90 o bend. Experimental setup The set-up consists of a small diameter pipe which suddenly changes to a large diameter. Introduction In most of the pipe flow problems.3 MINOR LOSSES IN PIPE DUE TO FITTINGS Objective To determine form (minor) losses in a pipe. The fluid particles near the wall due to their low kinetic energy cannot overcome the adverse pressure hill in the direction of flow and hence follow up the reverse path under the favourable pressure gradient (from to ). This creates a zone of recirculating flow with turbulent eddies near the wall of the larger tube at the abrupt change of cross-section. These losses are called form losses or minor losses. JUET Guna ( manometer. the loss of head also occurs whenever there is a change in flow geometry or flow direction.P. The upstream pressure at section e-f since the upstream velocity is higher than the downstream velocity as a consequence of continuity. The loss of head can be determined by connecting the manometer across the sections where the changes occur in the flow. The water is collected in a measuring tank for the determination of the discharge. outweigh the frictional loss in short pipes or ducts. Suitable pressure tapping points are provided to measure the loss of head with an inverted U. in case of slow of fluid against an adverse pressure gradient. After a certain length. The pipe is connected to a pump which is supplying a constant head of inlet water to pipe. The sources of these losses usually confined to a very short length of the duct. The long ducts form losses are very small compared to frictional loss. But minor losses may. as shown in figure below. and hence they are often termed as minor losses. or when there is any obstruction in the flow. the flow is steady and uniform. In addition to the loss of head due to friction. Theory Loss due to sudden enlargement: The basic mechanism of this type of loss is similar to that of losses due to separation.

starting at some point A(look figure below) and rising to a maximum at some point B. where the stream tube expands to fill the pipe. but due to the expansion followed by the contraction. immediately downstream of the junction of area contraction. In an accelerating flow under a favorable pressure gradient. But in the decelerating part of the flow from sec. losses take place in the similar fashion as occur in case of sudden geometrical enlargement. 2-2. 2-2. 1-1 to sec c-c (vena contracta). Department of Civil Engineering. c-c to sec. Therefore between A and B and between C and D the fluid experiences an adverse pressure gradient (the pressure increases in the direction of flow). and the loss of head is thus confined between sec. increases due to continuity and the pressure decreases in the direction of flow accordingly in compliance with the Bernoulli’s theorem. Loss in pipe bends: Whenever a fluid flows in a curved path. 2-2. Hence eddies are formed between the vena contracta c-c and the downstream sec. because of their close proximity to the wall. The flow pattern after the vena contracta is similar to that after an abrupt enlargement. the cross-sectional area of the stream tube becomes the minimum and less than that of the small pipe. Here also the streamlines cannot follow the abrupt change of geometry and hence gradually converge from an upstream section of the larger tube. after which the stream widens again to fill the pipe. This section of the stream tube is called as vena contracta (look figure below). there is also a reduction of pressure near the inner wall giving a minimum pressure at C and a subsequent rise from C to D.Loss due to sudden contraction: An abrupt contraction is geometrically the reverse of an abrupt enlargement.P. losses due to separation cannot takes place. c-c to section. there must be a force acting radially inwards on the fluid to provide the inward acceleration. The velocity of flow in the converging part of the stream tube from sec. However. This results in an increase in pressure near the outer wall of the bend. JUET Guna (M. Thus we can say that the loss due to contraction is not for the contraction itself.) 13 . known as centripetal acceleration. Fluid particles in this region. have low velocities and cannot overcome the adverse pressure gradient and this leads to a separation of flow from the boundary and consequent losses of energy in generating local eddies.

the loss of head is considerably small.60 and 0. The loss of head due to sudden contraction is usually expressed as  V2  H L  K c  1   2g  Where V1 is the velocity in the smaller pipe The value of Kc is usually about 0. For gradual expansion (diffusers). JUET Guna (M. Procedure 1. Measure the diameters of pipes. and the roughness of the pipe. The value of K e depends upon d1 / d 2 ratio. which depends upon the type of obstruction or change. the type of the loss off head due to sudden expansion is usually determined by the Borda Carnot equation HL  V1  V2 2 2g (a) Where. Also measure the dimensions of the collecting tank.3 to o.e. the ratio of the radius of curvature of the bend to the diameter of the pipe (i. V is the mean velocity of flow. Department of Civil Engineering. K is the form loss factor.) 14 . (a) can be expressed as  V2  H L  K e  1   2g  Where.The form losses are usually expressed as V 2   H L  K   2g  Where. K e is the coefficient for sudden expansion. The loss of head at a bend can be expressed as  V2   H L  K b   2g  The value of Kb depends upon the angle of bend. V1 is the velocity in the smaller pipe and V2 is the velocity in the larger pipe. the value of K e depends upon the d1 / d 2 ratio and the angle of divergence. For a 90 0 bend.90. the value of Kb usually varies between 0. Eqn.5 For gradual contractions. r/D ratio).P.

A2 = 6. 6. A1 = 2. measure the manometeric deflection (h) 5. S2 = 13. (b) Sudden contraction S. When the flow becomes steady. 2.2.N Discharge measurement Initia l level Fina l level Rise In level Volum e Time Loss of head Q Deflection (h) V1 = = V12 2g V2 V22 K e 2g − 1. 4. 3.N Discharge measurement Initia l level Fina l level Rise In level Volume Time Loss of head Q Deflectio n (h) = = − 1. 3. 8. Take the initial reading of the measuring tank and start the stop watch. 3. 2. Open the inlet valve. Repeat steps 4 and 5 for different discharges. JUET Guna (M.) 15 . D1 = 1.N Discharge measurement Initia l level Fina l level Rise In level Volume Time Loss of head Q Deflectio n (h) = = V1 V12 2g V2 V22 2g Kc V1 V12 V2 2g V22 2g Kb − 1.157 cm2 Density of mercury. 7. 2.8 cm Area of Larger pipe. Note the rise in water level for a suitable time period. Repeat steps 3 to 6 for the loss of head due to sudden contraction.7 cm Area of smaller pipe. S1 = 1 g/cm3 Area of measuring tank ‘A’ =2000 cm2 (a) Sudden Expansion S. Repeat steps 3 to 6 for the loss of head due to bend.269 cm2 Diameter of the larger pipe. Connect the manometer across the sections for which the loss of head due to sudden expansion is to be measured. Gradually adjust the exit valve. Department of Civil Engineering. (c) 90 0 bend S. D2 = 2.6 g/cm3 Density of water. Observations and calculations Diameter of the smaller pipe.P. 3.

JUET Guna (M. Readings should be taken when the flow is steady.Result Average values of factor K for Ke = (b) Sudden and its tapings.) 16 . Discussion Concluding Remarks Department of Civil Engineering. 2. K c = Kb = (c) 90 0 bend.P. Collect adequate quantity of water for the determination of discharge. 3. (a) Sudden Expansion. Precautions 1. There should be no air bubble in the inverted U.

and the flow becomes turbulent. 2. Introduction Laminar flow occurs in a pipe at low velocities when the Reynolds number ‘Re’ is less than about 2000. If a dye is injected. If the flow is now gradually decreased. Finally. on the other hand. transition and turbulent flow characteristics. a stage is reached at which the flow changes back from turbulent to laminar and the dye thread again appear as a straight line. The upper critical number is not a fixed quantity as it depends upon a number of factors such as initial disturbance of flow. This is very much clear by looking the velocity profiles in laminar and turbulent case as given below. the fluid moves in layers. the momentum transfer plays an important role. The velocity at which the flow changes back from turbulent to laminar is called the lower critical velocity and the corresponding Reynolds number is known as the lower critical number. the shape of the entry to the pipe etc. To determine the critical Reynolds number. the dye thread gradually starts breaking and becomes ill-defined.Experiment No . the flow changes from laminar to turbulent. As the velocity in the pipe is increased. . In the turbulent flow. Viscosity plays an important role in a laminar flow. The velocity at which the flow changes from laminar to turbulent is called the upper critical velocity and the corresponding Reynolds number as the upper critical Reynold’s number. at high velocities. it appears as a straight line. with a transition stage between two types of flow. To study the laminar. the dye mixes completely and the whole pipe is filled with the coloured fluid. The dye streak appears wavy and disturbed(as shown below). In the transition stage. the lower critical Reynold’s number is well established.4 CRITICAL REYNOLD’S NUMBER Objectives 1. and its value is usually about 2000.

= & = . Apparatus A perplex tube of diameter 2. Velocity Scale ‘V’. die injector.5 cm fitted at the bottom of a reservoir tank. the flow may not become turbulent in some cases even at a higher value of the Reynolds number. and the flow is gradually turbulent when the Reynold’s number is greater than 4000. piezometer.) 18 . Theory The Reynolds number Re is defined as follows ( ) = Let us consider Length scale ‘L’. However. The velocity at which the flow changes from laminar to transition is called lower critical velocity and the velocity at which the flow changes from transition to turbulent is called upper critical velocity. If Re < 2000 The flow is laminar. 2000 < Re<4000 The flow is in transition state Re > 4000 The flow is turbulent. JUET Guna (M.There is a transition stage for the Reynold’s number between 2000 to 4000. ( ) ( )= Hence for circular ducts = 4 ∗ So the Reynolds number for pipe flow is given by: ( ) = = Point to remember about this equation is that ‘V’ is the average velocity in pipe. Department of Civil Engineering. and time scale ‘T’ then: = = = So using above scales And viscous force = = = = = = ( ) = = = = = Where L is called as characteristic length and for confined flows characteristic length is given ∗ ( ) by = . dye pot.P. stop watch. measuring tank. and for circular duct of diameter‘d’.

3. Observations Area of measuring tank = 50 cm X 40 m = 2000 cm2 Diameter of Glass tube (d) = 2. Collect fluid for some particular time interval. See the dye filament characteristics. 5.P.) 19 . And for that case Reynolds formula will look as 4 = Observation Table Discharge Calculation Sl.5 cm. 6. JUET Guna (M. 2. dv Re   v = average velocity of fluid in m/s ρ = density of fluid in kg/m3 = 1000 kg/m3 for water µ = viscosity of fluid in pa-s = 8 X 10-4 Ns/m2 for water.Procedure 1. Change the flow rate of fluid and repeat the same procedure. Inject the dye into the fluid stream. 4. Open the control valve so that water can flow through the tube. at the same time make the flow steady by maintaining constant level in tank. For the faster calculation you can also modify the above Reynolds formula by replace the average velocity by discharge (Q) per unit cross-sectional area of pipe . Fill the tank with water. No Initial reading (h1) Final reading (h2) Time of collection (t) Volumetric flow rate Q = {A x (h2h1)}/t (m3/s) Results Discussion Conclusions Department of Civil Engineering.

To avoid excessive head loss. This instrument was first demonstrated by an Italian scientist Giovanni Battista Venturi in 1797. The coefficient Cd takes into account this loss of head. the flow in the converging cone is accelerating and the loss of head is relatively small. the pressure at the throat should not be allowed to drop to the vapour pressure to prevent cavitation. JUET Guna (M. To calibrate venturimeter. To determine the co-efficient of discharge. Alternatively.) 20 . In the diverging cone.99. The value of Cd is usually between 0. it is essential to keep the angle of divergence small. Department of Civil Engineering. the more is the pressure difference. However. while the pressure decreases according to Bernoulli’s theorem. The velocity reaches its maximum and pressure reaches its minimum value at the throat. a throat section and a diverging cone. An expression for the discharge is derived by applying the Bernoulli equation to the inlet and the throat and using the continuity equation.Experiment No . the velocity increases in the direction of flow according to the principle of continuity. the venturimeter should be preceded by a straight and uniform length of about 30 D1 or so. It consists of a converging cone. This short portion has the minimum area and is known as the throat. Introduction A venturimeter is commonly used to measure discharge in closed conduits. For accurate results. straightening vanes can be used in the pipe. H is the difference of the peizometeric heads expressed as the height of the liquid column. the flow is decelerating. Generally the diameter at the throat D2 is between ¼ to ¾ times the inlet diameters D1.97 and 0. It consists of two conical parts with a short portion of uniform cross-section in between. The converging cone has an angle of convergence about 200. The smaller the D2 / D1 ratio. Theory Venturi is essentially a short pipe. A1 and A2 are the area of cross section at the inlet and throat. discharge is given by: 2 = − Where Cd is the coefficient of discharge.5 VENTURIMETER TEST Objectives 1. The venturimeter is always used in a way that the upstream part of the flow takes place through the short conical portion while the downstream part of the flow through the long one. 2. In course of a flow through the converging part. usually 5 0 to 70.P. respectively.

Note the initial level of water in measuring tank. Record the inlet pipe diameter (D1) throat diameter (D2) and the manometer fluid and that of flowing fluid densities of 2. Calculate the actual discharge.54 cm2 Observation Table S.No Initial Level y1 Measuring Tank Reading Final Level y2 Difference y = y1 .6 g/cm3 = 1 g/cm3 = 40 cm x 50 cm = 2000 cm2 = 2. Vary the flow rate through the system with the regulation valve and take the different readings. Collect the water in the measuring tank for certain time and note the final level of water in measuring tank.P. JUET Guna (M. Open the regulation valve and under steady state condition note the readings h1 and h2 in the two limbs of the mercury differential manometer.h2 Manometer difference cm of water = − Department of Civil Engineering. 3.) 21 .y2 Time ‘t’ (sec) 1 2 3 4 Manometer Reading h1 Manometer Difference h2 h = h1. Observations Densities of manometer fluid mercury at room temperature Density of water at room temperature Area of measuring tank Diameter of pipe D1 Diameter of throat D2 Area of Pipe A1 Area of Throat A2 = 13.Procedure 1.15 cm2 = πD22/4 = 1.4 cm = πD12/4 = 6.8 cm = 1. 4.

JUET Guna (M.) 22 .Calculation Table S.P.No Volumetric flow rate = ( )⁄ Volumetric flow rate at throat = Coefficient of discharge = / − 1 2 3 Results Co-efficient of Discharge Cd = The fluid flow rate = Discussions Concluding Remarks Department of Civil Engineering.

Installation of a notch is exclusively for the purpose of measuring the discharge in the steam.e. triangular. θ is the angle of Triangular Notch Department of Civil Engineering. Rectangular notch is used for the measurement of discharge in an open channel. The discharge Q is computed from the head H over the crest. Ventilation holes are usually provided on the side walls on the downstream of the crest so that the nape has atmospheric pressure below it. JUET Guna (M. rectangular. as there is a unique relationship between the discharge Q and the head H.) 23 .6 NOTCH AND WEIR EXPERIMENT Objective To study the flow over a notch or a weir and to find the coefficient of discharge for it along with to calibrate it for discharge measurement in a free surface flow. A V-notch usually consists of a metal plate with a sharp crest having a bevel edge on the downstream so that the liquid springs off the notch with only a line contact. The nape should be fully ventilated so that the pressure below it is atmospheric. The discharge over a Triangular or V-Notch is given by the formula 5 8  Q  C d 2g tan H 2 15 2 The discharge over a Rectangular Notch is given by the formula = 2 3 2 Where. The free surface flow taking place over it acquires steady state conditions such that the discharge is uniquely related to the head H over the crest of the notch. A sharp crested weir or notch for the measurement of discharge generally have a regular geometrical shape i. Notches are opening cut in a metallic plate and installed in flumes or small channels. The stream of liquid is called the nape. Introduction A V-notch is commonly used for the measurement of small discharges in an open channel. A V-notch is of the shape of a triangle with its apex down and base at top. The crest of the notch is sharp-edge with a bevel edge on the downstream surface so that the sheet of water (nape) has only a line contact with the crest.P. Theory A weir is an obstruction placed across a free surface of a stream flow such that the flow takes place over it.Experiment No . A rectangular notch consists of a thin metallic plate placed across a channel so that the water flows over it with a free surface. measured at a distance about 3 to 4 times H from the crest towards upstream.

the discharge over a notch is considerably less than indicated by the above formula without considering Cd i.e. A water inlet pipe with a regulating valve. 2. Cd  Q actual Q theoretical In actual practice. the formula is derived on the basis of frictionless one dimensional flow. 5. as given in the above formula.. Experimental Set Up The set up consists of1. discharge measuring tank fitted with a piezometric tube and a graduated scale. 4. Vertical perforated plates (Baffle plates) are fitted in the tank having the notch to decrease the turbulence and thereby velocity of approach. 3. hook gauge with a vernier scale. .L = Width of Rectangular Notch H = Head over the Notch Cd = Discharge Coefficient Discharge Coefficient (Cd) is the ratio of actual volumetric flow rate to theoretical volumetric flow rate i.. Apparatus A tank fitted with a notch. A discharge measuring tank fitted with a piezometric tube and graduated scale to measure the flow through/over the notch. end contractions. nappe suppression. A hook gauge with vernier scale. ventilation of weirs etc. The discrepancy arises due to real flow effects like viscosity. Perforated plates. Triangular notch with varying angles. A tank on the raised platform. Stop watch. So the actual discharge is obtained by multiplying the theoretical discharge by Cd.e.

3. Stop the supply of water and record the level of water by hook gauge when no water passes over the notch. Qact = A (h2 – h1) / t For Vnotch For Rect. 4. Increase the supply of water till the head over the still of notch becomes constant.Procedure 1. 6. 7. JUET Guna (M. Repeat the experiment for different type of Notches. 5.P. Initial water Level above notch H1 (cm) Final water level above notch H2 (cm) Initial level of tank Final level of tank h1 (cm) h2 (cm) Time for water collection in tank t (sec) 1 2 Calculation Table Qthe Sl. Allow the water into the tank till it just starts passing over the notch. 2. Vary the flow rate through the system with a regulating valve and take eight different readings. Measure the flow rate (Q) with the help of discharge measuring tank and stop watch. Record the level H2 of free liquid surface. Observation Area of measuring tank (A) = 50 cm X 40 cm = 2000 cm2 Angle of V-Notch = 600 Width of Rectangular Notch (L) = Observation Table S. Difference of the two readings (H2-H1) gives the head over the still causing flow. No. Record the geometrical features of the notch.) 25 . No. This gives level of still of crest (H1). notch Cd = Qact/ Qthe 1 2 Results Co-efficient of Discharge Cd = The fluid flow rate = Discussions Concluding Remarks Department of Civil Engineering.

Qth = Theoretical discharge Cd = Qact/Qthe Fig: Sectional View Department of Civil Engineering. As the fluid flows through the orifice. and then expands to fill the passage of the pipe. The flow from an upstream section. where it is uniform. The area A0 (see figure below) of the orifice is much smaller than the cross-sectional area of the pipe. there is a pressure difference between an upstream section and the venacontracta. adjusts itself in such a way that it contracts until a section downstream the orifice plate is reached. Introduction An orifice meter consists of a thin circular plate with a central hole. where the vena contracta is formed. The pressure difference between the upstream section and the vena-contracta is used for the measurement of discharge. The vena-contracta forms at a distance of about d 1/2 from the plane of the orifice.Experiment No . The theoretical value of discharge from orifice meter is given below as: 2 = − A1 = Area of Pipe A2 = Area of Orifice H = Piezometer head difference measured by manometer. The beveled edge of the orifice is kept on the downstream side. JUET Guna (M.P.) 26 . An orificemeter is essentially a thin circular plate with a sharp edged concentric circular hole in it. 2. To determine the co-efficient of discharge. Theory An orificemeter provides a simpler and cheaper arrangement for the measurement of flow through a pipe. The plate is inserted in a pipe for the measurement of discharge. To calibrate Orifice meter.7 ORIFICE METER TEST Objective 1. where d1 is the diameter of the pipe. The orifice plate is clamped between flanges of the pipe.

4 cm Area of Pipe A1 = πd 12/4 = 6.6 gm/cm3 Density of water at room temperature = 1 gm/cm3 Area of measuring tank = 40 cm x 50cm = 2000 cm2 Diameter of pipe d 1 = 2.8 cm Diameter of orifice d0 = 1. 3.P.15 cm2 Area of Orifice A2 = πd 02/4 = 1. Observations Densities of manometer fluid mercury at room temperature = 13.Procedure 1. 2. Collect the water in the measuring tank for certain time and note the final level of water in measuring tank Calculate the actual discharge. Note the initial level of water in measuring tank. Open the regulation valve and under steady state condition note the readings h1 and h2 in the two limbs of the mercury differential manometer.54 cm2 Observation Table S. Record the inlet pipe diameter (d1) orifice diameter (do) and the densities of manometer fluid and that of flowing fluid. 4. Vary the flow rate through the system with the regulation valve and take the different readings.No Measuring Tank Reading Initial Level y1 Final Level y2 Difference y = y1 .y2 Time ‘t’ (sec) 1 2 3 Manometer Reading h1 h2 Manometer Difference h = h1.h2 Manometer difference cm of water = − Department of Civil Engineering.) 27 . JUET Guna (M.

) 28 .Calculation Table S. No Volumetric flow rate = ( )⁄ Flow rate at Vena-contracta = Coefficient of dischare = / − 1 2 3 Results Co-efficient of Discharge Cd = Discussions Concluding Remarks Department of Civil Engineering.P. JUET Guna (M.

the difference in level below the liquid in the glass tube and the free surface becomes the measure of dynamic pressure. this pressure P is the same in all directions and is categorically known as the hydrostatic pressure. is used for the purpose. Since the static pressure. large enough for capillary effects to be negligible. The word isentropically implies the sense that the entire kinetic energy of a fluid particle is utilized to increase its pressure only. For the flow of a real stoksian fluid the static pressure becomes equal to the arithmetic average of the normal stresses at a point. If the hole is made at the wall and is connected to any pressure measuring device.Experiment No . Pitot tube for flow measurement: The principle of flow measurement by Pitot tube was adopted first by a French scientist Henri Pitot in 1732 for measuring velocity in the river. static pressure and velocity respectively at a b Fig1. This type of hole at the wall is known as a wall tap. A right angled tube. or are the stagnation pressure. The liquid flows up the tube and when equilibrium is stained. Where point A. when the fluid is at rest. . it will then sense the static pressure at the wall.8 PITOT STATIC TUBE CO-EFFICIENT DETERMINATION TEST Objectives To calibrate the pitot static tube by measuring its velocity coefficient. Stagnation Pressure: The stagnation pressure at a point in a fluid flow is the pressure which could result if the fluid were brought to rest isentropically. Therefore we can neglect friction. the liquid reaches a height above the free surface of the water stream. One end of the tube faces the flow while the other end is open to the atmosphere as shown below. under this situation. Simple Pitot tube (a) with static tube only (b) with static and stagnation tube. is equal to the hydrostatic pressure due to its depth below the free surface. Theory Static pressure: The thermodynamic or hydrostatic pressure caused by molecular collision is known as static pressure in a fluid flow and usually referred to as the pressure p. The fact that a wall tap actually senses the static pressure can be appreciated by noticing that there is no component of velocity along the axis of the hole.

Pitot Static tube: The tube recording static pressure and the stagnation pressure are usually combined into one instrument known as Pitot static tube (figure 2). Pitot tube. 2. The position of these static holes is important.) 30 . Finally the flow velocity is given by: Vth  2 gH   H  hm  m  1  w  hm = manometric difference (h2 .1 a). A Pitot tube is also inserted as shown in figure1. JUET Guna (M.P. The tube for sensing the static pressure is known as static tube which surrounds the Pitot tube that measures the stagnation pressure. Fig. Two or more holes are drilled radially through the outer wall of the static tube into annular space.For an open stream of liquid with a free surface.a to sense the stagnation pressure.6g / cc  w  1g / cc = Actual value of velocity is determined by measuring the discharge through pipe and dividing it by pipe cross-sectional diameter. Stop watch. But in front of the supporting stem. Department of Civil Engineering. Downstream of the nose N. this single tube is sufficient to determine the velocity. there is a reduction in velocity and increase in pressure. The ends of the piezometric tube. But for a fluid flowing through a closed duct. 2 Pitot static tube Apparatus 1.h1)  m  13. The static holes should therefore be at the position where the two opposing effects are counterbalanced and the reading corresponds to the undisturbed static pressure. measuring the static pressure. the flow is accelerated somewhat with consequent reduction in static pressure. Measurement of static pressure in this case is at the boundary of the wall (fig. the Pitot tube measures only the stagnation pressure and so the static pressure must be measured separately. Differential Manometer. The axis of the tube measuring the static pressure must be perpendicular to the boundary and free from burrs. may be connected to a suitable differential manometer for the determination of flow velocity and hence the flow rate. 3.

Now take the reading of manometer at different test run. Calculate the velocity at different place. 2.Procedure 1. Start the pump and adjust the flow. No. Water level of measuring tank Initial Final (m) (m) Time Volumetric flow rate.72 cm2 Observation Table Sl. JUET Guna (M.7 cm Area of pipe (a) =  D2 / 4 = 5. Observations Area of measuring tank a = 50 X 40 = 2000 cm2 Diameter of pipe = 2.) 31 . Note the initial reading of water H1 in the tank and collect water for certain time‘t’ and note the reading H2 calculate discharge Qact and mean velocity Vact. Q m3/sec Average velocity V= Q/a (m/s) Manometer reading h1 h2 (m) (m) Coefficient of velocity(Cv) Results Discussion Concluding Remarks Department of Civil Engineering. 3.P. 4.

The line of action of FB in this new position cuts the axis of symmetry at M. For a body to be in equilibrium on the liquid surface as shown in Fig.P.9 METACENTRIC HEIGHT DETERMINATION TEST Objective To determine the metacentric height of floating body (flat bottomed vessel). For most of the actual ships. and it acts through the center of gravity of the displaced fluid. The floating body is in equilibrium when the resultant up thrust (U) is equal to the weight of the body ( Ws ) and the two forces act in the same line. Theory When a body is immersed in a fluid two forces act on it. the weight (W) and the buoyant force(Fb) should be equal in magnitude must lie in the same vertical line. The buoyant force is equal to the weight of displaced fluid. which is called metacentre and the distance GM is called the metacentric Height. the metacentric height (MG) should be positive. Introduction A floating body should not only be in equilibrium but it also should be stable.2 through an angle (). A floating body is stable if it tends to return to its original equilibrium position after it had been tilted through a small angle(this is also called as rotation stability). w) x = Distance from the center  = Angle of tilt Department of Civil Engineering. very large metacentric heights cause undesirable oscillations in the ships and are avoided.1. the center of gravity G is usually unchanged in this position but the center of buoyancy B0 shifts towards the new position.3 and 1. However. MG is between 0. For the floating body to be stable it is essential that the metacentre (M) is above the center of gravity (G).20 m.) 32 .In other words. G = Center of Gravity B0 = Centre of Buoyancy B = New center of Buoyancy GM = Metacentric height m = Weight of hangers w = Weight applied W = Weight of vessel (Including m. Therefore W and B will make couple that will try to balance the disturbance. JUET Guna (M. the greater is the stability. the gravitational force (weight) and the buoyant force. The greater the metacentric height. On rotating the body as shown in Fig.Experiment No .

water level in the tank before floating the vessel is noted (h1) and water level after floating the vessel is noted (h2). Determine the weight of vessel (W). Procedure 1. adjustable weights. x2 and angle of heel . For determining the W. Shift the moveable weights by unequal distances x1 and x2 from the center of the crossbar.Theoretically. . GM is determined by equation GM = Iyy/V – GB0 Iyy = Area moment of inertia of the plane of floatation about an axis which is perpendicular to the plane of rotation. Note down x1. GM is determined by equation GM = {(w1 + m) x1 . 2. including the weight of the hangers and weights. scale. and steel rule. Repeat steps from 2 to 3 for different positions of moveable weights. BG = distance between center of gravity and center of buoyancy Experimentally. plumb bob. 4. metal vessel with hangers.(w2 + m)x2} W tan θ Apparatus Small steel tank (50 cm x 50 cm x 50 cm). V = volume of the submerged portion of vessel. 3.

Results Mean meta-centric height of flat-bottomed vessel is (in centimeters) = Discussion Precautions 1.) 34 .P.(w2 + m) x2} W tan θ (8) 1. 2. Observation table for determination of metacentric height. w1 w2 x1 (1) (2) (3) (4) x2 Angle of Heel θ tan θ (5) (6) (7) GM = {(w1 + m) x1 . 2. 3. Initially needle of pendulum must be at zero if not.Observation(s) and Calculation(s) Area of Tank (A) = Initial Water Level (without vessel) ( h1 )= Final Water Level (with vessel) (h2)= Weight of vessel (W)= γ x A x (h2 . and then take account of the error in calculations Department of Civil Engineering. JUET Guna (M. Table 1. Ensure that the pendulum moves freely about the pivot and there is no friction.h1) γ is the specific weight of water. 3. S. No. 4. Start the experiment and record the readings when water in the tank becomes still. Reading of angle of heel should be taken when the pendulum becomes steady and does not fluctuate.

P. A measuring tank is provided to collect the water for the measurement of discharge. H should be comparatively large with respect to diameter of orifice. Cc is the coefficient of contraction. coefficient of velocity Cv and coefficient of discharge Cd of a sharp-edged.65. Department of Civil Engineering. The jet issuing from the tank forms the vena contracta at a distance of d/2. The orifices are commonly used for the determination of discharges. A hook gauge is mounted on the vertical scale. Experimental Set-up The set-up consists of a constant head supply tank with a circular orifice on in its side wall. An orifice is called the orifice discharging free when it discharges into atmosphere. The hook gauge can be moved vertically as well as horizontally so that its tip touches the lower surface of the jet.10 VARIOUS CO-EFFICIENT DETERMINATION TEST Objective To determine the values of coefficient of contraction C c . Introduction An orifice is an opening in the side wall of a tank or a vassal.95 and 0.59 and 0. The value of Cv usually varies between 0.Experiment No . JUET Guna (M. which equal to the ratio of the area of the jet at the vena contracta to the area of the orifice (a).) 35 . H is the head causing flow. In a sharp edged orifice. it can be shown that the discharge is given by: Q  Cc Cv a 2gH  C d a 2gH Where. which is equal to the ratio of the actual discharge (Q) to the theoretical discharge ( a 2gH ). For the measurement of the coordinates of the jet.64. a is the area of the orifice of diameter d. The value of Cc generally varies between 0. The value of Cd usually varies between 0. a horizontal scale to which a vertical scale is fitted is attached to the tank. From the Bernoulli’s Theorem. The distances x and y can be read on the horizontal and vertical scales respectively.61 and 0. circular orifice discharge free. which is equal to the vertical distance between the free surface in the tank and the center of the orifice. Cv is the coefficient of velocity. The liquid flows out of the tank when the orifice is opened. where d is the diameter of the orifice. Cd is the coefficient of discharge.99. A micrometer contraction gauge can be held across the water jet at the vena contracta for the measurement of diameter of the jet at the vena contracta in two perpendicular directions. there is a line contact of the liquid as it flows out. which is equal to the ratio of the actual velocity of the vena contracta to the theoretical velocity (a 2gH ).

The Sec. The Jet of the liquid coming out of the orifice is acted upon by gravity only with a downward acceleration of g.P.) 36 . Considering the flow of a fluid particle form c-c to P along the jet. we have = 2 = = ⁄ Or But If we apply bernoully’s equation on a stream line from free surface to the orifice outlet considering steady state and ideal flow then we get So = +0+ = + + 0. Cc   2 d2  / 4d  2 Consider the tank in figure 1(given below). we can write. Trajectory of a liquid jet discharged from a sharp edged orifice Department of Civil Engineering. Let P be a point on the jet such that x and z are the horizontal and vertical coordinates respectively of P from the vena contracta c-c as shown in figure 1. 1. Thus. on simplification 2 = ∗ = √ Where x and z are the coordinates of the jet. above the contre line of the orifice. the horizontal component of velocity u of the jet remains constant.Theory The coefficient of contraction Cc is equal to the ratio ac / a . therefore. The readings of the micrometer gauge give the mean diameter d c of the jet at the vena contracta at two sections perpendicular to each other. = = 2 Where t is the time taken by the fluid particle to move from c-c to P. JUET Guna (M. measured with respect to the center of the vena contracta. Fig. Eliminating t from the above two equations. c-c is at the vena contracta. maintained constant. Let h be the height of the liquid.  / 4d c  d 2c . where d is the diameter of the orifice. where a c is the area of cross section at the vena contracta.

Measure the diameter of the orifice and fit it to the side opening of the constant hand supply tank and close it with a rubber plug.P. L= B= A= The coordinates of the center of the vena contracta: x0 = y0 = Department of Civil Engineering. Note the head H. 5.) 37 . Since it is difficult to determine the diameter of the jet at the vena contracta accurately. Open the inlet valve of the supply tank to fill water to the required level. Procedure 1. Remove the plug. Repeat steps 2 to 8 for 5 to 7 different heads H. and ‘a’ is the orifice area. 6. Slide the hook gauge to a point some distance away from the vena contracta and measure the x' and y' coordinates. 9. 8. Hold the micrometer contraction gauge across the vena contracta. it can also be determined indirectly from the relation Cc  Cd Cv The value of Cd depends upon the nominal Reynolds number NR given by = = 2 ν is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid. Observations and Calculations Diameter of the orifice d = a= Dimensions of the measuring tank.The coefficient of discharge ( Cd ) is given by Cd  Q / t  a 2gH a 2gH Where ‘  ’ is the volume of water collected in time‘t’. 3. Determine the actual discharge by collecting the volume of water (  ) for a period of time (t). Adjust the inlet valve till the water level becomes constant(by doing this the problem will become steady state). 7. Note the horizontal scale and vertical scale readings ( x 0andy0 ) when the point of the hook gauge just touches the lower surface of the jet. The water flows out of the orifice and the water level in the tank drops. Adjust the screws on its ring so that the points of all the four screws just touch the periphery of the jet. JUET Guna (M. 4. 2. Bring the hook gauge to the vena contracta. Take the micrometer contraction gauge away from the jet and measure the diameter in the two perpendicular directions.

P. JUET Guna (M. The micrometer contraction gauge should be kept axial with the orifice..Discharge measurement Sl. While measuring the coordinates of the jet. 4. Cd (Analytically) = ……………………………. Precautions 1. The head over the orifice should be fairly large so that the orifice acts as a small orifice. Head No H Initial level Final level Rise in level Volume  Time t Q=  /t x' z' x= x'-x0 z= z-z0 Cv = √4 Cd = Cc Cc = Q Cd a 2gH Cv d c2 d2 Graph Plot Q versus H on an ordinary graph. take care to ensure that the point of the hook gauge just touches the lower surface of the jet without any splash. Results Cv  ……………………………………………. Make sure that the head remains constant for one set of observations. with Q as ordinate.) 38 . 2.. The screws should just touch the periphery of the jet at the vena contracta. and determine the value of Cd from the slope of the line. Cd (Graphically) = …………………………… C c (From Cd and Cv values) = …………………. 3. 5. Department of Civil Engineering. C c (By direction measurement) = ………………. The hook gauge should not be moved to and fro to avoid backlash error.

Alternatively. to a large extent. The pump is driven power from an external source. Introduction Centrifugal pumps are used extensively in practice. Vd and Vs are the velocities in the delivery and suction pipes. The impeller applies a centrifugal head to the liquid which leaves the impeller at the outer periphery with high pressure and velocity. Department of Civil Engineering. a mechanical dynamometer. Experimental set-up The set-up consists of a centrifugal pump coupled to an electric motor. H is also called the manometric head. The suction pipe is provided with a strainer and a non-return valve at its lower end dipped in a sump. can be used. The velocity is converted into useful pressure head. respectively. from which it can again be re-circulated. The water from the pump is discharged into a tank. Zd and Z s are the heights of the delivery and suction gauge above the axis of the respectively ( Z s is negative in the figure) pump. The liquid enters as its center. The wheel of the centrifugal pump on which the vanes are fixed is called an impeller. by the casing.Experiment No .) 39 . p d is the pressure indicated by the pressure gauge on the delivery side and p s is the pressure indicated by the suction gauge on the suction pipe ( p s is negative). The pressure gauges are provided on the delivery and suction pipes. The valve on the delivery pipe controls the discharge. such as a rope brake. The centrifugal pump has radially outward flow. The effective head H developed by the centrifugal pump is given by  pd Vd2   p s Vs2      H   Zd       Z s  2g   2 g     ……………………………… (1) Where. usually an electric motor. A venturimeter is installed on the delivery pipe for the measurement of discharge.P.11 CHARACTERISTICS OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMP Objective To obtain the performance characteristics of a centrifugal pump and to determine its specific speed. JUET Guna (M. The input power to the electric motor is measured by means of an energy meter.

Repeat steps 3 to 6 for various discharges.) 40 . The overall efficiency of the pump is then calculated as 0  The specific speed Ns is calculated as: Ns  P0 Pi N Q H3 / 4 Where Ns is the speed. m is the efficiency of the electric motor (note power factor = H is calculated from eq. 6. 4. Take the manometer reading for the computation of discharge. K is the energy meter reading. discharge Q and speed N.81 kN/m3. Q is in liters per second. Procedure 1.P. 3. (1) 3) The power input P0 of the centrifugal pump is calculated as P0  QH Where  = 9. Close the delivery valve of the pump. Q is in m3 / s and H in meters. The head H and the shaft power are measured for each discharge. The behavior of the pump under different conditions can be predicted by conducting tests and obtaining the performance characteristics. it may be required to run at the conditions different from those for which it is designed. The speed of the motor should be kept constant by using a rheostat. Close the delivery valve first and then switch off the supply to the electric motor. Prime the pump by filling water in it by a funnel provided for this purpose. The power input in kw to the pump ia calculated as Pi  3 Km Where. JUET Guna (M. Start the electric motor by moving the starting lever gradually till the full speed is attained. Wait for some time for the pump to develop sufficient centrifugal head. 8. Note the readings of the pressure gauge and the energy meter. Department of Civil Engineering.Theory A Centrifugal pump is usually designed to work at a particular set of head H. 2. 7. and Q and H are the discharge and head at the maximum efficiency. However. The discharge is calculated from the relation Q  Cd A1A 2 A12  A 22 2gh S2 / S1  1 (2) Where h is the manometer deflection. Measure the speed of the pump with a tachometer. The operating characteristics curves are obtained by running the pump at the designed speed but the discharge is varied by means of the delivery valve. 5.

1) Energy Input power Output power K (kW) Pi P0 1. Zd = Height of the pressure gauge on the suction pipe. 3.P.Observations and calculations Speed of the electric motor (or pump). 4. Specific speed Draw a vertical line through the point of the maximum efficiency and determine the values of h and Po where the vertical line cuts H vs Q and Po vs Q curves. Zs = Venturimeter parameters S. Q is in liters per second. with Q as abscissa. N s  N Q Where. Po Vs Q and (c). No. m = Diameter of the suction pipe d s = Diameter of the delivery pipe dd = Height of the pressure gauge on the delivery side. D1 = Cd = D2 = S2 = Discharge Manometer Q deflection (Eq. JUET Guna (M.) 2 (h) Head ps /  2 s V / 2g H (m) (Eq. respectively. Graphs Plot the operating characteristics (a). N = Efficiency of the electric motor. ήo Vs Q On the same graph. H Vs Q (b).) 41 0 . 6. 5. H3 / 4 Department of Civil Engineering. Calculate specific speed. 2.

P. Before starting the pump. The delivery valve must remain closed when the pump is either started or closed. single stage pumps). make sure that the pump is fully primed and there is no air anywhere in the system.e.The value of Ns usually varies between 300 and 5000 for the centrifugal pumps with one impeller (i.) 42 . JUET Guna (M. Move the starter of the electric motor very gradually while starting the pump. Department of Civil Engineering. Result Specific speed = Precautions 1. 3. 2.

according to the impulsemomentum equation. The net force acting on the fluid in a control volume is equal to the rate of change of momentum in that direction.P. The changes within the control volume need not be known. with an axial vertical rod which can move up and down. Vanes of different shapes can be used for the measurement of the force. the components of the force in x and y directions are: ' x  Q Vx 2  Vx 1  ' y  Q Vy 2  Vy 1 F F   Where suffixes 1 and 2 indicate the inlet and exit sections. The force components acting on the boundary are equal and opposite and are given by: F  Q Vx 1  Vx 2  F  Q Vx 1  Vx 2  x y The main advantage of the impulse-momentum equation over the energy equation is that only the flow conditions at the inlet and exit sections are required. For incompressible. through which a water jet emerges and strikes the vane.Experiment No . JUET Guna (M. Introduction Curved vanes are used in turbines. The water after striking the vane falls at the bottom of the cylinder and is collected in a measuring tank. A spring is fixed at the top of the vertical rod on which a loading pan is placed.) 43 . respectively. After the impact. the rod tends to move upward but the weights bring it downward. Experimental set-up The set-up consists of a transparent cylinder. A vertical scale is fixed to the top of the cylinder for setting back the rod to its original position. The force exerted by the jet on the vane can be measured by the weights placed on the loading pan to counteract the reaction of the jet. A vane is fixed at the lower end of the rod. A nozzle. and to verify the impulse momentum equation.12 IMPACT OF JET EXPERIMENT Objective To determine the force exerted by a jet of water on a stationary vane. steady flow. The water is supplied to the nozzle from a constant-head tank Department of Civil Engineering. is located just below the vane so that the jet strikes at the center of the vane. The force exerted by a jet of water on a vane is determined from the impulse-momentum equation.

2 Diameter of the nozzle. The vane coefficient (K) is equal to the ratio of the actual force to the theoretical force. Measure the angle θ of the vane. Fv  AV1  cosV or. Fix the vane at the bottom end of the vertical rod so that it is exactly above the nozzle and is symmetry. 2. (θ is usually greater than 90º) The net horizontal component of the force is zero in this case because of vertical symmetry of the vane. ρ is the mass density = 1000 kg/m3 A is the cross sectional of the jet V is the velocity of the jet θ is the angle by which the jet is deflected by the vane. Repeat steps 1 to 6 for another vane. 7. Take the initial reading of the water level in the measuring tank. 1 Vane No. 4. 3. Note the rise in the water level after a suitable time period for the measurement of discharge. JUET Guna (M. Observations and calculations Exit angles. 5. Also measure the exit diameter of the nozzle. B = ………………………… Area = ……………………… Department of Civil Engineering. Place the required weights on the pan to counteract the upward force due to impact of jet. 6. Procedure 1. Because of losses. Regulate the inlet valve of the supply pipe so that the jet issuing from the nozzle strikes the vane axially. D = A= Dimensions of the measuring tank. Close the inlet valve.Theory When a vertical jet with a velocity V strikes a symmetrical horizontal vane. the vertical components of the force on the vane is given by. Repeat steps 3 to 5 for different flow rates. L = …………………………. and start the stop watch. Fv  QV  V cos  or.P.) 44 . the actual force acting on the vane is less than the theoretical force. Fv  AV 2 1  cos   Where. Vane No.

2 = Precautions 1. The jet should strike at the center of the vane. Department of Civil Engineering. 1 = Vane No. Initi al level Discharge Measurement Final Rise in Volum Tim level level e e Q Applie d mass M (kg) Applied weight W (N) = Mg Theoretic al force (N) Vane coefficie nt (K) Vane No. The weights should be placed on the loading pan gently. The vertical rod should be set to the original position after every observation. 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 Vane No. 2. 4. 3. starting with smaller weight. No. JUET Guna (M.) 45 .P. Make the sure that the vanes are smooth and symmetrical.S. 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 Result Vane coefficients: Vane No.

gh12 gh22   q V2  V1  2 2 (2) Where. Hydraulic jump is a very useful means to dissipate the excess energy of flowing water which otherwise. The depths h2 and gh1 h1. Department of Civil Engineering. and surface undulations. 1. (2) and (3) and then solving for h2/h1. would cause damages downstream. eddy formation. (4) are known as conjugate or sequent depths. Consider the flow situation as shown in fig. This head loss hL may be calculated by using the energy equation.Experiment No .13 OPEN CHANNEL EXPERIMENT OBJECTIVE Verification of sequent depth ratio and relative energy loss in hydraulic jump for horizontal rectangular channel. Assuming the channel bed to be horizontal. A jump forms in a rectangular channel when eq. Because off eddies and flow decelerations that accompany the jump. as related by eq.) 46 . obtains the following Belanger’s equation:  h2 1   1  1  8 Fr21 h1 2 Fr1   (4) V1 is known as Froude number of the incoming flow at section 1. INTRODUCTION AND THEORY When supercritical flow changes to subcritical flow hydraulic jump forms which is accompanied by violent turbulence. one can write using the momentum equation.  is the mass density of water. Substituting the values of P1 and P2 for rectangular channel in eq.P. in which section 1 is in supercritical zone and section 2 is in subcritical zone. (4) is satisfied. Q is discharge and P represents the hydrostatic force per unit width of channel. From the continuity equation. air entrainment. (1). friction forces to be negligible and flow to be two dimensional. JUET Guna (M. P1  P2  qV2  V1  (1) Where. q = Q/B in which B is width of channel. considerable head loss occurs. (3) q  V2 h2  V1h Combining eqs.

so that there forms a stable hydraulic jump in the flume. JUET Guna (M. OBSERVATION Width of flume B = Exp No m Area of tank ‘A’ Height of water in tank ‘h’ Tim e ‘t’ Discharg e ‘Q’ (A x h)/t h1 v1 = h2 Q/(Bx h1) v2 = Q/(Bx h2) (m2) (m) (sec) (m3/s) (m) (m ) (m/s) (m/s) Frl E1 E2 (m ) (m) hj/E 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 Department of Civil Engineering.jump section (2).20 m wide. Measure the discharge by volumetric method. 2. PROCEDURE 1. Repeat steps (1) to (3) for other positions of valve. 4. a tail gate at the downstream end top rails for the movement of pointer gauge.  V2   V2  hL  E1  E2   h1  1    h2  2  2g   2g   From Eqs. 0. A sluice valve is provided near the outlet end of the supply pipe. h j = h2 – h 1. and 0.4 m deep having a sluice gate at the inlet end. Take the pointer gauge reading for the gate valves and water surface elevations at prejump section (1) and post . hL  (5) h2  h1 3 (6) 4h1h2 Height of jump hj is defined as the difference between the depths of flow after and before the jump. (2). (3) and (5). 3. Adjust the supply valve.P. EXPERIMENTAL SET UP It consists of a glass walled rectangular flume about 5 m long. sluice gate and tail gate.Thus.) 47 hL/ E1 . Sluice gate and the tail gate.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 1. Department of Civil Engineering. Note the scatter of the experimental data points from the standard curve as shown in fig. Take the pointer gauge reading accurately to avoid further error. JUET Guna (M. 2.) 48 . ensure that water level in the channel attains uniform flow with no surface rollers. Ensure that water level in the supply tank has become constant head at all opening of sluice gate during experimentation. Note the scatter of the observed data points.FIGURES TO BE PREPARED 1.P. 3. Plot h2/h 1 Vs Frl on a simple graph paper. Mark the data points of hL/El and for hj/El for various values of Frl. 2 and discuss with reason. Before taking the observation. On the same plot also draw the line represented by eq. if possible take average value by taking minimum two to three reading across the width of channel at a point. 2. (4).

At the leading edge. Thus.P. INTRODUCTION AND THEORY Because of viscous characteristics of a fluid flowing past a stationary body. u = 0. Consider a fluid flow past a flat plate which is placed parallel to the flow. JUET Guna (M. Thickness of this zone increases with increase in x. small values of x). AreaABC *  Uo Here. the fluid has a tendency to adhere to the body.Experiment No .e. This thin layer is called laminar sub layer. Two commonly used thicknesses are the nominal thickness and displacement thickness of the boundary layer.) 49 . Velocity distribution in the laminar boundary layer zone follows parabolic variation while in the turbulent boundary layer zone the velocity variation is logarithmic. at y = δ. there is a thin layer in the vicinity of the boundary within which has been affected because of the boundary and viscous effects. the flow within the boundary layer is. however. Here. x = 0. the velocity increases gradually. As a result ‘no slip’ condition prevails and the fluid at the boundary has zero velocity and away from the boundary. in the initial portion of the flat plate (i. Obviously. there exists a transition zone. In between the laminar boundary layer zone and turbulent boundary layer zone.e. the flow within the boundary layer is termed the laminar boundary layer. In other words. In the turbulent boundary layer zone. Displacement thickness. The nominal thickness of a boundary layer. the fluid does not move in parallel layers but moves in the way that the fluid particles have transverse motion as well) and accordingly. the boundary layer is called the turbulent boundary layer. area ABC represents the reduction in flow rate (per unit width of plate) due to the boundary effects. turbulent (i. u represents the velocity of flow at a distance y from the boundary and Uo is the free stream velocity.99 Uo. This thin layer is termed the boundary layer. the thickness of the boundary layer zone is zero. After some distance downstream of the leading edge. there still exists a very thin layer near the boundary in which the flow is laminar. Department of Civil Engineering.14 WIND TUNNEL EXPERIMENT OBJECT To study the boundary layer velocity profile and determine boundary layer thickness & displacement thickness.. Velocity variation in a turbulent boundary layer is often expressed as: u  y   Uo    n (1) In which n varies from 1/7 to 1/10. The extent of viscous effects near a boundary is measured in terms of boundary layer thickness. δ* is defined as the distance by which the boundary should be shifted so that the resulting volume of fluid flowing with uniform velocity distribution is the same as that of the actual flow. δ is defined as that value of y at which the velocity of flow is 99% of the free stream velocity. of the plate.

FIGURES TO BE PREPARED AND FURTHER CALCULATION Plot y v/s u (with u on x . Estimate the area ABC. Gi = ………………………………………………………. one may. Alternatively. the free stream velocity. Thus. desirable. Start the wind tunnel and let the Prandtl tube touch the bed of the plate. 2. place a metallic plate in the wind tunnel and measure the velocity profile near the downstream end of the plate. This value of y is the boundary layer thickness δ. d = ……………………………… Slope of the inclined manometer. Repeat step (3) till the centre of the tunnel is reached or when no change in manometer readings is observed for three different successive positions of the Prandtl tube. Thus. Conversion factor for converting manometer liquid head into equivalent air head.axis) on a simple graph paper. Fit-in a straight line to these plotted points. Mass density of air. Then.P. Find out the value of y at which u = 0. therefore.. Mass density of the manometer liquid. n = …………………………. δ * = Area ABC/Uo = …………………. 2. A longer test section will result in large thickness of the boundary layer and is. The slope of the line is the exponent in Eq. OBSERVATION AND COMPUTATIONS Diameter of Prandtl tube. a total head tube fitted to a pointer gauge and a pressure point on the tunnel bottom (to measure static pressure) may be used.). Instead of using lower wall of the wind tunnel as a flat plate.99 Uo. (1). Determine Uo i.e.. as marked in Fig. Department of Civil Engineering. sin θ = …………………. ρair = …………………………………. 3. alternatively. Using the value of Uo and δ complete the last two columns of the observations and computations sheet for y ≤ δ. A Prandtl tube fitted to a suitable manometer is provided at the downstream end of the test section for measuring the velocities at different points along a vertical. 4. Fit-in a smooth curve to the plotted data points.EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP It consists of a wind tunnel (open circuit type) having a test section of size 400 mm X 300 mm (approx. δ = …………………. Now plot u/Uo v/s y/ δ (with y/d on x-axis) on a log-log graph paper. PROCEDURE 1. on the plotted velocity profile.. This is the velocity profile. Raise the Prandtl tube by 1 to 2 mm and repeat step (2). C’= (ρm/ρair) = ……………………………………………… Intial reading of the pointer gauge when Prandtl tube touches the tunnel bottom or the plate. Take manometer readings h1 and h2. JUET Guna (M.) 50 . ρm = ……………….

) 51 . JUET Guna (M. Pointer Gauge reading. ∆h = + d/2 h1 h2 C’ (h1-h2) Xsin θ U= 2 g h u/Uo y/δ RESULTS AND COMMENTS Department of Civil Engineering. No.Gi Limb 1.P. Gf Manometer Readings Y= Gf .Sl. Limb 2.

. New Delhi. Geankoplis.P. N. S. “Laboratory work in Hydraulic Engineering”. New Age Publication. 2004. A. McCabe.. Ltd. “Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering” 6th Ed. Garde. and Mirajgaoker. 2004. R. Department of Civil Engineering. 2006. 4. 2001. M. Asawa. and Seth. Standard Book House. K.) 52 . C. Harriott. Biswas G. Nem Chand & Bros. McGraw-Hill International Edition. J.. G. 5. 1st Edition.. Modi. “Engineering Fluid Mechanics: Including Hydraulic Machines”. 3. 2002.. 6. Prentice Hall of India Pvt. J.REFERENCES 1. JUET Guna (M. “Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics Including Hydraulic Machines”. New Delhi. TMH. “Transport Processes and Unit Operations” 3rd Ed. 2. Roorkee. G. P. Smith... & Som S. “Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Machines”.L. 1983.