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Seminarski rad

Studentica: Anđela Aračić
Profesorica: Ivana Grbavac
Mostar, lipanj, 2016.


6 Hyponymy and hyperonymy………………………………………………. Synonymy and antonymy…………………………………………………………..10 Work cited…………………………………………………………………………………11 2 .10 Conclusion………………………………………………………………………….………8 Meronymy…………………………………………………………………………. 3. 4.CONTENT Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………….3 1. Homonymy and polysemy…………………………………………………………4 2. 5.

Lexical items participate in regular patterns of association with each other. In the narrow sense are semantic relations relations between concepts or meanings. [School] is a kind of [educational institution]. The semantics related to these categories then relate to each lexical item in the lexicon. while the relation between ‘school’ and ‘place for teaching’ is a relation between a word and an expression or phrase. be expressed by the terms or expressions ‘school’. The relation between ‘school’ and ‘schoolhouse’ is a (synonym) relation between two words. The units of analysis in lexical semantics are lexical units which include not only words but also sub-words or sub-units such as affixes and even compound words and phrases. which is one kind among a long range of kinds of semantic relations. 'School' also means [a group of people who share common 3 . the lexicon. The relations between words are termed lexical relations. ‘schoolhouse’ and ‘place for teaching’. form and meaning. Lexical items can also be semantically classified based on whether their meanings are derived from single lexical units or from their surrounding environment. This is referred to as syntax-semantic interface. Lexical items contain information about category (lexical and syntactic).Introduction Lexical semantics (also known as lexicosemantics). The concept [School] may. is a subfield of linguistic semantics. Lexical semantics looks at how the meaning of the lexical units correlates with the structure of the language or syntax. for example. Lexical units make up the catalogue of words in a language. This indicates a hierarchical (or generic) relationship between two concepts or meanings. The concept [school] should be distinguished from the word ‘school’.

Synonyms and homonyms are not relations between concepts. Other examples are bank. 4 . a school of thought]. There is no relation between them: (1) a. but are about concepts expressed with identical or with different signs. 1. Homonyms are the words that have same phonetic form (homophones) or orthographic form (homographs) but different unrelated meanings. homonyms etc. why synonyms. This is a homonym relation: Two senses share the same word or expression: ‘school’. expressions or signs that are used to express the concepts. however. There is no conceptual connection between its two meanings. words. These are two words that happen to share sound and spelling. Homonymy and polysemy The word Homonym has been derived from Greek term 'Homoios' which means identical and 'onoma' means name. Words like tale and tail are homonyms. A clear case of homonymy 1: The word down in sentence (1-a) and the word down in sentence (1-b). senses or meanings should not be confused with relations between the terms. It is. Fluke is a fish as well as a flatworm. as a verb means ‘to carry’ and as a noun it means ‘large animal’. For example the word ‘bear’. Sarah climbed down the ladder. are considered under the label "semantic relations" in in a broader meaning of this term. and so on. Homonymy is a relation that holds between two lexemes that have the same form but unrelated meanings. The ambiguous word whose different senses are far apart from each other and are not obviously related to each other in any way is called as Homonymy. So. an anchor. common to mix both of these kinds of relations under the heading "semantic relations". Relations between concepts.characteristics of outlook. An example of homonym which is both homophone and homograph is the word ‘fluke’.

b. For example. A polyseme the phenomenon of having or being open to several or many meanings. The tree’s bark was a rusty brown. Polysemy is used in semantics and lexical analysis to describe the word with multiple meanings. Sarah bought a down blanket. F. A clear case of homonymy 2: The word bark in sentence (2-a) and the word Bark in sentence (2-b). 2. while they originated as a single word derived from chess in the 14th century.R. check as in "bank check" (or Cheque). When a word has several very closely related senses or meanings. Crystal and Dick Hebdige (1979) also defined polysemy. (2) a. . Lexical ambiguity depends upon homonymy and polysemy. The difference between homonyms and polysemes is subtle. A well-known problem in semantics is how to decide whether we are dealing with a single polysemous word or with two or more homonyms. My dog would always bark at mailmen.Palmer concluded saying that finally multiplicity of meaning is a very general characteristic of language. numbering different meanings. while homonyms are treated in separate lemmata. For example. Semantic shift can separate a polysemous word into separate homonyms. foot in: . check in chess.She stood at the foot of the stairs. and check meaning "verification" are considered homonyms. 5 .b. Polysemous word is a word having two or more meanings.He hurt his foot. Lexicographers define polysemes within a single dictionary lemma.

John was a good man. b. but they help to make the point that the sense of a word does not depend entirely on its part of speech. even though some of these sense may be quite closely related. we distinguish between predicates by giving 6 . (4) a. (3) a. A clear case of polysemy 2: The word Good in the following two examples. in the other case it’s a judgement of skill. word forms). 4. for example between adjective and adjective. it’s obvious that the same word is used to refer to them both. b. The newspaper fired some of its editing staff. Example like these are not the kind usually given of synonymy. hide². Synonymy and antonymy The definition of synonymy as relationship between the senses of words requires a clear separation of all the different senses of a words. and the company didn’t get wet.e. as with hide¹. The newspaper got wet in the rain. and hide³. But the notion of synonymy can be extended to hold between words of different part of speech. each distinct sense of a word (of the kind we are dealing with) is a predicate. When necessary. All of the examples so far have been of synonymy between predicates realized grammatically by a word of the same part of speech. and not between words (i. He donated a lot of money to charity.A clear case of polysemy 1: The word Newpaper in the following sentences. Recall that a word may have many different senses. for example between the verb sleeping and the adjective asleep. Grammar and meaning are separate though closely of language. Still. Bill was a good painter. 2. In one case it’s a moral judgement. The object that got wet cannot fire people. Synonym is a relation between predicates. as with deep and profound. His drawings always were exciting to look at.

Binary antonymy Binary antonyms are predicates which come in pairs and between them exhaust all the relevant possibilities. than the other cannot be. woman.The thief tried to hide the evidence. girl can be placed appropriately in the following chart. as in let’s hide from Mummy. The sentence . as in Hide your sweeties under the pillow. make is clear that one is dealing with the predicate hide² (the transitive verb). It is because of the ambiguity of most words that we had formulate practice questions about synonym in terms of sentences. If it is false. Sometimes two different binary antonym can combine in a set of predicates to produce a fourway contrast. and vice versa. The first three senses here (the first three predicates) are clearly related to each other in meaning. and hide4 could be the noun. whereas the fourth is related. it cannot be false. as in We watched the bird from a hide. it cannot be true. for example. hide¹ could be the intransitive verb. as word may be opposite in meaning in different ways. Thick is not the opposite of thin in the same way as dead is the opposite of alive. and some words have no real opposites.them subscript number. Converses 7 . Hot is not the opposite of cold in the same way as borrow is the opposite of lend. as in The hide of an ox weighs 200 lbs. Basic types of antonymy: a. Example: true and false If a sentence is true. b. A traditional view of antonymy is that it is simply ‘oppositeness’ of meaning’. If the one predicate is applicable. For example. hide³ could be the noun. This view is not adequate. Hide² is a synonym of conceal. Example: The word man. hide² could be transitive verb.

the temperatures of stars. The definition can be naturally be extended to sentences. then the two predicates are converses of each other. Between hot and cold is a continuous scale of values. What is called hot in one context (e. or tepid. Example: this beetle is alive is contradictory of . Example: parent and child are converses.g.g.This beetle is dead. of even temperatures in a recipe book) could well be classed as cold in another context (e. Gradable Antonyms Two predicates are gradable antonyms if they are at opposite ends of a continuous scale of values (a scale which typically varies according to the context of use).If a predicates describes a relationship between two things (or people) and some other predicate describes the relationship when the two things (or people) are mentioned in the opposite order. which may be given names such as warm. Contradictories A proposition is a contradictory of another proposition if it is impossible for them both to be true at the same time and of the same circumstances. because X is the parent of Y (one order) describes the same situation (relationship) as Y is the child of X (opposite order). thus a sentences expressing one proposition is a contradictory of a sentence expressing another proposition if it is impossible for both propositions to be true at the same time and of the same circumstances. c. cool. Alternatively (and equivalently) a sentence contradicts another sentence if it entails the negation of the other sentence. Example: Hot and Cold are gradable antonyms. 8 .) d.

"2 "House is a hyponym of the subordinate building." 1 Frank Parker and Kathryn Riley. 2nd ed. The opposite of a hyponym is a hypernym. and dog is a hyponym of animal. Allyn and Bacon. Linguistics for Non-Linguists. structure is a hyponym of the subordinate thing. or piglet.') Thus. 2003 9 . A daffodil is a flower.3. there are a number of hyponyms for each subordinate. Hyponymy and hyperonymy In linguistics. For example."1 "Hyponymy is a less familiar term to most people than either synonymy or antonymy. oak is a hyponym of tree. For instance. a hyponym of the subordinate structure. it is not surprising that hyponymy is sometimes referred to as inclusion. or simply. 1994 2 David Crystal. It describes what happens when we say 'An X is a kind of Y'--A daffodil is a kind of flower. boar. A subordinate at a given level can itself be a hyponym at a higher level. Cambridge University Press. The subordinate is the included word and the hyponym is the including one. but it refers to a much more important sense relation. boar. the subordinate word pig is often used as part of the definition: 'A sow is an adult female pig. n general. (Note that in defining a word like sow. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language. and. and piglet 'contains' the meaning of the word pig. since the meaning of each of the three words sow. boar and piglet are also hyponyms of the subordinate pig. in its turn. a specific term used to designate a member of a class. but building is in turn.

A meronym denotes a constituent part of.3 5. B. These semantic relations can be analysed and described for the most part. (2001). June 2001. Meronymy is the opposite of holonymy. p. respectively. Among linguists. also .4. 10 . "wheels" is a meronym of "automobile". A closely related concept is that of mereology.Rosario. There are a lot of relations between the single words of a language and the meanings of these words. & Hearst. Meronymy Meronymy is a semantic relation used in linguistics.among experts.and especially . For example. A word denoting a subset of what another word denotes is a hyponym. In: Proceedings of Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing. "finger" is a meronym of "hand" because a finger is part of a hand. M. A meronym means part of a whole. or a member of something. the most important ones of these relations are to be presented. Similarly. 82-90. or “X” is a meronym of “Y” if Xs are members of Y. and in the following. In knowledge representation languages. which specifically deals with part/whole relations and is used in logic. these relations are called “semantic relations”. That is. that our mental vocabulary is highly organised. “X” is a meronym of “Y” if Xs are parts of Y. A meronymy can also be considered a partial order. Classifying the semantic relations in noun compounds via a domain-specific lexical hierarchy. Conclusion There is no doubt. Work cited 3 5. “sense relations” or “lexical relations”. It is formally expressed in terms of first-order logic. meronymy is often expressed as "part-of".

es/filologica/loebner- meaning. Bean.pdf 11 .1. A summary of “Meaning relations” (CH 5).. B. S.sims. H. June 2001. 2003 5. Green. Cambridge University Press. (2002).berkeley. 2nd ed. (2002). The semantics of relationships. An interdisciplinary perspective. R. Rosario. A. In: Proceedings of Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing. (2001). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language. C. & Hearst. p. S. David Crystal. IN: Understanding Semantics. Löbner. 82-90. Allyn and Bacon. Classifying the semantic relations in noun compounds via a domain-specific lexical hierarchy. (Eds. http://bailando. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.).pdf 3. Linguistics for Non-Linguists. London: Arnold Publishers. & Myaeng.lycos. 2. Frank Parker and Kathryn Riley. http://usuarios. 1994 4.