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Foliation and lineation

Goal: To interpret some common types of foliation and lineation in
deformed rocks.
Part-I foliation
Foliation: “Any mesoscopically penetrative subparallel alignment of planar
fabric elements in a rock”. — Expand on “fabric elements”, “mesoscopic”,
and “penetrative”
 Typically forms in metamorphic rocks

Combines mineral “Shape-preferred orientation” and compositional

A. Nomenclature — S0 = bedding, S1 = first foliation, S2 = second
B. Continuous foliations: Will work from “low-grade” to “high-grade” —
Expand on “high-grade” and “low-grade”
1. Slaty cleavage: Low-grade (lower- to middle-greenschist facies),
microscopically penetrative foliation that causes rocks to split into
slabs along “cleavage” planes. — Expand on why I don’t like
“cleavage”. Hard to define, confuses rocks with minerals. Entrenched
in literature.
a) Hand-specimen description (not shiney) — pass around
b) Micro-scale description
 M-domains and Q-F-domains at micro-scale

)  Metamorphic reactions play an important role in growing aligned minerals 4.. ect. still cannot make out individual mineral grains with naked eye. Pass around example upper-greenschist-facies conditions).  May contain large metamorphic minerals ( coarsegrained minerals accompanied by compositional banding. Schistose foliation: Penetrative foliation in which individual mineral grains are visible. Alsilicates. not fully understood  Pre-existing sedimentary  Metamorphic/igneous segregation C. Hand-specimen description: Shiney. Discontinuous foliations (Disjunctive foliations): Mesoscopically visible.. Gneissic foliation: Shape-preferred alignment of medium. (middleamphibolite facies to granulite facies) Requires compositional segregation. unfoliated domains between individual foliation surfaces. (upper-greenschist facies to lower-amphibolite facies)  May also be able to see M-domains and Q-F-domains with naked eye. Roles of pressure-solution/reprecipitation and rotation in forming slaty cleavage — Enormous volume loss in slates 2. . Phyllitic cleavage/foliation (in book): Higher-grade version of slate (middle. staurolite.

Mineral lineations: Preferred alignment of tabular or acicular (needleor splinter-shaped) mineral grains. Crenulation cleavage: Forms by mm. Rodded quartz: Quartz grains that have been elongated into rod or blade shapes. Elongated clasts: Can include cobbles. fracture-like partings that are often occupied by clay minerals or carbonaceous material (graphite). Generally weak deformation at low-grades. Spaced cleavage: Array of anastomosing. Not always a true elongation lineation!!! 2. Nomenclature — L1 = first lineation. Elongation lineations: Always in the plane of foliation.. 1. pressure solution preferentially removes Q-F-domains in limbs of these folds. concentrated M-domains. Part-II lineation Lineation: Subparallel alignment of elongate. 3. . pebbles. Significant in that it marks a second phase of deformation with different stress-axes!! As pre-existing foliation is rotated into the limbs of micro-folds. L2 = second lineation. linear fabric elements in a deformed rock. sand grains. breccia clasts. leaving new. A. 2. B. Define one of the principal axes along which the rock was “stretched”.to cm-scale folding of a preexisting continuous foliation. ect...1.

. Mullion structure: Also forms due to competency contrast. Very low wave-length folds with “mullion” pointing outwards towards less competent layer.g. Stronger layer is pulled apart into sausage-shaped pods.. Intersection lineations: Form due to the intersection of two planar fabric elements (e. S0 and S1..). Boudinage: Forms due to competency contrast between two layers. . Give direction of fault slip..C. 3. Fold hinge lines: Lines of maximum curvature on folded surface 4. Nomenclature — L0x1 = S0 crossed by S1. Slickenlines: Grooves or fibers that form on a fault surface. S1 and S2. 2.. L1x2 = S1 crossed by S2.. Other linear elements 1. D.