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# Design of Partition

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Enclosures and Barriers

the sound power flowing into the receiving room Π12 = I1W Apτ p12 c Π12 = Apτ 2 ρ 0c 4 Transmission coefficient τ = IT Ii . Source room For steady state in receiver room Receiving room R S Π12 = Π 21 + Π a пa Power incident on source side of partition = I1W Ap Where I1w is sound intensity on source side and Ap is area of surface of partition п12 п21 I1W П12=Sound power entering the receiving room П12=Sound power entering the source room Dc = 1 4 p12 D1 = ρ 0c 2 D1: sound energy density in source room p1: rms sound pressure in source room Thus.Design of Full Partition Objective is to reduce sound transmission from a noise source in a reverberant or semi reverberant room that contains the source.

The power flowing into source room: p22 c Π 21 = Aτ ρ 0c 2 4 p Sound power absorbed in the receiving room = (I 2W Ac )α Π a = D2 c Acα 4 Ac: Surface area of walls of the receiver cabin p22 c Πa = Aα ρ 0c 2 4 c Π12 = Π 21 + Π a p12 c Π12 = Apτ 2 ρ 0c 4 p22 c Π 21 = Apτ 2 ρ 0c 4 p12 c p22 c p22 c Apτ = Apτ + Acα 2 2 2 ρ 0c 4 ρ 0c 4 ρ 0c 4 p12 = p22 + p22 p22 c Πa = Acα 2 ρ 0c 4 p12 Apτ = p22 Apτ + p22 Acα Acα Apτ .

etc.⎡ Acα ⎤ p = p ⎢1 + ⎥ A τ ⎢⎣ p ⎥ ⎦ 2 1 2 2 ⎡ Apτ + Acα ⎤ ⎛ 1 ⎞ Lp1 = Lp 2 + 10log10 ⎜ ⎟ + 10log10 ⎢ ⎥ A ⎝ τ ⎠ ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ p ⎡ Apτ + Acα ⎤ Lp1 − Lp 2 = TL + 10log10 ⎢ ⎥ A ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ p ⎡ Apτ + Acα ⎤ Noise Reduction (NR) = Lp1 − Lp 2 = TL + 10log10 ⎢ ⎥ A ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ p NR: not only function of TL of partition. due to flanking transmission via mechanical connections and air leaks. Hence. but also of the absorption in the receiving cabin. the NR is generally less (for the partition with small TL & low absorption coefficients) than the TL of partition material. Generally the NR is lower by a few dB than the value predicted by NR equation mentioned above. .

α for concrete: 0.02. instead of concrete walls such that α=0. and TL for laminated glass=35dB. then the NR improves from 28dB to 35. .4 dB. the NR is found to be 28dB (which is less than the TL of the partition) If the receiver room is treated with hard board.α for hard board: 0. This shows that the treatment of the receiving room is important and plays important role than only the TL character of the partition material. TL for laminated glass=35dB.1 rather than 0. ⎡ Apτ + Acα ⎤ Noise Reduction (NR) = Lp1 − Lp 2 = TL + 10log10 ⎢ ⎥ A ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ p Using α for concrete.02.1.

a)  Transmission loss of enclosure material.5m away from the major radiating surface. c)  Presence of air gaps and leakage With careful design and construction. When an enclosure is put around the source. Hence. the enclosure can attenuate noise up to 40-50dB.Acoustic Enclosure Enclosures do not eliminate or reduce source of noise. . They only constrain it. the treatment of enclosure design is fairly simple. its performance is restricted by 3 factors. If the enclosure surface is at least 0. b)  Isolation of vibration from source to enclosure structure. should be used as last resort.

An enclosure increases noise level within itself by establishing an internal reverberant field. The sound pressure level at any arbitrary point inside an enclosure ⎡ Qθ 4 ⎤ LP1 = LΠ + 10log10 ⎢ + ⎥ 2 RE ⎦ ⎣ 4π r The power flowing through the walls: Π IE = IWIE AIE Dc Π IE = AIE 42 p Π IE = 1 AIE 4 ρ0 c AIEα RE = 1− α Room constant of enclosure A1E =Internal area of the enclosure including surface area of source Lp1 Iw=Dc/4 (Dc/4)A1Eτ The power flowing out of the enclosure ΠOE = τΠ IE ΠOE p12 =τ AIE 4 ρ0 c τ =Transmission coefficient of enclosure walls LΠOE = Lp1 + 10log10 ( A1E ) − TL − 6 .

Π OE LΠOE 4π r 2 = Iθ Qθ ⎛ Q ⎞ = Lp2 − 10log10 ⎜ θ 2 ⎟ ⎝ 4π r ⎠ Iθ r Qθ = I sr Π = I sr 4π r 2 ⎛ Q ⎞ Lp2 = LΠOE + 10log10 ⎜ θ 2 ⎟ ⎝ 4π r ⎠ .If we consider the power radiated by enclosure ΠOE = I OE AOE ΠOE 2 pOE = AOE ρ 0c Lp1 Iw=Dc/4 (Dc/4)A1Eτ LΠOE = LpOE + 10log10 ( AOE ) If пOE is power radiated and p2 is pressure at any distance r. Lp2 is SPL at distance r.

2 # Q & L!p = LΠ +10log10 % θ 2 ( 2 \$ 4π r ' Lp2 = LΠOE ⎛ Qθ ⎞ + 10log10 ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ 4π r ⎠ IL = L!p − Lp 2 r 2 \$ Q ' IL = LΠ +10log10 & θ 2 ) % 4π r ( \$ Q ' − LΠOE −10log10 & θ 2 ) % 4π r ( Lp 2 Lp1 r IL = LΠ − LΠOE ⎡ Qθ 4 ⎤ IL = LP1 − 10log10 ⎢ + ⎥ − ( Lp1 + 10log10 AE − TL − 6 ) 2 RE ⎦ ⎣ 4π r .L!p SPL without enclosure at a point at distance r from the source.

L!p 2 r Insertion Loss ⎡ Qθ 4 ⎤ IL = TL + 6 − 10log10 AE − 10log10 ⎢ + ⎥ 2 RE ⎦ ⎣ 4π r Lp 2 Lp1 r Noise Reduction: NR = Lp − Lp 2 1 .

Design of Barriers .

Design of Barrier r1 r " Q 4% θ LP 0 = LΠ +10log10 \$ + ' 2 # 4π r R & r3 r2 r4 SPL Without barrier (where p0 is the pressure without barrier at receiver) Sum of refracted sound pressure from barrier edges = (pr)2 Due to average reverberant field in the room= (pb)2 p22 = pb2 + pr2 Lp2 = L pb + L pr Insertion loss due to barrier = Lp0 .Lp2 Assumption: presence of barrier does not change the existing reverberant field .

p 2 4Π For reverberant field = ρ 0c R Pressure due to only reverberant field 4Π p = ρ 0c R 2 r r1 r3 r2 r4 I p2 4Π ξ ( ∞) = = = c ρ 0c 2 ( Aα ) c .

According to Fresnel diffraction theory. pressure due to direct field assuming no barrier . Mean square pressure in the diffracted field is given by: n ⎛ ⎞ 1 p = p ∑ ⎜ ⎟ 3 + 10 N i =1 ⎝ i ⎠ 2 b2 Fresnel Number Where Ni = pd20 2δ i λ 2 d0 δi = (r1 + r2 ) − (r3 + r4 ) is the mean sq. only that portion of wave field from the sound source that is incident on the edges of barrier contributes to the wave field that is diffracted over the barrier.r2 r1 r3 r4 Barrier performance depends on Fresnel diffraction at barriers.

Qθ Π p = ρ 0c 2 4π r 2 d0 n ⎛ ⎞ Q Π 1 2 θ pb2 = ρ0c∑ ⎜ ⎟ 2 4π r 3 + 10 N i =1 ⎝ i ⎠ n ⎛ ⎞ 1 QB Π Q = Q ⎟ θ ∑ ⎜ p = ρ 0c where B 2 3 + 10 N i =1 ⎝ i ⎠ 4π r 2 b2 p22 = QB Π 4Π ρ c + ρ 0c 0 2 4π r R 4 ⎞ ⎛ QB Lp2 = LΠ + 10log10 ⎜ + ⎟ 2 R ⎠ ⎝ 4π r 4 ⎞ ⎛ Qθ LP0 = LΠ + 10log10 ⎜ + ⎟ 2 R ⎠ ⎝ 4π r 4 ⎞ 4 ⎞ ⎛ Q ⎛ Q IL = LP0 − Lp2 = 10log10 ⎜ θ 2 + ⎟ − 10log10 ⎜ B 2 + ⎟ R ⎠ R ⎠ ⎝ 4π r ⎝ 4π r .

For free field ⎛ Qθ ⎞ IL = 10log10 ⎜ ⎟ Q ⎝ B ⎠ n ⎛ ⎞ 1 IL = −10log10 ∑ ⎜ ⎟ 3 + 10 N i =1 ⎝ i ⎠ Simplified expression for semi infinite barrier in free field environment a S R b H D R ⎛ ⎜ λ IL = −10log10 ⎜ 2 H ⎜⎜ 3λ + 10 R ⎝ D>>R>>H H2 δ≈ 2R ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟⎟ ⎠ .