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Ultrasonic Machining

USM process
USM mechanism
USM machine

Ultrasonic Machining

In USM, material is removed by micro-chipping or erosion with abrasive


particles.
Between the tool and workpiece, the machining zone is flooded with hard
abrasive particles generally in the form of a water based slurry.

Tool is oscillated at a frequency of >20 kHz with an amplitude of about 1050m.


Tool forces the abrasive grits to impact normally and successively on the work
surface, thereby machining the work surface.
Non Traditional Manufacturing Processes
(NITJSR PR504)

Material Removal
Material removing is possible by:
Hammering of abrasive grains
Throwing of abrasive grains
Cavitations in the fluid medium arising out of ultrasonic vibration of tool.
Chemical erosion due to micro agitation

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Material Removal by Impact Erosion


(dg = grit dia)

No. of impacts per cycle

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Material Removal: Generalized Expression

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Material Removal: Hammering

In the machining process, tool impacts on the largest grits Grits forced
into tool and workpiece Hertzian contact stresses go beyond Flow stress
of the w/p material Cracks initiation just below contact site.
As indentation progresses cracks propagate due to increase in stress.
Ultimately lead to brittle fracture of the work material under each individual
interaction site.
As the tool moves further down, more grits with smaller sizes come in
contact with the tool.
Eventually, the tool comes to the end of its strike, the number of grits under
impact force from both tool and workpiece becomes maximum.
When the grit size is close to the mean position, the tool hits the grit with its
Tool
highest speed.
V=0
Smaller the grit size, the lesser the momentum
a V=V
a0=a/2
max
it receives from the tool.
V=0
Therefore, there is an effective speed zone
Work
for the tool and, correspondingly, there is an
effective size range for the grits.
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Material Removal: Grain Throwing


Displacement of the tool:

(for grit)

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Material Removal: Grain Throwing

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Material Removal: Hammering


t

= t +w

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Material Removal: Hammering


t

= t +w

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Material Removal: Hammering


/a0 = / (T/4) = T(t +w)/4.a0

Fmax

Total impulse by the Tool It = n.f.Fmax.,


where Fmax is the maximum indentation
force per abrasive.

T/4

since the tool is fed with an average force F, and during machining the
impulse of force on the tool & work would be balanced,
F = n.f.Fmax. = n.f.Fmax T(t +w)/4.a0
The strength of work material = w

Fmax = .r2. w

F = .r2. w. n. f. T(t +w)/4.a0


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Material Removal: Hammering


Identical grits of average grit diameter = dg

With local spherical bulges of diameter db = .dg


In brittle fracture the volume of material removed per
indentation = b = 2/3.r3 = 2/3 .(db.w)3/2 (r2 = db.w)

MRR = b .n.f = 2/3 .(db.w)3/2 .n.f


frequency)

(n= Avg. no. of grits, f= indentation

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Material Removal: Hammering


Tool & Work pressing each other against grits will deform inversely proportional
to their strength t/W = w/t =
Total depth of indentation = t + W
Given: Volumetric Concentration of grits in slurry = C
Area of Tool = A
Spacing between tool & work when they are pressing against grits dg

Volume of Grits = A.dg.C = n. /6dg3


n = 6AC/.dg2

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Material Removal: Hammering


F = .r2. w. n. f. T(t +w)/4.a0
Substituting values of db, n, & t /w =

F = (3AC/ 4a0 ). ,w.w2(1+ )

{f.T = 1, db =dg }

w = {(4a0.F)/ (3A.C. ,w.(1+ ))}1/2

MRR = bn.f = 2/3 .(db.w)3/2 .n.f


= 4A.C.dg.3/2.f. { (4a0F)/(3.A.C.w(1+)}3/4
MRR dg. f (C1/4.A1/4.F3/4.a03/4. 3/4)/ {w3/4(1+)3/4}
For tool pressure p, F =A.p

MRR dg. f (C1/4.A.p3/4.a03/4. 3/4)/ {w3/4(1+)3/4}

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Process Parameters and their Effects


1. Amplitude of vibration ( 15 to 50 microns)
2. Frequency of vibration ( 19 to 25 kHz).
3. Feed force
4. Flow strength of the work material
5. Flow strength of the tool material
6. Contact area of the tool
7. Volume concentration of abrasive in slurry
8. Tool: a. Material of tool
b. Shape
c. Strength developed in tool
9. Work material: a. Impact strength
b. Surface fatigue strength
10. Slurry: a. Abrasive hardness, size, shape and quantity of abrasive flow
b. Liquid Chemical property, viscosity, flow rate
c. Pressure
d. Density
Non Traditional Manufacturing Processes
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Ultrasonic Machining

Since this method is non-thermal, non-electrical, and non-chemical, it produces


virtually stress-free shapes even in hard and brittle work-pieces.
Ceramics, jewels and semi jewels, graphite, glass, Semi finished materials,
Hardened and thermal resistant materials
Aluminum oxides, silicon, silicon carbide, silicon nitride, glass, quartz,
sapphire, ferrite, fiber optics

The tool does not exert any pressure on the work-piece (drilling without drills),
and is often made from a softer material than the work-piece, say from brass,
cold-rolled steel, or stainless steel and wears only slightly.

Abrasive materials: Al203, SiC, B4C, Boron silicarbide, Diamond

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Hardness

It is defined as resistance to permanent indentation


Good hardness generally means material is resistant to scratching and wear
Most tooling used in manufacturing must be hard for scratch and wear
resistance

Common Hardness Tests


Brinell
Rockwell
Vickers
Knoop

Hardness Testing Methods: Comparison

Hardness Testers

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Ultrasonic Machine Sub-systems

Transducer, which generates ultrasonic vibration

Horn, which mechanically amplifies the vibration to required amplitude of 15


50 m and holds the tool at its tip

Slurry delivery and return system

Feed mechanism to provide a downward feed to the tool during machining


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Ultrasonic Machine Sub-systems

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Abrasive Slurry
1. Aluminum oxide: Best for glass, ceramics & germanium
2. Boron carbide: Expensive but best suited for cutting WC, tool steel &
precious stones

3. Silicon Carbide: Finds maximum applications due to its hardness and life
4. Diamond dust: machining diamond, Ruby etc.
Abrasive size: 200-2000grit.

Surface roughness: 280 grit- > Ra=0.5micron


800 grit -> Ra = 0.2 micron
Water based slurry mostly used.

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Transducer
Piezoelectric transducers:
Quartz, Lead zirconate titanate (Pb[ZrxTi1x]O3 with 0 x 1, Lead titanate
(PbTiO3), Barium titanate (BaTiO3), Potassium niobate (KNbO3), Sodium
tungstate (Na2WO3), Sucrose (table sugar), Zinc oxide (ZnO)Wurtzite
structure
Load

Conversion efficiency can be as high as 95%


Difficult to manufacture large crystals

Field

Load
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Transducer
Magneto-strictive transducer:
Nickel, Iron, Cobalt, Terfenol-D ( TbxDy1-xFe2), Galfenol
Low conversion efficiency (about 30-40%)
Measures are required to minimize eddy current

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Concentrator/ Horn

Vibration propagation
& Amplification

Materials for horn: Good acoustic property,


Highly resistance to fatigue cracking
Monel, Titanium, Stainless steel

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Feed Mechanism

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Tool

High dynamic fatigue strength


Low acoustic loss
Resistance to cavitation erosion
Chemical inertness

Suitable materials which fit the above are:


Titanium Alloy
Aluminium
Aluminium Bronze
Stainless Steel

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Process capabilities

Can Machine work piece harder than 40 HRC to 60 HRC like carbides,
ceramics, tungsten glass that cannot be machined by conventional methods
Tolerance range 7 micron to 25 microns
Aspect ratio 40:1
Linear material removal rate 0.025 to 25mm/min
Surface finish -0.25 micron to 0.75 micron
Non directional surface texture is possible compared to conventional grinding
Radial over cut may be as low as 1.5 to 4 times the mean abrasive grain size.

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Applications

Machining of cavities, holes and surface impressions in electrically nonconductive, hard, brittle metallic alloys, semiconductors, glass, ceramics,
carbides etc.
Operations like drilling, grinding and milling operations on all materials
which can be treated suitably with abrasives.
Machine fragile components in which otherwise the scrap rate is high
Machining/ piercing of dies for wire drawing, punching and blanking
operations
Drilling/ scaling of teeth

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Advantages & Limitations


Advantages:
It can be used machine hard, brittle, fragile and non conductive material
No heat is generated in work, therefore no significant changes in physical
structure of work material.
No residual thermal/mechanical stress.
Non-metals that cannot be machined by EDM and ECM can very well be
machined by USM.
It is burr less and distortion less processes.
It can be adopted in conjunction with other new technologies like EDM, ECG,
ECM.
Limitations:
Low MRR
Relatively higher tool wear rate.
Machining area and depth are quite restricted.
Ineffective for machining of soft materials.
Non Traditional Manufacturing Processes
(NITJSR PR504)

Glass is being machined at a MRR of 6 mm3/min by Al2O3 abrasive grits


having a grit dia of 150 m. If 100 m grits were used, what would be the
MRR?
MRR dg. f (C1/4.A1/4.F3/4.a03/4. 3/4)/ {w3/4(1+)3/4}

MRR1/MRR2 = dg1/dg2
New MRR = 4 mm3/min

For the above problem, from the initial setting the frequency is increased
from 20 kHz to 25 kHz. Determine new MRR.

MRRnew = MRRold x fnew/fold = 7.5 mm3/min

For the first problem, the feed force is increased by 50% along with a
reduction in concentration by 70%. What would be the effect on MRR?

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A student calculates the material removal rate in USM to be 5 mm3/min for a


particular case where c = 0.65. However, when he does the experiment for the
same case, he finds that due to settling down of abrasives at the bottom of the
tank, the concentration reduces with time as per the relation c(t)= c 0e-0.01t
If starting concentration at t = 0 is 0.65, find the total material removal in the
experiment in the first minute.
Where c is constant with time, 5/60 = K. (0.65)1/4
K = 5/ (60 x 0.651/4)

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