# Algebra of Block Diagrams on SDomain

• Block Diagram • Block Diagram Reduction • Block Diagram of Feedback Systems • Block Diagrams of Physical Systems

Block Diagram
Block diagram can be drawn by assembling 1) Laplace transforms of signals; 2) Transfer functions blocks; 3) Specified signal relations. The following elements and relations are defined to be used in a block diagram: a) signals in s-domain (Laplace transform); b) transfer function block of a plant or dynamic process; c) and d) signal relations: c) algebraic signal relation (addition and/or subtraction) multi-in single-out (MISO) d) split of signals (branch point) single-in multi-out (SIMO) Attention: a) (signals) and b) (transfer function blocks) can never be separated in a block diagram.

Block Diagram

Note: 1. a) and b) are equivalent in terms of R(s)-C(s) relation but not in terms of internal structure. 2. Signal flows only in the arrowed direction.

Block Diagram
Parallel transfer function blocks

Note: 1. a) and b) are equivalent in terms of R(s)-C(s) relation but not in terms of internal structure. 2. Signal flows only in the arrowed direction.

Block Diagram
Feedback (control) system: G1(s)=1 G(s)=G2(s)G3(s), H(s)=H1(s)H2(s), Negative feedback: E(s)=R(s)-H(s)C(s) Positive feedback: E(s)=R(s)+H(s)C(s) Derivation of c) (negative feedback case): E(s)=R(s)-H(s)C(s) C(s)=G(s)E(s)=G(s)[R(s)-H(s)C(s)] =G(s)R(s)-G(s)H(s)C(s) C(s)/R(s)=G(s)/[1+G(s)H(s)] or C(s)/R(s)=G(s)/[1-G(s)H(s)] (positive feedback) Note: 1. a) and b) are equivalent in terms of R(s)-C(s) relation but not in terms of internal structure. 2. Signal flows only in the arrowed direction.

Block Diagram
Moving a summing junction: a). Forward: C(s)=G(s)[R(s)+/-X(s)] =G(s)R(s)+/-G(s)X(s)

b). Backward: C(s)=G(s)R(s)+/-X(s) =G(s)[R(s)+X(s)/G(s)]

Note: Equivalence has to be achieved for before-after moving.

Block Diagram
Moving a branch point: a). Forward: C1(s)= G(s)R(s) C2(s)=R(s)=G(s) R(s)/G(s) C3(s)=R(s)=G(s) R(s)/G(s)

b). Backward: C1(s)=C2(s)=C3(s)=G(s)R(s)

Note: Equivalence has to be achieved for before-after moving

Block Diagram Reduction
Example 1:

Combine three summing junctions into one

Negative feedback system reduction Note: there are other approaches to reduce this block diagram.

Block Diagram Reduction
Example 2:

Moving the branch point forward and negative feedback system reduction Moving summing junction backward, cascade and parallel block reduction

Negative feedback system reduction Cascade block reduction

Block Diagram of Feedback Systems
In general, a negative feedback single-input single-output (SISO) (control) system can be configured as in the following diagram:

Following terms are defined for signals in this feedback system: Reference input signal-----R(s) Output signal-----------------C(s) Feedback signal-------------H(s)C(s) Error Signal-------------------E(s)=R(s)-H(s)C(s)

Block Diagram of Feedback Systems
Following terms are defined for transfer functions in this feedback system: Forward transfer function---------------------Gforward(s)=G(s) Feedback transfer function-------------------Gfeedback(s)=H(s) Loop gain/Open-loop transfer function----Go(s)=Gforward(s)Gfeedback(s)= G(s)H(s) Closed-loop transfer function----------------Gc(s)=G(s)/[1+G(s)H(s)] Note that: based on the definitions above, we have

Or

Block Diagram of Feedback Systems
We could also have a feedback system subject to external disturbance signal as depicted in the following figure:

In this feedback system, two closed-loop transfer functions are meaningful:

Block Diagram of Feedback Systems
Note that if R(s)=0, we have the following feedback system with the input is the disturbance signal and G1(s) is now located in feedback channel. Please also note that in this case, we still have the negative feedback.

D(s)

+ G1(s)

G2(s) H(s)

C(s)

Block Diagrams of Physical Systems
Example 1:

Laplace transformed equations are

The equations above can be re-organized into:

Block Diagrams of Physical Systems
K1 fv1 F(s) + 1/M1 fv3 K2 + + 1/M2 fv2 K2 1/s sX2(s) 1/s 1/s + + X2(s) sX1(s) 1/s X1(s)

- -

Block Diagrams of Physical Systems
Example 2:

Block Diagrams of Physical Systems
Note that:

Ea(s) + -

Ia(s) 1/(Ra+sLa) Kt

Tm(s) 1/(sJm+Dm) 1/s

Kb

Block Diagrams of Physical Systems
If disturbance torque (for example, an external drifting torque) on the motor-load shaft is considered, then the torque equation becomes:

Accordingly, the transfer function block diagram becomes:

TD(s) Ea(s) + Ia(s) 1/(Ra+sLa) Tm(s) + +

Kt

1/(sJm+Dm)

1/s

Kb