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• Stability of Dynamic Systems • Routh-Hurwitz Criterion • Stability in State Space

**Stability of Dynamic Systems
**

Poles of closed-loop transfer function determine the trend of the response: a. stable system; p1=-2.672 p2=-0.164+j1.047 p3=-0.164-j1.047 b. unstable system p1=-3.087 p2=0.0434+j1.505 p3=0.0434-j1.505

**Stability of Dynamic Systems
**

R(s) Transfer function G(s)=Stable? Y(s)

Definition of Stability--- Transfer Function G(s): Given a transfer function G(s), factorize it into the expression of zeros and poles:

where B(s) and A(s) are polynomials in the orders of m and n, respectively. G(s) is called stable if Re{ pj} < 0, j = 0,…,n G(s) is called unstable if there is a j (0<= j <= n ) such that Re { pj } > 0. In the case that Re { pj } = 0, we say the system is critical as this reflects persistent oscillation(s) or a constant term in the system response y(t).

**Stability of Dynamic Systems
**

Other interpretation of stability: Response based: R(s) Transfer function G(s)=Stable? Y(s)

=Natural Response + Forced Response G(s) is stable if the natural response approaches 0 as t approaches infinity; G(s) is unstable if the natural response grows without bound as t approaches infinity; G(s) is critical if the natural response remains as constant or as persistent oscillation as t approaches infinity.

**Stability of Dynamic Systems
**

Signal based: Y(s)

R(s)

Transfer function G(s)=Stable?

G(s) is stable if every bounded input yields a bounded output:

**Stability of Dynamic Systems
**

Stability of Feedback System:

This feedback system is stable if the closed-loop transfer function from R(s) to C(s) is stable. Note that the closed-loop system could be stable even if the open-loop system G(s)H(s) is unstable.

**Routh-Hurwitz Criterion
**

Consider a polynomial equation:

Routh-Hurwitz criterion establishes relation between the coefficients of the polynomial and the location of roots ri with respect to the imaginary axis on the complex plane: Routh-Hurwitz Criterion (No need to solve the Polynomial equation) General procedures to apply Routh-Hurwitz Criterion: 1. Form a Routh Array, 2. Check the number of sign changes in the first column of Routh Array, 3. The number of sign changes in the first column=the number of roots in the right-half complex plane.

**Routh-Hurwitz Criterion
**

Forming a Routh Array (Example): A(s)=a4s4+a3s3+a2s2+a1s+a0=0

**Routh-Hurwitz Criterion
**

Case 1 (Standard): Routh Array: s4 s3 s2 1 2

(2x3-1x4)/2=1

=0 3 4 (2x5-1x0)/2=5 (1x0-2x0)/1=0 5 0 0 0 0

s1 (1x4-2x5)/1=-6

s0 (-6x5-1x0)/(-6)=5 (-6x0-1x0)(-6)=0 Stop Number of sign changes in the first column: 2 two roots in the right-half complex plane.

Indicate that A(s)=0 has

**Routh-Hurwitz Criterion
**

Case 2 ( 0 in the first column only): A(s)= s5+2s4+3s3+6s2+5s+3=0 Routh Array:

Number of sign changes in the first column: 2 two roots in the right-half complex plane.

Indicate that A(s)=0 has

**Routh-Hurwitz Criterion
**

Case 3 (Entire Row is 0): A(s)=s5+7s4+6s3+42s2+8s+56=0

0 in the entire row of s3 --------An auxiliary equation is needed using the row of s4 : and dP(s)/ds=4s3+12s+0 P(s)=s4+6s2+8=0 Four roots are solved from this equation New coefficients for s3-row No sign change in the first column Indicate that there is no root in The righthalf complex plane. However, P(s)=0 is an even equation so all roots of it should be Symmetrical about the origin. Therefore, P(s)=0 has four pure imaginary roots.

**Routh-Hurwitz Criterion
**

Applying Routh-Hurwitz Criterion to Stability Check for Dynamic Systems 1. Transfer Function:

Stability Check: where are the roots of A(s)=a4s4+a3s3+a2s2+a1s+a0=0 Therefore, the conclusion is: If there is any sign change in the first column of the Routh Array of A(s), then this transfer function is not stable ! Note that the stability check using Routh-Hurwitz Criterion only needs the coefficients of the denominator of a transfer function. No need to solve the denominator polynomial equation itself.

**Routh-Hurwitz Criterion
**

2. Feedback System: Original Feedback System

Equivalent closed-loop Transfer function

Routh Array of the Denominator polynomial Conclusion: as there are two sign Changes in the first column, this feedback system is not stable and has two closed-loop poles in the right-half complex plane.

**Routh-Hurwitz Criterion
**

Example: For the feedback system shown in the following figure, find the range of K such that the closed-loop system is stable.

Solution: Note that the closed-loop transfer function is G(s)=K/(s3+18s2+77s+K) The denominator polynomial equation is A(s)=s3+18s2 +77s+K=0

s3 s2 s s0

1 18

(1386-K)/18

77 K 0 0

In order for the closed-loop system to be stable, we need: 1386-K > 0, and K > 0 Therefore, for 0 < K <1386, this feedback system is stable.

K

**Stability in State Space
**

Recall the relation between the transfer function model and state-space model G(s)

r(t)=u(t)

c(t)=y(t)

with zero initial value: x(0)=0

**Stability in State Space
**

Important fact: = Eigenvalues of A = Poles of G(s) Eigenvalues of A or poles of G(s) can be solved from = Therefore, the stability in state space can be defined as: A linear time-invariant system with a state-space model is stable if all eigenvalues of A lie in the left-half complex plane, or all roots of det(sI-A)=0 are in the left-half complex plane. Clearly, Routh-Hurwitz Criterion can be applied to the characteristic equation det(sI-A)=0 =0

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