# Tracking Performance

• Tracking A Reference Signal • Type-N System • Tracking Performance of Type-0, Type-1 and Type-2 System • Tracking Performance of Systems with Disturbance • Tracking Performance of Non-unity Feedback Systems

Tracking A Reference Signal
Consider a feedback system as described in the following figure:

Normally, the system is required to regulate the output signal c(t) according to the instructional input signal r(t), that is, to make sure c(t) to track r(t). If sensor dynamics is considered in the feedback channel, this tracking regulation performance is well described by the following transfer function:

And the tracking performance is defined as:

Tracking A Reference Signal
In practice, we are specifically interested in the tracking performance of a feedback system with respect to the following instructional input signals:

Correspondingly, we have: R(s)=1/s ------ Unit-Step R(s)=1/s2------ Unit-Ramp R(s)=1/s3 ----- Unit-Acceleration

Tracking A Reference Signal
If the feedback system is stable, that is, 1+G(s)H(s)=0 has only roots in the left-half complex plane, then the tracking performance can be obtained as:

Specifically, for the special instructional input signals: Unit-Step Signal Unit-Ramp Signal Unit-Acceleration Signal Fact: thansfer function G(s)H(s) plays critical role in determining the tracking performance and it deserves special attention !

Type-N System
Without loss of generality, we assume H(s)=1, that is, the sensor dynamics is not considered. In this case, the feedback system is
R(s) E(s)

G(s)

C(s)

A feedback system with a unit gain in its feedback channel is called Unity Feedback System. The tracking performance of a unity feedback system will be determined by the forward transfer function G(s). Note that the expression of G(s) can be always characterized as:

Definition: The type of a unity-feedback system is defined by N and the unity feedback system in this form is called a Type-N system.

Type-N System
Example 1:

We have and K=20, N=0, so this is a Type-0 system Example 2:

We have and K=100, N=1, so this is a Type-1 system

Type-N System
Example 3:

We have

and K=437.5, N=2. So this is a Type-2 system.

Tracking Performance of Type-0, Type-1 and Type-2 System
Tracking performance of Type-N system can be obtained as follows: For unit-step reference signal where H(s)=1 and

Type-0 system (N=0): Type-1 system (N=1): Type-2 system (N=2):

Kp=K is called position error constant

Tracking Performance of Type-0, Type-1 and Type-2 System
For unit-ramp reference signal where H(s)=1 and

Type-0 system (N=0): Type-1 system (N=1): Type-2 system (N=2): Kv=K is called velocity error constant

Tracking Performance of Type-0, Type-1 and Type-2 System
For unit-acceleration reference signal where H(s)=1 and

Type-0 system (N=0): Type-1 system (N=1): Type-2 system (N=2): Ka=K is called acceleration error constant

Tracking Performance of Type-0, Type-1 and Type-2 System
In summary:

Tracking Performance of Type-0, Type-1 and Type-2 System
Examples:

Note that This is a Type-0 system. Therefore, Kp=K=20 and, For r(t)=1(t) For r(t)=t For r(t)=t2/2 =1/21

Tracking Performance of Type-0, Type-1 and Type-2 System

Note that This is a Type-1 system: Kv=K=100, and For r(t)=1(t) For r(t)=t For r(t)=t2/2 =1/100

Tracking Performance of Type-0, Type-1 and Type-2 System

Note that

So this is a Type-2 system and Ka=K=437.5 For r(t)=1(t) For r(t)=t For r(t)=t2/2 =1/437.5

Tracking Performance of Systems with Disturbance
Consider a feedback system with disturbance Transfer function:

So the steady-state tracking error is:

Tracking Performance of Systems with Disturbance
For a unit-step disturbance, D(s)=1/s, we have

and

Tracking Performance of Systems with Disturbance
Example:

For this example, we have =-1/(0+1000)=-0.001

It is noted that if G1(s) includes an integrator 1/s, then the error caused by the disturbance will be completely eliminated.

Tracking Performance of Non-unity Feedback Systems
If sensor and/or transducer dynamics are considered, then a non-unity feedback system will be presented. We can convert it into an equivalent unity-feedback system first, then apply the results established before.

Tracking Performance of Non-unity Feedback Systems
In general, the system could include both disturbance as shown above. The tracking error can be obtained as:

Consider unit-step input and disturbance: R(s)=D(s)=1/s

Tracking Performance of Non-unity Feedback Systems
Obviously, if =1 =0

then, the tracking error can be achieved. In general, if the following four conditions are satisfied, then the equations above to guarantee the zero error tracking will be held: 1) 2) 3) 4) 1+G1(s)G2(s)H(s) is stable, G1(s) is a Type-1 element, G2(s) is a Type-0 element, H(s) is a Type-0 element with a dc gain of unity: H(0)=1.

Note that the Conditions 1)-4) are only SUFFICIENT conditions for achieving zero-error tracking.