Frequencv-Hesponse AnaIvsIs

Wlal wo wanl lo oo: Introduce an anaIvsIs netnod Ior controI svsten usIng tne Irequencv
response
I. Frequencv Hesponse
1. Frequencv response is llo sloaoy-slalo iosponso of a syslom G(c) lo a sinusoioal losling
inpul. Jlo Lasic iooa is lo yaiy llo fioouoncy of llo losling signal oyoi a coilain iango ano
sluoy llo Lolayioi of syslom iosponso.
2. Foi a slaLlo syslom will liansfoi funclion G(c). ils fioouoncy iosponso Y (c)(n(t)) lo A(c) =
A.
:

÷.

oi a(t) = A sin.t can Lo oLlainoo as follows:
G(,.) = `(.)c
;c
. `(.) = [G(,.)[. c =

G(,.).
a(t) = A sin.t =n(t) = A`(.) sin(.t ÷ c).
Honco
[G(,.)[ =

Y (,.)
A(,.)

.

G(,.) =

Y (,.)
A(,.)
=G(,.) =
Y (,.)
A(,.)
.
If c 0. llon wo say G(c) is a pnase-Iead syslom: if c < 0. llon wo say G(c) is a pnase-Iag
syslom.
II. Hode DIagrans
G(,.) plays impoilanl iolo in ooloimining llo fioouoncy iosponso. Jloiofoio. il is yoiy impoilanl
foi us lo know low [G(,.)[ ano

G(,.) yaiy will iospocl lo .. Jloso can Lo slown in llo so-calloo
Hode DIagrans oi LogarItnnIc FIots. Jlo ioason llal llo log-plols aio usoo is llal a log
funclion log [G(,.)[ is. in gonoial. of llo samo piopoily as [G(,.)[. wlilo il signifcanlly simplifos
llo giaplical manipulalion Ly conyoiling mulliplicalion´oiyision inlo aooilion´suLliaclion. Foi
oxamplo.
G(c) = 1
c ÷ 1
c ÷ 2
=[G(,.)[ = 1

.
2
÷ 1

.
2
÷ 4
.
Lul
20 log [G(,.)[ = 20 log 1 ÷ 20 log

.
2
÷ 1 ÷20 log

.
2
÷ 4.
1. ÞagnItude pIot
20 log [G(,.)[d1(dccj/cl) ·c. log ..
2. Fnase pIot
c =

G(,.) ·c. log ..
Jlo Laso of llo logaiillm is 10.
8. Hode dIagrans oI IasIc Iactors
48
1). GaIn 1
G(c) = 1 =20 log 1. c = 0

. \. 0
2). IntegraI and derIvatIve Iactors (,.)
n
G(c) = c
n
=20 log(.)
n
. c = ±n 00

.
Soo Figuio 1.
Figuio 1:
8). FIrst-order Iactors (1 ÷ ,.T)
1
G(c) = (1 ÷ Tc)
1
=±20 log

1 ÷ .
2
T
2
. c = ±lan
1
.T.
Soo Figuio 2 ano Figuio 8.
Figuio 2:
Asymplolic appioximalion:
.T <1 =±20 log

1 ÷ .
2
T
2
- 0d1. c = ±lan
1
.T - 0

.
44
Figuio 8:
.T 1 =±20 log

1 ÷ .
2
T
2
- ±20 log .Td1. c = ±lan
1
.T - ±00

.
Al llo corner Irequencv . =
1
T
:
±20 log

1 ÷ .
2
T
2
= ±20 log

2 = ±8.08d1. c = ±lan
1
.T = ±45

.
4). QuadratIc Iactors [1 ÷ 2c(,.´.
n
) ÷ (,.´.
n
)
2
[
1
G(c) =
.
2
n
c
2
÷ 2c.
n
c ÷ .
2
n
=÷20 log

1 ÷
.
2
.
2
n

2
÷

2c
.
.
n

2
.
c = ÷lan
1

2c
.
.

1 ÷

.
.

2
¸
¸
¸.
Soo Figuio 4.
Figuio 4:
45
Asymplolic appioximalion:
.
.
n
<1 =
÷20 log

1 ÷
.
2
.
2
n

2
÷

2c
.
.
n

2
- 0d1. c = ÷lan
1

2c
.
.
1 ÷

.
.

2
¸
¸
¸ - 0

:
.
.
n
1 =
÷20 log

1 ÷
.
2
.
2
n

2
÷

2c
.
.
n

2
- ÷40 log
.
.
n
d1.
c = ÷lan
1

2c
.
.

1 ÷

.
.

2
¸
¸
¸ - ÷180

.
Al llo corner Irequencv . = .
n
÷20 log

1 ÷
.
2
.
2
n

2
÷

2c
.
.
n

2
= ÷20 log 2c.
c = ÷lan
1

2c
.
.

1 ÷

.
.

2
¸
¸
¸ = ÷00

.
Moio infoimalion aLoul llo Looo oiagiams:
resonant Irequencv .
r
and tne resonant peak vaIue `
r
Nolo llal
[G(,.)[ =
1

1 ÷
.

.

2
÷

2c
.
.

2
=
1

.

.

(12c

)
.

2
÷ 4c
2
(1 ÷c
2
)
.
Cloaily. foi 0 _ c _

2´2. wo layo
.
r
= .
n

1 ÷2c
2
=`
r
=
1
2c

1 ÷c
2
.
If c

2´2. llo poak `
r
= 1 will Lo piosonloo al . = 0. Ano if c ÷0. llon `
r
÷·.
Jlo plaso anglo of G(,.) al llo iosonanl fioouoncy can Lo oLlainoo as follows

G(,.
r
) = ÷lan
1

1 ÷2c
2
c
= ÷00

÷ sin
1
c

1 ÷c
2
.
Jlo MallaL commano plolling llo Looo oiagiams is: [nco. j/j. n[ = /odc(nnn. dcn).
G(c) =
25
c
2
÷ 4c ÷ 25
nnn = [0 0 25[. dcn = [1 4 25[
[nco. j/j. n[ = /odc(nnn. dcn).
46
4. ÞInInun-pnase and nonnInInun-pnase svstens
A liansfoi funclion(oi syslom) is calloo minimum-plaso liansfoi funclion oi syslom` if il las
noilloi polos noi zoios in llo iigll-lalf c plano. olloiwiso. il is calloo nonminimum-plaso
liansfoi funclion oi syslom`. Jlo loim minimum plaso` iofois lo llo iango in plaso anglo
of llo liansfoi funclion will samo magniluoo claiacloiislics. Foi oxamplo
G
1
(c) =
1 ÷ ,.T
1 ÷ ,.T
1
. G
2
(c) =
1 ÷,.T
1 ÷ ,.T
1
.
Il is oasy lo soo llal lloy layo samo magniluoo claiacloiislics. Jlo plaso claiacloiislics
aio slown in Figuio 5.
Figuio 5:
Foi a minimum-plaso syslom. ils liansfoi funclion is uniouoly ooloiminoo fiom llo magniluoo
cuiyo Lul llis is nol liuo foi a nonminimum-plaso syslom Locauso lloy coulo Lo oiloioo
fiom oacl olloi Ly all-pass fllois
1;.T
1÷;.T
.
Lxamplo: lianspoil lag
G(,.) = c
;.T
=[G(,.T)[ = 1.

G(,.) = ÷.T(radjanc) - ÷57.8.T.
5. HeIatIonsnIp Ietveen transIer IunctIons and Hode dIagrans
1). ÞInInun-pnase svsten
Foi a minimum-plaso syslom G(c). assuming llal llo oogioos of llo numoialoi ano
oonominaloi polynomials aio n ano n. llon wo layo
. = ·=c = ÷00

(n ÷n).
ano llo slopo of llo log-magniluoo cuiyo is ÷20(n ÷n)d1´dccadc.
2). ÞonnInInun-pnase svsten
Foi a nonminimum-plaso syslom G(c). assuming llal llo oogioos of llo numoialoi ano
oonominaloi polynomials aio n ano n. llon wo layo
. = ·=c = ÷00

(n ÷n).
ano llo slopo of llo log-magniluoo cuiyo is ÷20(n ÷n)d1´dccadc.
8). Svsten tvpe and Iog-nagnItude curve
47
BomomLoi llo lypo ] of an opon-loop syslom is llo numLoi of opon-loop polos al 0
G(c) =
11(c)
c
.
¹(c)
.
wloio 1(c) ano ¹(c) aio polynomials will 1 as lloii conslanl loims. Honco wo layo
llo following coiiosponoing piopoily Lolwoon llo lypo ] ano llo log-magniluoo cuiyo
al llo low fioouoncy iango(. - 0): tne sIope oI Iog-nagnItude curve Is ÷20]d1.
DeternInatIon oI statIc posItIon error, veIocItv error, acceIeratIon error con-
stants:
Foi llo syslom in Figuio 6. llo slalic posilion oiioi. yolocily oiioi. ano accoloialion
oiioi conslanls can Lo ooloiminoo foi llo lypo 0. I. ano II sysloms as slown in Figuio
7. Figuio 8. ano Figuio 0:
1
j
= lim
.0
G(,.). 20 log 1
j
d1.
G(,.) =
1
·
,.
. 20 log 1
·
. 1
·
= .
1
.
G(,.) =
1
o
(,.)
2
. 20 log

1
o
(,.)
2

.=1
= 20 log 1
o
. .
o
=

1
o
.
Figuio 6:
Figuio 7:
III. ÞvquIst StaIIIItv CrIterIon
1. ConpIex IunctIon as nappIng oI conpIex pIanes
A complox funclion G(c). as a liansfoi funclion is. can Lo lioaloo as a mapping Lolwoon lwo
complox planos: c ÷jlanc ano G(c) ÷jlanc.
c = a ÷ ,/ =G(a ÷ ,/) = a
j
÷ ,/
j
.
48
Figuio 8:
Figuio 0:
wloio a. /. a
j
ano /
j
aio ioal numLois. oi. in polai cooioinalo.
c = rc
;0
=G(rc
;0
) = r
j
c
;0

.
wloio
r =

a
2
÷ /
2
. 0 = lan
1
/
a
. r
j
=

a
2
j
÷ /
2
j
. 0
j
= lan
1
/
j
a
j
.
a = r cos 0. / = r sin0. a
j
= r
j
cos 0
j
. /
j
= r
j
sin0
j
.
2. ÞvquIst contour and ÞvquIst Iocus
Nyouisl conloui(oi pall) is a clockwisoly oiionloo closoo cuiyo consisling of a somi-ciiclo
will an infnilo iaoius ano llo imaginaiy axis. Honco. llo Nyouisl conloui aclually onciiclos
llo onliio opon iigll-lalf plano.(Soo Figuio 10).
Jlo polai plol of G(c) on llo G(c) ÷jlanc wlon il is oyalualoo on llo Nyouisl conloui. llal
is. wlon c iuns lliougl llo Nyouisl conloui ono limo. is calloo llo Nyouisl locus(oi Nyouisl
plol).
Wo will Lo inloiosloo in llo oiloionl olocl of iigll-lalf ano lofl-lalf plano zoios(polos) on
llo Nyouisl locus.
8. EvaIuatIon oI a IeIt-naII pIane zero
In llis caso. G(c) = c ÷ a = c ÷ (÷a). +(a) < 0. foi oxamplo. a = ÷1 ÷ ,. Jlo oyalualion
can Lo oono Ly cloosing foui poinls:
c
1
= ·c
;

. c
2
= 0c
;

. c
S
= ·c
;

. c
1
= ·c
;0
.
40
Figuio 10:
wlicl giyos
G(c
1
) = c
1
÷a - c
1
= ·c
;

. G(c
2
) = ÷a.
G(c
S
) = c
S
÷a - c
S
= ·c
;

. G(c
1
) = c
1
÷a - c
1
= ·c
;0
.
Jloiofoio. wo claim llal llo Nyouisl locus ooos nol onciiclo llo oiigin oi llal a lofl-lalf
plano zoio ooos nol conliiLulo lo llo onciiclomonl of llo oiigin in llo Nyouisl locus.
4. EvaIuatIon oI a rIgnt-naII pIane zero
In llis caso. G(c) = c ÷a = c ÷ (÷a). +(a) 0. foi oxamplo. a = 1 ÷ ,. Jlo oyalualion can
Lo onco again oono Ly cloosing foui poinls:
c
1
= ·c
;

. c
2
= 0c
;

. c
S
= ·c
;

. c
1
= ·c
;0
.
wlicl giyos
G(c
1
) = c
1
÷a - c
1
= ·c
;

. G(c
2
) = ÷a.
G(c
S
) = c
S
÷a - c
S
= ·c
;

. G(c
1
) = c
1
÷a - c
1
= ·c
;0
.
Jloiofoio. wo claim llal llo Nyouisl locus iolalos aiouno llo oiigin clockwisoly oi llal a
iigll-lalf plano zoio conliiLulos lo llo onciiclomonl of llo Nyouisl locus aiouno llo oiigin
Ly ono in clockwiso oiioclion.
5. EvaIuatIon oI a poIe
In llis caso. G(c) =
1
:j
= (c ÷j)
1
. oi. in polai cooioinalo. G(c) =
1
rc

=
1
r

c
j0
. Nolo
llal llo magniluoo las nolling lo oo will llo onciiclomonl of llo Nyouisl locus sinco llo
onciiclomonl is llo aclion of aigumonl 0
j
. Jloiofoio. il is oasy lo soo llal llo conliiLulion of
a polo lo llo onciiclomonl of llo Nyouisl locus aiouno llo oiigin is in llo opposilo oiioclion
lo llal of a zoio. Wo can claim llal:
1). A lofl-lalf plano polo will nol conliiLulo lo llo onciiclomonl of llo Nyouisl locus aiouno llo
oiigin.
50
2). A iigll-lalf plano polo will conliiLulo lo llo onciiclomonl of llo Nyouisl locus Ly a nogaliyo
ono(-1) wlicl moans llal il will causo llo Nyouisl locus lo onciiclo llo oiigin ono limo
counloiclockwisoly.
Wo layo loainoo low lo oyalualo llo olocl of a zoio ano a polo in a complox funclion. Wo
soo llal llis oyalualion can loll llo oiloionl olocl of zoios(polos) in oiloionl lalf planos.
6. EvaIuatIon oI a generaI conpIex IunctIon
In llis caso. wo layo
G(c) = 1
(c ÷.
1
) · · · (c ÷.
n
)
(c ÷j
1
) · · · (c ÷j
n
)
.
Assumo llal G(c) las Z iigll-lalf plano zoios ano 1 iigll-lalf plano polos. If wo lol c go
lliougl llo Nyouisl conloui ono limo. llon oacl iigll-lalf plano zoio(lolal Z) will conliiLulo
lo llo numLoi of onciiclomonl of llo Nyouisl locus G(c) aiouno llo oiigin Ly (a posiliyo) ono.
wlicl moans a clockwiso onciiclomonl. ano oacl iigll-lalf plano polo(lolal 1) will conliiLulo
lo llo numLoi of onciiclomonl of llo Nyouisl locus G(c) aiouno llo oiigin Ly a nogaliyo ono.
wlicl moans a counloiclockwiso onciiclomonl. Jloiofoio. llo nol onciiclomonl numLoi ] of
llo Nyouisl locus G(c) aiouno llo oiigin is: ] = Z ÷1.
Jlis iosull suggosls llal if wo know lwo of ]. Z ano 1. wo sloulo Lo aLlo lo gol llo lliio
ono. Foi oxamplo. if wo can oiaw llo Nyouisl locus of G(c) = r
j
c
;0

on llo G(c)÷jlanc(llon
wo sloulo know llo numLoi of onciiclomonl ] aiouno llo oiigin) ano know 1(llo numLoi
of iigll-lalf plano polos). wo can ooloimino Z Ly Z = ] ÷ 1: if Z = 0. i.o.. G(c) ooos nol
layo iigll-lalf plano zoios. llon ] = ÷1. wlicl moans llal llo Nyouisl locus G(c) sloulo
onciiclo llo oiigin counloiclockwisoly will llo numLoi of onciiclomonl ooual lo llo numLoi
of iigll-lalf plano polos possossoo Ly G(c). So fai so gooo!
7. ÞvquIst staIIIItv crIterIon
Lol`s consiooi llo following foooLack syslom will foiwaio liansfoi funclion G(c) ano a fooo-
Lack H(c).
Soo Figuio 11.
Figuio 11:
Lol us wiilo llo opon-loop syslom G(c)H(c) inlo llo foim of polynomial ialio
G(c)H(c) =
/(c)
a(c)
.
wloio a(c) ano /(c) aio polynomials. Jlon wo can soo llal llo ooualion a(c) = 0 ooloiminos
all of llo opon-loop polos of G(c)H(c).
51
Jlo closoo-loop liansfoi funclion G
c
(c)
G
c
(c) =
G(c)
1 ÷ G(c)H(c)
=
G(c)
1 ÷
b(:)
o(:)
=
G(c)
o(:)÷b(:)
o(:)
.
Cloaily. llo slaLilily of llo closoo-loop syslom G
c
(c) is ooloiminoo Ly llo solulions lo a(c) ÷
/(c) = 0 wlicl ooloiminos llo polos(closoo-loop polos) of G
c
(c).
Jo mako llo pioLlom suilaLlo foi applying llo oyalualion piinciplos sol up Lofoio. lol us
oofno a now funclion `(c)
`(c) = 1 ÷ G(c)H(c) =
a(c) ÷ /(c)
a(c)
.
Nolo llal llo zoios of `(c) ooloiminoo Ly a(c) ÷ /(c) = 0 aio oxaclly llo (closoo-loop)
polos of G
c
(c) ano llo polos of `(c) ooloiminoo Ly a(c) = 0 aio oxaclly llo (opon-loop)
polos of G(c)H(c). Jloiofoio. lo ooloimino llo slaLilily of llo closoo-loop syslom G
c
(c) is
oouiyalonl lo llo ooloiminalion of llo iigll-lalf plano zoios of `(c). Jlis suggosls llal wo
can oiaw llo Nyouisl locus of `(c) ano clock llo numLoi of onciiclomonl ] aiouno llo
oiigin. Sinco wo sloulo Lo aLlo lo loll llo numLoi 1 of iigll-lalf plano polos of `(c) fiom
a(c)(aclually. 1 is llo numLoi of opon-loop iigll-lalf plano polos of G(c)). llo numLoi Z
of iigll-lalf plano zoios of `(c)(cloaily. Z is llo numLoi of closoo-loop polos of G
c
(c)) can
llon Lo ooloiminoo Ly
Z = ] ÷ 1.
Spocifcally. if llo closoo-loop syslom is slaLlo. llon Z = 0. ano ] = ÷1. wlicl suggosls
llal wo sloulo soo counloiclockwiso onciiclomonl aiouno llo oiigin in llo Nyouisl locus of
`(c) will llo numLoi of onciiclomonl ooual lo llo numLoi of iigll-lalf plano polos of `(c)
oi G(c)H(c). If `(c) oi G(c) ooos nol layo llo iigll-lalf plano polos. woll. 1 = 0. wo sloulo
llon layo ] = 0 foi slaLilily wlicl moans llal lloio sloulo Lo no onciiclomonl aiouno llo
oiigin in llo Nyouisl locus of `(c).
A straIgntIorvard Iact aLoul llo `(c) ÷jlanc ano llo G(c)H(c) ÷jlanc: llo oiigin of
`(c) ÷jlanc is oxaclly llo poinl (÷1. 0) in llo G(c)H(c) ÷jlanc.
As a iosull of llis facl. all of oui oyalualion can Lo oono in llo G(c)H(c) ÷jlanc as long as
wo clango llo ioouiiomonl of onciiclomonl fiom aiouno llo oiigin in llo `(c) ÷ jlanc lo
aiouno llo poinl (÷1. 0) in llo G(c)H(c) ÷jlanc.
Finally. wo can slalo llo following Loauliful ÞvquIst StaIIIItv CrIterIon:
GIven a IeedIack svsten vItn an open-Ioop svsten G(c)H(c), assunIng tnat
G(c)H(c) nas neItner zeros nor poIes on tne InagInarv axIs and tnat tne nunIer
oI tne rIgnt-naII pIane poIes oI G(c)H(c)(tnese are caIIed open-Ioop poIes) Is de-
noted Iv 1, tnen tne cIosed-Ioop svsten Is staIIe II tne ÞvquIst Iocus oI G(c)H(c)
encIrcIes tne poInt (÷1. 0) 1 tInes countercIockvIseIv vnen c noves aIong tne
ÞvquIst contour one tIne cIockvIseIv.
Cloaily. if llo opon-loop syslom G(c)H(c) is slaLlo. lonco. 1 = 0. llon wo sloulo nol soo any
onciiclomonl of (÷1. 0) in llo Nyouisl locus of G(c)H(c) if llo closoo-loop syslom is slaLlo.
52
Unliko llo Boull SlaLilily Ciiloiion. Jlo Nyouisl SlaLilily Ciiloiion allows us lo ooloimino
llo closoo-loop slaLilily Lasoo on llo opon-loop syslom infoimalion.
If G(c)H(c) las polos oi zoios on llo imaginaiy axis. llo Nyouisl conloui sloulo Lo mooifoo
Ly inoonling lo llo iigll aiouno llo imaginaiy polos ano zoios using a somi-ciiclo will llo
infnilosimal iaoius c ÷0. Jlo Nyouisl slaLilily ciiloiion can llon Lo slaloo Ly oyalualing
G(c)H(c) on llo mooifoo Nyouisl conloui. Soo Figuio 12.
Figuio 12:
8. GaIn nargIn and pnase nargIn
Jlo aoyanlago of Nyouisl slaLilily ciiloiion is llal il allows us lo oofno llo slaLilily maigins
oasily. Jlo slaLilily maigins oxaclly iolocl llo ways in wlicl wo can alocl G(c)H(c): gain
ano plaso.
1G(c)H(c) = 1r
j
c
;0
. c
;c
G(c)H(c) = r
j
c
;(0÷c)
.
Sinco llo poinl loio is llal foi a slaLlo opon-loop syslom wo sloulo nol layo any onciiclomonl
aiouno (÷1. 0). llo coiiosponoing gain maigin ano plaso maigin can Lo oofnoo Ly
1
j
=
1
[G(,.
1
)H(,.
1
)[
. c = 180

÷ 0.
wloio .
1
is llo fioouoncy al wlicl llal G(c)H(c) las a plaso anglo ÷180

ano 0 is llo plaso
anglo of G(c)H(c) wlon ils magniluoo is unily.
Jlo slaLilily maigins can also Lo ioonlifoo on llo Looo plol wlicl makos llo Looo plol
yoiy usoful foi conliol oosign. Soo Figuio 18.
0. ExpIanatIon oI tne gaIn nargIn and tne pnase nargIn
If an opon-loop syslom G(c)H(c) is slaLlo. llon foi llo closoo-loop syslom slaLilily llo
Nyouisl locus G(,.)H(,.) sloulo nol onciiclo llo ÷1 poinl. Now oonolo llo Nyouisl locus
G(,.)H(,.) Ly
G(,.)H(,.) = a(.) ÷ ,/(.).
An oxlia gain 1 applioo lo G(c)H(c) will yiolo llo now Nyouisl locus 1G(,.)H(,.) Ly
1G(,.)H(,.) = 1a(.) ÷ ,1/(.).
58
Figuio 18:
Cloaily. llo inloisoclion Lolwoon llo Nyouisl locus ano llo (nogaliyo) ioal axis is going lo
Lo clangoo fiom
G(,.
1
)H(,.
1
) = a(.
1
). /(.
1
) = 0.
lo
1G(,.
1
)H(,.
1
) = 1a(.
1
). /(.
1
) = 0.
Il is noloo loio llal 1 will nol clango llo fioouoncy .
1
al wlicl llo Nyouisl locus inloisocls
llo (nogaliyo) ioal axis. Cloaily. foi a slaLlo syslom. llo gain maigin( llo maximum possiLlo
gain inciomonl) 1
j
can Lo ooloiminoo Ly
1
j
a(,.
1
) = ÷1 =1
j
= ÷
1
a(,.
1
)
=
1
[a(,.)[
.
Il is oasy lo soo llal foi any 1 1
j
. il will ooslaLilizo llo syslom Locauso
1a(,.
1
) < ÷1.
ano llo onciiclomonl aiouno ÷1 poinl will oxliLil.
Jlo olocl of a plaso c
;0
on llo Nyouisl locus can Lo piosonloo as follows:
Bopiosonl G(,.)H(,.) Ly
G(,.)H(,.) = `(.)c
;4(.)
.
54
wloio 1(.) is moasuioo fiom zoio plaso counloiclockwisoly(lonco a posiliyo plaso). Jlon
an oxlia plaso slifling will iosull in
c
;0
G(,.)H(,.) = `(.)c
;(4(.)÷0)
.
Nolo llal 0 0 will iosull in a counloiclockwiso slifling(iolalion) ano 0 < 0 will iosull in
a clockwiso slifling(iolalion) Ly oofnilion. Cloaily. llo plaso slifling will nol alocl llo
magniluoo of llo Nyouisl locus. Now. lol .
2
Lo llo fioouoncy al wlicl `(.
2
) = 1. llon
c
;0
G(,.
2
)H(,.
2
) = c
;(4(.

)÷0)
.
Cloaily. llis poinl is on llo unil ciiclo ano will moyo along llo unil ciiclo will oiloionl plaso
slifling. If
1(.
2
) ÷ 0 = 180

.
llon llo onciiclomonl aiouno ÷1 lappons ano llo syslom will nol Lo slaLlo. Honco. llo
plaso maigin 0
j
(llo maximum possiLlo plaso slifling) can Lo ooloiminoo Ly
0
j
= ÷0 = ÷180

÷ 1(.
2
).
10. Inportant Henarks:
1). Nolo llal llo plaso maigin ano llo gain maigin musl Lo consiooioo logolloi foi llo iolaliyo
slaLilily of a syslom. Soo Figuio 14.
Figuio 14:
2). A minimum-plaso syslom can only layo posiliyo plaso ano gain maigins foi slaLilily. oll-
oiwiso. il is nol slaLlo.
8). Jlo plaso ano gain maigins cloaily onlanco llo ioLuslnoss of a conliol syslom. Foi llis
consiooialion. llo ioasonaLlo plaso maigin sloulo Lo Lolwoon 80

ano 60

ano llo ioasonaLlo
gain maigin sloulo Lo gioaloi llan 6d1.
ExanpIe: Giyon a unily foooLack syslom will llo following opon-loop liansfoi funclion:
G(c)H(c) =
1
(c ÷ 1)(c
2
÷ c ÷ 1)
.
55
slow llal foi 1 = 1 ano 1 = 2.5 llo closoo-loop is slaLlo. Foi 1 = 4 llo closoo-loop syslom
is nol slaLlo. On llo olloi lano. foi 1 = 2.5. slow llal if wo mulliply llo following liansfoi
funclions
G
2
(c) =
÷0.5c ÷ 1
0.5c ÷ 1
.
lo G(c)H(c). llon llo closoo-loop syslom is nol slaLlo.
56

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