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Guide to electrical steels and magnetic circuit cores

Guide to electrical steels and magnetic circuit cores


ArcelorMittals global offer

Product selection guide

About ArcelorMittal

ArcelorMittal: transforming tomorrow

Global presence

10

A dedicated commercial office close to your region

12

Service offered by our steel service centres

14

Technical support by R&D

16

Products
Non-oriented electrical steels (NO)
Grain-oriented electrical steels (GO)
Varnishes for electrical steels (VA)
Transformer cores (TC)

20
40
42
44

Product selection guide


This selection guide will help you select
the best ArcelorMittal steel grade for your
particular application:
Non-oriented electrical steels (NO)
Grain-oriented electrical steels (GO)
Having identified your particular market, you can
select your type of application in the table below.
Alongside each application you will find a reference
to the product data sheet we recommend.

Domestic appliances
Small domestic appliances

Reference

Microwave oven transformers

NO1 NO2

Motors

NO1 NO5 NO7

Transformers

NO1

Laundry & dishwashers

Motors

NO5

Refrigeration

Compressor motors

NO5

Traction motors

NO1 NO2

Mechanical engineering
Further in this guide, you will find the product data
sheets with a general description for each product:
Main properties
Advantages
Applications
Recommendations for use
Feasibility tables

Railways

Self-induction coils

NO1 GO1

Marine engineering

Propulsion engines

NO1 NO2

Heavy wheeled vehicles

Mining trucks wheel motors

NO1 NO2

Automotive

Alternators

NO6

Traction

Electrical and hybrid vehicle


traction motors and alternators
Wheel hub motors

NO1 NO2 NO3


NO1 NO2

Product selection guide


Aeronautics & military

Reference

Industry

Reference

Lighting

Ballasts

NO1 NO2

Ventilation / airco

Motors for air fans

NO1 NO5

Cold storage

Compressor motors

NO1 NO5

Electrical equipment

Low-voltage transformers

NO1

Welding equipment
transformers
Contactor cores

NO1
NO1

Electricity meter cores

NO1

Building industry
Lighting

Ballasts

NO1 NO2

Cold storage

Compressor motors

NO1 NO5

Micro-motors

NO3

Shielding of power lines and


transformers for the distribution
of electrical power
Shielding of electrolysis cells

NO1 NO2
GO1

Electromagnets

NO1

Current and potential


transformers
Power transformers

NO1 NO2 GO1


GO1

Distribution transformers

GO1

Industrial motors

Medium-power motors

NO1 NO2 NO5 NO6

High-power motors

NO1 NO2

Generators

Medium-power generators

NO1 NO2

Wind power

Medium- and high-power


generators
Medium- and high-power
generators

NO1 NO2

Hydro or turbine
power stations

NO1 NO2 NO8 NO9


GO1

About ArcelorMittal
ArcelorMittal is the worlds largest and most
global integrated steel company. It has led the
consolidation of the world steel industry and
today ranks as the only truly global steelmaker.

ArcelorMittal is the number one supplier in all


major global markets, including automotive,
construction, domestic appliances and
packaging. Its industrial presence in Europe, Asia,
Africa and America gives the Group exposure
to all the key steel markets, from emerging to
mature an exposure it continues to enhance
through its three dimensional growth strategy
of product diversity, geographical reach and
vertical integration.

Innovation and cooperation


Innovation plays a key role at ArcelorMittal.
Not only is it the largest steelmaker by volume
but ArcelorMittal also offers the broadest range
of steel grades, advanced products,
steel solutions and cutting-edge technologies.
Close cooperation with customers involving
mutual trust, an open-minded approach and
permanent exchanges of personnel further
drives innovation and assists in the development
of products and solutions that sustain their
competitive edge.

ArcelorMittal: transforming tomorrow


We know that our position in the steel industry
brings unique responsibilities.
We are committed to setting globally
recognised standards with the needs of future
generations in mind.

Our goal is to provide the leadership that will


transform tomorrows steel industry. We have
a clear vision of the future, underpinned by a
consistent set of values:

Sustainability
We are guiding the evolution of steel to
secure the best future for the industry and for
generations to come.
Our commitment to the world around us
extends beyond the bottom line, to include the
people in whom we invest, the communities we
support and the world in which we operate. This
long-term approach is central to our business
philosophy.

Quality
We look beyond today to envision the steel of
tomorrow.
Because quality outcomes depend on quality
people, we seek to attract and nurture the
best people to deliver superior solutions to our
customers.

Leadership
We are visionary thinkers, creating opportunities
every day.
This entrepreneurial spirit brought us to the
forefront of the steel industry. Now, we are
moving beyond what the world expects of steel.

Electrical steels production plants

Products*

Online information on

ArcelorMittal Eisenhttenstadt

NO

Germany

www.arcelormittal.com/fce

ArcelorMittal Florange

NO

France

www.arcelormittal.com/fce

ArcelorMittal Fos-sur-Mer

NO

France

www.arcelormittal.com/fce

ArcelorMittal Frdek-Mstek

GO

Czech Republic

www.arcelormittal.com/fce

ArcelorMittal St Chly dApcher

NO

France

www.arcelormittal.com/fce

ArcelorMittal Indiana Harbour Works

CRML

USA

www.arcelormittal.com

Steel service centres

Online information on

ArcelorMittal Distribution Solutions Italia, Monza

Italy

www.arcelormittal.com/dsitaly

ArcelorMittal Distribution Solutions Italia, Marcon

Italy

www.arcelormittal.com/dsitaly

ArcelorMittal Distribution Solutions France, Reims

France

www.arcelormittal.com/dsfrance

ArcelorMittal Distribution Solutions Spain, Lesaka

Spain

www.arcelormittal.com/dsiberia

ArcelorMittal Distribution Solutions Germany,


Eisenhttenstadt

Germany

www.arcelormittal.com/dsgermany

ArcelorMittal Gonvarri SSC Slovakia, Senica

Slovakia

www.arcelormittalgonvarri.sk

Research centres

Products*

Online information on

ArcelorMittal Global R&D Gent (OCAS)

NO/GO

Belgium

www.ocas.be

ArcelorMittal East Chicago

CRML

USA

www.arcelormittal.com
*

Transformer cores production plant


ArcelorMittal Technotron s.r.o.

10

Online information on
Czech Republic

www.technotron.cz

NO: Non-oriented electrical steels


CRML: Cold rolled motor laminations
GO: Grain-oriented electrical steels


Electrical steels production plant

Steel service centre

Research centre
Transformer cores production plant

.
.

Global presence
11

12

Electrical steels:
central commercial offices

Location

Address

E-mail

Europe

France (Paris)

5, rue Luigi Cherubini,


F-93212 La Plaine Saint-Denis (Paris) - France

benoit.genet@arcelormittal.com

North America

USA (Chicago)

patrick.faucard@arcelormittal.com

Other regions

Luxembourg

One South Dearborn Street


Chicago IL, 60603 USA
Toll free phone: 1-800-422-9422
19, avenue de la Libert,
LU-2930 Luxembourg

v.garg@arcelormittal.com

Electrical steels: central commercial office


Electrical steels: local commercial office

.
.

A dedicated commercial office


close to your region
13

Service offered by the ArcelorMittal steel service centres


The steel service centres within ArcelorMittal
Distribution Solutions offer a wide range of
activities and services for electrical steels:

Activities
Slitting coils in all possible widths
Cutting sheets to length
Punching laminations, either as such or
assembled into stacks, with or without
thermal post-treatment
Applying a cupper winding or injecting
aluminium into the rotor or stator slots
Fitting of axles into the machines

For the locations of the steel service centres,


see page 10.
For further information about the product range
and the service offered, please consult the
overview of the commercial contacts on
page 12.

Service
ArcelorMittal Distribution Solutions can provide
customers with the magnetic, mechanical and
thermal properties of the magnetic materials
used.
Backed up by ArcelorMittal Group expertise in
electrical steels, the steel service centres are
able to provide a wide range of 'tailor-made'
solutions as well as 'just-in-time' deliveries.
In addition, the steel service centres also offer
customers assistance in selecting the best
material and process for their application.

15

ArcelorMittal R&D has proven experience in:


Modelling and design of electromagnetic
systems
Optimised electrical steel grade selection
Advanced material characterisation
techniques
Tailor-made magnetic measurement tools
for laboratory or production line

Improve your efficiency


ArcelorMittal R&D validates numerical simulations
by comparing these with the results of in-house
experiments. Our laboratories are fully equipped
to assess the electromagnetic properties of
your materials or magnetic cores. In addition
to standard measurements based on Epstein
frames and single sheet testers, we can perform
advanced characterisation using your specific
magnetic circuit or your excitation conditions
(PWM, harmonics etc).
Our engineers and researchers have experience in
modelling electromagnetic behaviour of electrical
machines, transformers or other systems.
ArcelorMittal R&D has many years of experience
in optimising designs, providing cost saving
solutions with enhanced efficiency.
ArcelorMittal R&D can deliver a detailed report
listing all simulations and experiments as well

Technical support & services offered by


ArcelorMittals network of Research & Development centres
as a clear interpretation of results obtained and
recommendations for further improvement.
We help you, for example, to identify the best
combination between the electrical steel grade
and your equipment design, resulting in lower
energy dissipation and enhanced permeability
at reduced cost.

Easy monitoring of your product performance


and rapid quality control
ArcelorMittal R&D can supply standard or tailormade advanced magnetic measuring systems
(AMMS) available in different configurations:
'AMMS Lab' for laboratory testing
'AMMS Online' for continuous
characterisation of electromagnetic
properties of steel strip
All devices ordered include on-site installation,
training and maintenance plan.

ArcelorMittal R&D offers a full package of R&D


services
In addition to our co-design and co-engineering
services in the field of electrical machinery,
ArcelorMittal R&D also offers:
R&D partnership
Rapid prototyping
Problem solving
Metallurgical processing
Material characterisation
Training
We offer advanced technology and innovative
research within a framework of confidentiality.

Your benefits:
Full range of services
Co-development of new products based on
combining optimised design and selection of
the most appropriate electrical steel grade
Advanced material characterisation methods
in our laboratory
Cost saving numerical finite element
modelling of electromagnetic behaviour of
your applications (large materials database
with for example magnetic properties)
Quality control by means of advanced
magnetic measurement systems
Proven materials expertise
Extensive knowledge of electrical steel
grades, grain-oriented and non-oriented
Expertise in various fields of application:
power generation, asynchronous machines,
permanent magnet applications, electromagnetic valves and actuators, automotive
applications, transformers
Skilled staff and top class equipment
In-house laboratory assessment tools
Associated technologies, including advanced
characterisation techniques in the field of
chemistry and physical testing
For an overview of the ArcelorMittal R&D centres in
this area, see the overview on page 10.

17

Products
Non-oriented electrical steels (NO)
NO1 Fully processed standard grades
NO2 Fully processed high permeability and high thermal conductivity grades
NO3 Fully processed high frequency grade
NO4 Fully processed high strength grades
NO5 Semi-processed grades, including Cold Rolled Motor Laminations
NO6 Semi-processed high permeability grades
NO7 Easy Punch steels with guaranteed punchability
NO8 Cold rolled pole sheet grades
NO9 Hot rolled pole sheet grades

20
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38

Grain-oriented electrical steels (GO)


GO1 Grain-oriented standard grades

40

Varnishes for electrical steels (VA) 42


Transformer cores (TC) 44

19

NO1
Fully processed standard grades

To supply the required level of traction for this huge


mining truck, four electrical motors are needed: one
for each wheel.

20

Non-oriented electrical steels

NO1

Fully processed standard grades


Fully processed electrical steels as delivered
have guaranteed magnetic properties. These
are obtained through careful selection of the
most appropriate alloying content in particular
silicon in combination with the most suitable
thermomechanical production processes.
ArcelorMittals state-of-the-art production
facilities are equipped with in-line magnetic
measurement systems, for optimal process
control.
As well as the maximum loss and minimum
polarisation data cited by the standards,
ArcelorMittal supplies full magnetic
characterisation curves regarding losses,
polarisation, permeability and apparent power
at different frequencies. Other machine design
parameters such as mechanical properties at
different temperatures and thermal behaviour
are also available on request.

Advantages
A full range of these standard grades is available,
so that a steel grade can be selected according
to the specific requirements of each application,
from low alloy grades offering the advantage
of excellent magnetic permeability, thermal
conductivity and punchability to alloyed grades
offering the advantage of very low losses,
even at higher frequencies.
A wide range of coatings is available, allowing
further enhancement of punchability, reduction
of interlaminar losses and improvement of
corrosion protection.

Applications
Fully processed steels are designed for the
manufacture of magnetic circuits for motors,
transformers and other electrical equipment.
The principal applications are in the electrical
engineering, domestic appliance, automotive
and building industries.

The thin lowest loss grades such as the


M23030A, M210-35A or the M23035A
are of particular interest for high-efficiency or
high-power density machines. For high-speed
machines in particular, optimal compromises
between mechanical strength and low eddy
current losses have been worked out.
Thicker low loss grades are the choice for large
power generators: their high utilisation rate
demands the highest possible machine efficiency
(hence low losses), with reasonable punching
and assembly costs (hence 0.65 mm or
0.50 mm thickness).
Thanks to the low coercive field and remanence
level of low loss fully processed grades, these
steels also are preferred for the production of
contactors.
Low loss fully processed steels are also beneficial
for shielding applications at low frequencies.

Recommendations for use


The properties mentioned above are obtained
without heat treatment after stamping. The
material as supplied possesses all the required
magnetic properties.
>> See next page for the feasibility tables.

21

NO1
Fully processed standard grades feasibilities

EN 10106:2007

JIS C2552:2000

Thickness

0.30 mm

0.35 mm

0.50 mm

0.65 mm

1.00 mm

0.35 mm

0.50 mm

0.65 mm

Grades

M230-30A

M210-35A*

M230-50A*

M310-65A

M600-100A

35A230

50A250

65A800

M230-35A

M250-50A

M330-65A

M700-100A

35A250

50A270

65A1000

M235-35A

M270-50A

M350-65A

M800-100A

35A270

50A290

35A300

50A310

M250-35A

M290-50A

M400-65A

M900-100A

M270-35A

M310-50A

M470-65A

M1000-100A

50A350

M300-35A

M330-50A

M530-65A

M1300-100A

50A400

M330-35A

M350-50A

M600-65A

50A470

M400-50A

M700-65A

50A600

M470-50A

M800-65A

50A700

M530-50A

M1000-65A

50A800

M600-50A
M700-50A
M800-50A
M940-50A
Grades in italic: not included in the standard (yet)
* Available on request

22

ASTM A 677/A677M:1999 (former AISI)

IEC/CEI 60404-8-4:1998

0.35/0.36 mm

0.64/0.65 mm

0.35 mm

0.50 mm

0.65 mm

1.00 mm

M250-50A 5

M310-65A 5

M600-100A 5

0.47/0.50 mm

36F145 (M15)

47F165 (M19)

64F200 (M19)

M235-35A 5

36F155 (M19)

47F180 (M22)

64F210 (M22)

M250-35A 5

M270-50A 5

M330-65A 5

M700-100A 5

M290-50A 5

M350-65A 5

M800-100A 5

36F165 (M22)

47F190 (M27)

64F235 (M36)

M270-35A 5

36F185 (M36)

47F200 (M36)

64F250 (M43)

M300-35A 5

M310-50A 5

M400-65A 5

M1000-100A 5

47F210 (M43)

64F275 (M45)

M330-35A 5

M330-50A 5

M470-65A 5

M1300-100A 5

47F240 (M45)

64F320 (M47)

M350-50A 5

M530-65A 5

M400-50A 5

M600-65A 5

M470-50A 5

M700-65A 5

M530-50A 5

M800-65A 5

M600-50A 5

M1000-65A 5

47F280 (M47)
47F400
47F450
Not exact equivalences

M700-50A 5
M800-50A 5
M940-50A 5

23

NO2
Fully processed high permeability and high thermal conductivity grades feasibilities

No standards available
Thickness

0.35 mm

0.50 mm

0.65 mm

Grades

M330P-35A

M330P-50A

M470P-65A

M350P-50A
M400P-50A
M400XP-50A
M470P-50A

24

Non-oriented electrical steels

NO2

Fully processed high permeability and high thermal conductivity grades


The fully processed high permeability electrical
steels have guaranteed magnetic properties
significantly superior to the requirements of
the standards, particularly regarding their
polarisation and permeability levels.
The specific chemical composition
of ArcelorMittals products and our
thermomechanical processes result in
enhanced structures and textures, which are
the key to obtaining steep magnetisation curves
with high saturation levels.
Full magnetic characterisation curves are
available on request, as well as mechanical
and thermal data. The thermal conductivity of
these steels is higher than the conductivity of
the fully processed standard grades, so the heat
generated in the machine due to the losses can
be more easily evacuated.

Advantages

Applications

The high permeability levels of these grades


allow a reduction of the magnetising current
required for a given air gap flux. This increases
the efficiency of the machine and also makes
it possible to increase its specific power rating,
thereby reducing the machine's dimensions.
High thermal conductivity levels are important,
since they facilitate heat evacuation from the
machine.
A wide range of coatings is available, allowing
further enhancement of punchability, reduction
of interlaminar losses and improvement of
corrosion protection.

High permeability is particularly useful for


applications such as ballasts and motors,
because it makes it possible to build machines
that meet the most stringent environmental
regulations. High efficiency induction motors
(e.g. IE3 efficiency = NEMA premium or even
the top level IE4 super premium machines) can
be achieved by increasing the amount of copper
used, which generally leads to a larger machine,
but the use of higher permeability grades can
help to avoid this volume expansion.
High thermal conductivity is a significant
advantage for large machines, where the heat
balance can be a significant power limiting factor.
High thermal conductivity is a significant
advantage for machines working at high
frequencies, both for large industry motors as
for automotive machines.

Recommendations for use


The properties mentioned above are obtained
without heat treatment after stamping. The
material as supplied possesses all the required
magnetic properties.
These grades generate not only increased efficiency, but also a
higher specific power rating, which is an important aspect for
traction motors for locomotives, like this ICE-3 high-speed train.

25

NO3
Fully processed high frequency grade feasibilities

EN 10303:2001

IEC/CEI 404-8-8:1991

Thickness

0.20 mm

0.20 mm

Grades

NO 20

NO 20

This type of electrical steel is mainly used when weight and


volume reduction is essential, for instance in aeronautic or medical
applications. The part shown here is used for a breathing aid.

26

Non-oriented electrical steels

NO3

Fully processed high frequency grade


This fully processed high frequency grade has
guaranteed magnetic properties in accordance
with the standards for medium frequency
applications, which specifically concerns thin
electrical steels for use at frequencies above
100Hz. The manufacture of such thin steels
down to 0.20 mm is particularly demanding
for the cold rolling process, especially because
the magnetic performance requires a high
silicon content, which render the material
more brittle. ArcelorMittals production facilities
are equipped with high performance gauge,
tension and flatness control systems to meet
this challenge.
The standards require guaranteed loss levels
at 400 Hz, but ArcelorMittal can supply full
magnetic characterisation curves at various
frequencies. Furthermore, mechanical
properties at different temperatures and
thermal behaviour are available on request.

Advantages

Applications

High frequency electrical steels have very low


loss levels, especially at high frequencies. These
properties are a result of the thin gauge of this
material (0.20 mm), its particular chemical
composition and its specific thermomechanical
processing.

This grade is designed for high-speed rotating


machines (100 to 5000 Hz). It allows
minimisation of losses due to higher harmonics
and clearly increases machine efficiency in the
case of non-sinusoidal power supply.
This thin, fully processed grade is also used
when weight and volume reduction are of
major importance, such as in medical or aviation
applications.
The higher speed applications are also more
demanding in terms of mechanical behaviour,
which is why our NO20 grade has been
optimised both for yield strength and for eddy
current behaviour.

We offer this grade with a C5 coating, for


its excellent behaviour at high temperatures,
which will also allow machine repairs, and for its
insulating properties.

Recommendations for use


The properties mentioned above are obtained
without heat treatment after stamping. The
material as supplied possesses all the required
magnetic properties.

27

NO4
Fully processed high strength grades feasibilities

No standards available
Thickness

0.50 mm

0.65 mm

Grades

M470YS-50A

M530YS-65A

High strength values, combined with good magnetic properties,


make these grades particularly suitable for high-speed rotating
machines.

28

Non-oriented electrical steels

NO4

Fully processed high strength grades


Fully processed high strength grades have not
only guaranteed magnetic properties but also
guaranteed mechanical properties. A typical
characteristic of these grades is the higher
strength values compared to the standard
grades, both at room temperature and at higher
temperature operating conditions. These are
obtained through adequate modifications in
ArcelorMittals fully processed electrical steel
production process, resulting in an optimal
combination of magnetic and mechanical
performance.
Full magnetic characterisation curves at different
frequencies as well as thermal behaviour data
are available on request.

Advantages

Applications

These high strength grades withstand stronger


mechanical forces than the standard grades.
They are therefore an excellent compromise
when a combination of high mechanical strength
and low magnetic losses is required.
A wide range of coatings is available, allowing
further enhancement of punchability, reduction
of interlaminar losses and improvement of
corrosion protection.

The high strength values, combined with low


losses and good permeability, make these grades
particularly suitable for high-speed rotating
machines. The yield strength is a particularly
important property when the teeth have to
withstand both strong electromagnetic forces
and the mechanical forces resulting from
high-speed operation. Rotors with imbedded
permanent magnets in synchronous machines
and the teeth of machines with concentrated
windings will also benefit from higher mechanical
strength.

Recommendations for use


The properties mentioned above are obtained
without heat treatment after stamping. The
material as supplied possesses all the required
magnetic properties.

29

NO5
Semi-processed grades, including Cold Rolled Motor Laminations feasibilities

EN 10341:2006

ASTM A683/A726:2005

Thickness

0.50 mm

0.65 mm

0.70 mm

0.80 mm

Grades

M340-50K

M390-65K

M1000-70K

M1200-80K M1300-100K

1.00 mm

M390-50K

M450-65K

M450-50K

M520-65K

47D270 56D380

64D260

M560-50K

M630-65K

47D330

64D290

M660-50K

M800-65K

47D380

64D360

M890-50K

M1000-65K

M1050-50K

M1200-65K

M1800-100K

0.56 mm 0.64/0.65 mm

47S190/47D190

56D260

64S220

47D215 56D310

64S230

0.71/0.70 mm 0.79/0.80 mm
71D410

79D450

71D480

79D540

71D550

79D610

64D430
64D490
Not exact equivalences; other CRML gauges and loss/perm levels available

Grades in italic: not included in the standard (yet)

IEC/CEI 60404-8-3:2005
Thickness

0.50 mm

0.65 mm

0.70 mm

0.80 mm

1.00 mm

Grades

M340-50K5

M390-65K5

M1000-70K5

M1200-80K5

M1300-100K5

M390-50K5

M450-65K5

M450-50K5

M520-65K5

M560-50K5

M630-65K5

M660-50K5

M800-65K5

M890-50K5

M1000-65K5

M1050-50K5

M1200-65K5

Grades in italic: not included in the standard (yet)

30

0.47/0.50 mm

M1800-100K5

Non-oriented electrical steels

NO5

Semi-processed grades, including Cold Rolled Motor Laminations


As delivered, semi-processed electrical steel
grades do not have guaranteed magnetic
properties. After the laminations are punched,
they need to be heat-treated by the customer
to develop their magnetic properties.
This final annealing treatment reduces losses
and improves permeability and polarisation,
as a result of recrystallisation, grain growth
and for certain grades also decarburisation.
The semi-processed standards describe
reference annealing cycles which allow the
development of these properties. These
reference cycles are applied in ArcelorMittals
labs to validate the ability of our materials to
achieve the required magnetic performance.

Advantages

Applications

The punchability of the semi-processed


grades has been optimised by the application
of an optimised final skin-pass reduction,
after the cold rolling and annealing process.
Skin-passing produces a controlled surface
roughness, ensuring good material behaviour
in the punching presses. This roughness also
prevents the strips from sticking during the
client's final annealing treatment. Regarding
magnetic performance, skin-passing also plays
an important role by stimulating grain growth
during the annealing process.
These semi-processed grades are available
non-insulated. The final process step of the
(decarburising) annealing treatment carried out
by the client provides a suitable atmosphere
and the right thermal conditions for blueing: the
formation of an oxide film, which creates the
required surface insulation layer.

Non-alloyed semi-processed electrical steels are


designed for small industrial motors, fans and
domestic appliances such as washing machine
motors, microwave oven transformers and
refrigerator compressors.
Alloyed semi-processed electrical steels are
designed for similar higher efficiency versions
of these applications, as they have lower losses
while the permeability remains at a good level.

Recommendations for use


The punching process needs to be carried out
with an appropriate lubricant, which must be
selected carefully, especially in the case of the
alloyed semi-processed grades.

These steels are designed for domestic appliances (e.g. washing


machine motors), small industrial motors, fans and this electric drill.

31

NO6
Semi-processed high permeability grades feasibilities

No standards available
Thickness

0.50 mm

0.65 mm

Grades

M450P-50K

M600P-65K

M560XP-50K

M700XP-65K

These high permeability grades have been proven to enhance the efficiency of industrial motors.

32

Non-oriented electrical steels

NO6

Semi-processed high permeability grades


Semi-processed high permeability grades
have guaranteed superior magnetic properties
compared to the standard semi-processed
grades, especially at 45 to the rolling direction.
As for the standard semi-processed grades,
the high permeability grades need a final
annealing treatment, carried out by the client
after punching the laminations.

Advantages

Applications

The semi-processed high permeability grades


allow core weight reduction and increased
efficiency of motors and transformers.
The improved efficiency achieved reduces
machine operating costs and at the same time
makes them more environmentally friendly.

These grades are designed for motors,


generators, transformers, converters and
ballasts where higher efficiency is required.
These are available in four grades: the 0.50 mm
types are called M450P-50K and M560XP50K and the 0.65mm types M600P-65K and
M700XP-65K.

Recommendations for use


(only valid for XP grades)
Considering the very high polarisation level of
these semi-processed high permeability grades
at an angle of 45 to the rolling direction, it is
preferable to design the punching process in
such a way that the direction of magnetisation
of the part is as nearly parallel as possible with
this 45 direction.

33

NO7
Easy Punch steels with guaranteed punchability feasibilities

No standards available

34

Thickness

0.5-1.2 mm

Grades

Easy Punch

Non-oriented electrical steels

NO7

Easy Punch steels with guaranteed punchability


The Easy Punch grade has guaranteed
mechanical properties and roughness.
Magnetic properties are not guaranteed,
as they are not optimised in this product.
Should the application require enhanced
magnetic performance, other electrical steel
grades in ArcelorMittals product range are
recommended.

Advantages

Applications

This Easy Punch grade has excellent punchability


and stackability, thanks to appropriate
mechanical properties and roughness. It is
therefore eminently suitable for automatic
stacking and assembling techniques. The
excellent punchability is achieved by means of a
final skin-pass treatment, which produces high
Re/Rm values (typically over 0.9). Easy Punch
also has excellent weldability.

The Easy Punch grade is designed for small


machines for intermittent use:
Automotive equipment such as alternators,
windscreen wipers, window-opening motors
Small domestic appliances such as coffee
grinders, mixers
Small hand tools such as drills

Recommendations for use


The punching process needs to be carried out
with an appropriate lubricant.
Usually, the client does not perform heat
treatment after punching. Heat treatment is an
option to increase the magnetic performance of
Easy Punch.

The Easy Punch grade is designed for excellent punchability and


stackability, ideal for this alternator.

35

NO8
Cold rolled pole sheet grades feasibilities

EN 10265:1995

JIS C2555:2000

IEC/CEI 60404-8-5:1989

Thickness

0.65 mm

1.00 mm

0.65 mm

1.00 mm

0.65 mm

1.00 mm

Grades

250-65-TF 183

250-100-TF 183

PCYC 250

PCYC 250

250-65-TF 183

250-100-TF 183

300-65-TF 182

300-100-TF 182

PCYC 300

PCYC 300

300-65-TF 182

300-100-TF 182

350-65-TF 181

350-100-TF 181

PCYC 350

PCYC 350

350-65-TF 181

350-100-TF 181

400-65-TF 180

400-100-TF 180

PCYC 400

PCYC 400

400-65-TF 180

400-100-TF 180

The cold rolled pole sheet grades are designed for large high-speed
machines because of their excellent combination of mechanical
strength and magnetic performance, which makes them ideal for
industrial applications.

36

Non-oriented electrical steels

NO8

Cold rolled pole sheet grades


Cold rolled pole sheet grades are classified
according to their yield strength as described
by the standards. As well as guaranteed
mechanical properties, they have guaranteed
magnetic properties, but unlike other electrical
steel grades, their magnetic properties are
determined under direct current (DC) conditions.
Full magnetic characterisation curves in DC and
also at various frequencies are available on
request, as well as thermal data.

Advantages

Applications

High yield strength values allow these grades


to withstand strong electro-mechanical forces.
As well as excellent DC magnetic properties
significantly superior to the requirements of the
standard, these grades perform well on loss and
induction levels at 50 Hz AC conditions, thanks
to a special chemical composition.
A wide range of coatings is available, allowing
further enhancement of punchability, reduction
of interlaminar losses and improvement of
corrosion protection.

Cold rolled pole sheet grades are designed for


large high-speed machines because of their
excellent combination of mechanical strength
and magnetic performance.

Recommendations for use


The properties mentioned above are obtained
without heat treatment after stamping. The
material as supplied possesses all the required
magnetic properties.

37

NO9
Hot rolled pole sheet grades feasibilities

EN 10265:1995
Thickness

1.5-5.0 mm

2.0-5.0 mm

2.5-5.0 mm

Grades

250-...-TG 180

400-...-TG 179

600--TG 178

300-...-TG 180

450--TG 179

650--TG 178

350-...-TG 179

500--TG 179

700--TG 178

550--TG 178

JIS C2555:2000
1.5-5.0 mm

2.0-5.0 mm

2.5-5.0 mm

PCYH 250

PCYH 400

PCYH 600

PCYH 300

PCYH 450

PCYH 650

PCYH 350

PCYH 500

PCYH 650

PCYH 550

IEC/CEI 60404-8-5:1989
1.5-5.0 mm

2.0-5.0 mm

2.5-5.0 mm

250-...-TG 180

400-...-TG 179

600--TG 178

300-...-TG 180

450--TG 179

650--TG 178

350-...-TG 179

500--TG 179

700--TG 178

550--TG 178

Non-oriented electrical steels

NO9

Hot rolled pole sheet grades


Hot rolled pole sheet grades are classified
according to their yield strength as described
by the standards. As well as guaranteed
mechanical properties, they have guaranteed
magnetic properties, but unlike other electrical
steel grades, their magnetic characterisation is
determined under direct current (DC) conditions.

Advantages

Applications

High yield strength values allow these grades


to withstand strong electro-mechanical forces.
The DC magnetic properties are excellent and
significantly superior to the requirements of the
standard.
Hot rolled pole sheet grades are available noninsulated. They can be supplied in a hot rolled or
pickled version.

Hot rolled pole sheet grades are designed for


large high-speed machines because of their
excellent combination of mechanical strength
and good magnetic performance. Good
magnetic properties are of major importance for
the performance of the poles, whereas excellent
mechanical properties are needed for the rims.

Recommendations for use


The properties mentioned above are obtained
without heat treatment after stamping. The
material as supplied possesses all the required
magnetic properties.

Transformers benefit optimally from the excellent longitudinal


magnetic properties of grain-oriented electrical steels.

39

GO1
Grain-oriented standard grades feasibilities

EN 10107:2005

JIS C2553:2000

Thickness

0.23 mm

0.27 mm

0.30 mm

0.35 mm

0.23 mm

0.27 mm

0.30 mm

0.35 mm

Grades

M110-23S

M114-27S

M120-30S

M130-35S

23G110

27G120

30G130

35G145

M120-23S

M120-27S

M130-30S

M140-35S

27G130

30G140

35G155

M127-23S

M130-27S

M140-30S

M150-35S

M140-27S

M150-30S

M165-35S
0.35 mm

IEC/CEI 60404-8-7:2008

Grades in italic: not included in the standard (yet)

ASTM A876:2003 (former AISI)


Thickness
Grades

0.23 mm

0.27 mm

0.30 mm

Not exact equivalences in 0.35 mm

0.35 mm

23H070 (M3)

27H074 (M4)

30H083 (M5)

35H094 (M6)

23G045 (M3)

27G051 (M4)

30G058 (M5)

35G066 (M6)

0.23 mm

0.27 mm

0.30 mm

M110-23S5

M114-27S5

M120-30S5

M130-35S5

M120-23S5

M120-27S5

M130-30S5

M140-35S5

M127-23S5

M130-27S5

M140-30S5

M145-35S5

M140-27S5

M150-30S5

M150-35S5
M155-35S5

M165-35S5

Not exact equivalences


Not exact equivalences in 0.35 mm
Grades in italic: not included in standard (yet)

Transformers benefit optimally from the


excellent longitudinal magnetic properties
of grain-oriented electrical steels.

40

Grain-oriented electrical steels

GO1

Grain-oriented standard grades


ArcelorMittal grain-oriented electrical steels are
produced to achieve low core losses and high
magnetic permeability.
These are obtained through a tight control of the
ArcelorMittal production process, designed to
streamline the strength of the Goss texture.
The combination of an optimal texture and
structure allows obtaining excellent typical
magnetic properties.
Grain-oriented electrical steels are mainly used
in highly efficient transformers and generators
due to its excellent magnetic properties in the
rolling direction.

Advantages

Applications

The use of grain-oriented steel in transformers


is advantageous thanks to the very low core loss
in the rolling direction. This means more efficient
transport of energy from the production site to
the consumption site.
These standard grades are available in a range of
thicknesses and loss levels, enabling customers
to select the most appropriate grade to meet
the specific requirements of each application.
ArcelorMittals high quality products range from
0.35 mm thickness up to 0.23 mm and are
supplied with coating ASTM C5 over ASTM C2
to ensure high electrical resistance.

The main application of grain-oriented steel is


in the core of transformers (power, distribution,
current etc), used for transmission and
distribution of electrical energy. These steels are
also used for hydro- and turbogenerators for the
generation of electrical energy.
The use of grain-oriented steels in this type
of equipment improves their efficiency,
contributing to the reduction of energy losses
in the electrical system.

Recommendations for use


For wound cores, ArcelorMittal recommends
applying a stress relief annealing treatment.
It is important to remove oil, grease or any
organic compound to prevent carbonisation
of the electrical steel. Maximum care during
handling is desirable to avoid re-introduction
of stresses.
The properties mentioned above are measured
either by Epstein or SST measurement
equipment. The standards specify that stress
relief annealing should be applied after the
samples have been cut, depending on the
measuring device.
41

VA
Varnish for non-oriented and grain-oriented electrical steels feasibilities

Coating type

Typical gauges

IEC/CEI 60404-1-1:2004
EN 10342:2005

Functionality

ASTM

(per side)

EC-3

C-3

1 - 4 m

The resins' chemical composition yields special advantages such as a high elasticity
and a very strong adhesion. A coating thickness of less than 1 m generates the
additional advantage of excellent weldability, whereas a varnish of 4 m and above
assures good interlaminar insulation.

EC-5-N

C-5

1 - 4 m

This varnish was designed to maintain its dielectrical properties during the repair of
damaged copper windings. Additionally, the mineral part of the coating provides high
thermal conductivity. The combination of resins and mineral products achieves a good
compromise between punchability and weldability.

EC-5-G

C-5

2 - 4 m

This varnish is selected to have good adherence and to withstand normal punching
and cutting operations. It does not affect and is unaffected by transformer oil.

EC-6

C-6

2 - 10 m

The mineral elements have been selected to reduce punching tool wear and favour
punching oil retention. They also enhance the rigidity of the varnish, which minimises
dimensional changes under high pressure/temperature. This varnish is particularly
recommended for use with contactors, to permit a higher flutter frequency whilst
reducing noise.

The main purpose of varnish is to provide interlaminar insulation and to improve punchability of the steels.

Non-oriented and grain-oriented electrical steels

VA

Varnish for non-oriented and grain-oriented electrical steels


Electrical steel varnishes for non-oriented are
designed to enhance the behaviour of fully
processed electrical steels. Their major impact
is to provide interlaminar insulation and to
improve the punchability of the steels. Each type
of varnish has its specific properties: insulation
level, punchability effect, corrosion protection,
temperature resistance and weldability, hence it
is the material used that determines the optimal
varnish selection.
For grain-oriented grades, the main purpose
is to provide increased surface insulation
resistance, by means of a thin inorganic coating.
This type 5 coating (EC-5-G) is applied on top of
the glass film (type 2), which is obtained in the
high temperature annealing process step as a
result of the reaction of the steel surface with
the annealing separator.

Advantages
The EC-3 type varnish is based on synthetic
resins, resulting in a varnish with excellent
lubricating properties for the punching process:
the coated sheet can be punched without the
need of an additional lubricant. It is particularly
recommended with automatic stacking
processes.
The EC-5-N type varnish (for non-oriented) is
a pigmented varnish, made with thermostable
resins, mineral products and pigments. The type
of mineral products and the amount used have
been selected to obtain a coating with excellent
temperature resistance during lengthy thermal
treatments, which is of particular interest
where stress relieving annealing is required after
punching.
The EC-5-G type varnish (for grain-oriented) is
a pigmented varnish, predominantly composed
of phosphates. As well as its electrical insulation
properties, this coating has the advantage of
withstanding stress-relief annealing, which
restores the magnetic properties of grainoriented steels at the cut edges, for optimum
steel performance.

The EC-6 type varnish is also a pigmented


varnish, but especially suitable for high power
rotating machines, thanks to its high electrical
insulation level. This varnish is particularly
recommended for use with contactors, to permit
a higher flutter frequency whilst reducing noise.

Applications
These coatings are used for fully processed
grades, as well as for pole sheets in the cold
rolled version, in a wide range of electrical
applications such as rotating machines,
transformers and contactors.
The coatings used for grain-oriented fully
processed grades are particularly used for power
transformers, which require high efficiency and
operate continuously. For these applications it is
important to have a double coating system, with
the phosphate layer on top of the glass film.

Recommendations for use


The raw materials used have a chemical
composition both in liquid and cured varnish
state which does not require specific
protective measures during the processing
of the coated steels or during use in a given
application.
43

TC01

Cores of magnetic circuits


Cores of magnetic circuits constitute a very
important part for transformers production and
their quality is crucial for the final parameters of
a magnetic circuit.
A transformer core consists of a magnetic circuit
where its induction flux, caused by the current
passage flowing through the primary coiling,
induces electric voltage in the secondary coiling.
Wound transformer cores are used as compact
cores (toroids) or as cores with air gaps.
ArcelorMittal Technotron s.r.o. produces cores
from grain-oriented transformer metal band
with silicium-alloyed Goss texture of about 3%
and a thickness range from 0.15 to 0.35 mm.
General specification used material for
processing according to IEC 60404-1:2000.

Transformer cores

Toroidal cores

feasibilities
5h

Application possibilities of toroidal cores





Measurement transformers
Power and regulating transformers
Inductors
Transducers

Dimension

Min. (mm)
27

800

D-inner diameter

17

500

H-core height

Advantages of toroidal cores


Close flux path
Low magnetic leakage
Low humming
Compact dimensions
Light weight

Max. (mm)

D-outer diameter

Sh-chamfered edge*

TC01

10

180

2x45

5x45

* at customer request
d
D

Typoval values Max


(T)* Heff=3 A/m

Guaranteed values
max (T) Heff=30 A/m

Colour marking**

N-normal

0.050

min 1.3

black

S-standart

0.075

min 1.4

red

SU-super

0.110

min 1.6

green

0.130

min 1.7

white

Quality

SU-EX-extra

* typical values at customer request


** colour marking at customer request

45

TC01

Cut C cores
Wound transformer cores are manufactured
in the process of winding up the transformer
strip on a mandrel followed by the processes
of cutting the hot-manufactured and synthetic
resin-bond core. A wound cores shape is better
adapted for cores of the magnetic induction
current and the structure of material grain is
used more effectively when compared with
cores composed of sheet stampings of various
shapes.
Cut cores are assembled with a certain air gap
between the pieces, insulation pieces are placed
in these gaps during the assembly of the cores.
Cut surfaces of these cores can be round, oval
and rectangular.

feasibilities

Max. specific losses p1,5/50


[W/kg]

Max. magnetic field density Heff


at B 1,5 T [A/m]

C 8001-10000

2.5

400

C 10001-26003

2.2

350

2.2

300

Core type*

C 26004-90005

* manufactured from M165-35S

Core type*

Max. specific losses p1,7/50


[W/kg]

Max. magnetic field density Heff


at B 1,7 T [A/m]

SG=Q

2.2

265

SU=U

2.2

265

SE=R

2.2

265

2.2

265

SM=M

* manufactured from M150-30S/M140-27S

Advantages of Cut C cores


Electrical energy saving thanks to low specific
iron Watt losses
Saving in quantity of used copper for winding
thanks to smaller dimensions and weight of
cut cores
Saving in work costs exert for transformers
assembly thanks to easy assembly
Low humming

Max. specific losses p1,7/50


[W/kg]

Max. magnetic field density Heff


at B 1,7 T [A/m]

SG=Q

1.9

125

SU=U

1.9

125

SE=R

1.9

125

1.9

125

Core type*

SM=M

* manufactured from M150-30S/M140-27S

Unicore cores
Unicore cores constitute a new line of cores
for magnetic circuits. This manufacturing
technology was developed in 1997 and its
aim was to simplify the existing technology
and improvement of parameters of electrical
machines. Due to advantages of their
construction, unicore cores can replace almost
all conventional C cores.
Unicore advanced technology leads to low
specific losses. Their construction is simplified
they dont have to pass through the timeand cost-consuming production process which
contributes to very favourable price and short
delivery time. At assembly the existing types of
coil forms can be kept as a result. No changes in
the transformer construction are required.

Transformer cores

TC01

feasibilities

Core type

Finish

C 31002 (3.10 kg)

annealed

C 31002 DUO 02 UNICORE

unannealed

C 31002 DUO 03 UNICORE

Heff
A/m

Bmax.
T

Specific losses
W/kg

Input
VA/kg

110

1.50

1.20

5.10

260

1.70

1.85

13.90

140

1.50

1.30

6.50

370

1.70

1.80

19.50

annealed

45

1.50

0.95

1.90

150

1.70

1.45

7.30

unannealed

150

1.50

1.40

7.50

annealed

450

1.70

1.95

24.00

60

1.50

1.00

2.10

240

1.70

1.55

12.00

Advantages of Unicore cores







Low specific losses


Easy assembly
Favourable price
Saving in quantity of used copper
The banding of cores is not necessary
Short delivery time

47

TC01

Stacked cores
Stacked cores are the most important part of
distribution transformers. We produce these
cores on modern production equipment and
our cores have very low losses and noise level.
We are able to offer you a very wide range of
lamination shapes.
We can offer you our cores assembled or not
assembled with or without steel construction.
We have started production of these cores in
January 2011 and are able to offer you all types
of transformer cores of grainoriented material.

Delivery options:
- assembled
- non assembled

Transformer cores

TC01

Material used: all type of SI steel

feasibilities

Our production range:

Advantages of stacked cores


Reduction in core losses
Easy assembly

Thickness:
Width:
Our production range
Sheets centre-line length*

Assembled
Non-assembled

Material used
all type of SI steel

max.
0,35 mm
max.400 mm
2000 mm

Tolerances

Thickness
mm
0.35
mm
*Minimum
length 250 to 500 mm can be 0.23
obtained
up to max.
width
of 160 mm moving the 45`shears

Differences on strip width

Tolerances
Sheets centre-line length*

Width

Delivery options

min.
0,23 mm
min.40 mm
250 mm

+/-0.2 mm

40 mm

400 mm

Linearity on length = 1500 mm

0.8 mm

250 mm

2000 mm

Edge burr

0.02 mm

Differences on strip width


+/-0.2 mm
*Minimum
length=250
500 mm can be obtained up to
Linearity
on length
1500tomm
0.8 mm
max.
width of 160 mm moving the 45`shears
Edge
burr
0.02 mm
Length accurancy
+/-0.1 mm
Angle accuracy
+/-0.01
Punching diameter
10.5 mm

Length accurancy

+/-0.1 mm

Angle accuracy

+/-0.01

Punching diameter

10.5 mm

Possible shape combination

Possible Cross and Longitudinal Step Lap

Possible Cross and Longitudinal Step Lap

49

Credits for pictures


ArcelorMittal and:
Cover: Tom D'Haenens
p. 2-38: Aperam South America
p. 8: Philippe Vandenameele
p. 14: Pauwels N.V. - Tom D'Haenens
p. 16: ArcelorMittal Global R&D Gent
p. 18: Eozen
p. 20-24-28-36: Siemens
p. 39: Voith
p. 41: Pauwels N.V. - Tom D'Haenens
p. 42: Philippe Vandenameele
p. 44-49: ArcelorMittal Technotron s.r.o.
p. 51: Aperam South America

Copyright
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in
any form or by any means without prior permission in writing.

Fully processed electrical steel was used to manufacture the hydro generator
for the hydroelectric Tucuru Dam in Brazil.

ArcelorMittal
19, avenue de la Libert
L-2930 Luxembourg

ELSMACWI 05/2011

www.arcelormittal.com