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Bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Sweden: an H-type variant. J Vet Diagn Invest 20:2–10 (2008). The differences
included higher susceptibility for proteinase K, higher molecular weight of the PrPres bands, affinity to the N-terminus–specific antibodies 12B2 and P4, and peculiar banding pattern with antibody SAF84 showing an additional band at the 14 kDa position. The molecular characteristics were in accordance to previous descriptions of H-type BSE.
Pathological findings in dogs naturally infected with Angiostrongylus vasorum in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada J Vet Diagn Invest 20:11–20 (2008). Pathological
findings consisted of severe pyogranulomatous interstitial pneumonia with myriad eggs, larvae, and numerous intravascular pulmonary adult nematodes with extensive arterial thrombosis. Five hundred and seventy-two adult worms were removed from pulmonary arteries. Foci of granulomatous inflammation, often associated with larvae and/or eggs, were present in tracheobronchial lymph nodes, adrenal gland, brain, and kidneys.
Investigation into the effectiveness of pooled fecal samples for detectionof verocytotoxinproducing Escherichia coli O157 in cattle. J Vet Diagn
Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 (VTEC O157) cause human disease outbreaks in the United Kingdom every year . Symptoms range from mild diarrhea to hemolytic uremic syndrome, which can be fatal especially for very young children.
Invest 20:21–27 (2008).
Respiratory disease associated with bovine coronavirus infection in cattle herds in Southern Italy. J Vet Diagn Invest 20:28–32 (2008). Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is
included in group 2a together with mouse hepatitis virus, sialodacryoadenitis virus, porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus, human coronavirus (HCoV) OC43, human enteric coronavirus 4408,6 the newly recognized HCoVHKU1,28 canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV),5,7 giraffe coronavirus,12 and alpaca coronavirus.16 Bovine coronavirus was first identified as the agent of severe diarrhea in neonatal calves (neonatal calf diarrhea),21 as well as in adult cattle (winter dysentery).4,20. At postmortem
examination, severe signs of acute rhinotracheitis were observed, whereas lungs did notshow remarkable lesions.
Evaluation of the pathogenic potential of cervid adenovirus in calves. J Vet Diagn Invest 20:33–37 (2008). A novel
adenovirus was the cause of an epizootic of hemorrhagic disease that caused high mortality in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in 17 counties of central and northern California in 1993 and 1994.14 Since first identified in 1993, the deer adenovirus
(Odocoileus adenovirus; OdAdV) has been diagnosed as the cause of death in moose (Alces alces) in Canada,8 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Iowa,9 and deer and/or moose in Wyoming, Washington, Oregon, and Idaho (Williams, Bildfell, Cornish, Drew; personal communication) and has been diagnosed yearly in black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) in California (Woods, personal observation). Infected animals develop systemic vasculitis resulting in pulmonary edema and/or hemorrhagic enteropathy (systemic infection), necrotizing lesions confined to the upper alimentary tract (localized infection), or both. Lesions of the localized infection in deer (stomatitis) can be strikingly similar to lesions caused by the foot-and-mouth disease virus.
Molecular detection of betanodavirus in wild marine fish populations in Korea. J Vet Diagn Invest 20:38–44
(2008). Viral nervous necrosis (VNN) is a worldwide disease affecting several species of
cultured marine fish. Betanodaviruses occur in large populations of wild marine fish in the southern part of the Korean peninsula.
Comparison of bacterial culture, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry for the diagnosis of Johne’s disease in culled dairy cows . J Vet Diagn Invest
20:51–57 (2008). IHC and acid fast is better than culture.
Comparison of retropharyngeal lymph node and obex region of the brainstem in detection of chronic wasting disease in whitetailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). J Vet Diagn Invest 20:58–60 (2008).
To gain the best diagnostic accuracy for CWD, it would appear that different cervid species require different tissues to be tested; RLN is the tissue of choice in testing for CWD in white-tailed and mule deer, whereas elk require both obex tissue and RLN to be tested for maximum accuracy.
Urine sampling for real-time polymerase chain reaction–based diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis. J Vet Diagn Invest 20:64–67 (2008). This finding suggests
that a real-time PCR analysis of urine from infected dogs could be a useful and noninvasive tool for monitoring the severity of leishmaniasis.
Molecular screening of canine GM1 gangliosidosis using blood smear specimens after prolonged storage: detection of carriers among Shiba dogs in northern Japan. J Vet Diagn Invest 20:68–71 (2008).
GM1 gangliosidosis, a lysosomal storage disease that affects the brain and multiple systemic organs, is due to an autosomal recessively inherited deficiency of acid bgalactosidase coded by the GLB1 gene.4 GM1 gangliosidosis in Shiba dogs was initially identified in 2000.
Prevalence and characterization of bovine viral diarrhea virus in the white-tailed deerpopulation in Indiana. J Vet Diagn Invest
The results of the present study indicate that the prevalence of BVDV in the white-tailed deer population of Indiana is about 0.3%.
Vitamin E and selenium concentrations in month-old beef calves. J Vet Diagn Invest 20:86–89 (2008). Calf vitamin E concentrations were
consistently lower than cow vitamin E concentrations, and many values would be considered deficient.
Diagnosis of anatoxin-a poisoning in dogs from North America.
J Vet Diagn Invest 20:89–92 (2008). Anatoxin-a, a toxin produced by several genera of
blue–green algae, is considered a potent neurotoxin. Ingestion of water contaminated with the toxin results in acute neurological signs and often death.
Streptococcus dysgalactiae cellulitis and toxic shock–like syndrome in a Brown Swiss cow. J Vet Diagn Invest 20:99–103 (2008).
severe cellulitis caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae, bronchopneumonia, and lesions of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in the kidneys. Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a multisystemic disease characterized by rapid onset of fever, hypotension, and multi-organ failure, which often leads to death.6 Severe streptococcal cellulitis associated with septicemia or toxic shock syndrome is rare, especially in veterinary medicine, but outbreaks due to Streptococcus canis have been described in dogs and cats, and Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus pneumoniae were respectively cultured from a bottlenose dolphin and a kitten with cellulitis and septicemia.9,11,20,21 Cellulitis has rarely been described in the bovine species.1,12,13 In this species, it is often associated with Clostridium spp. (malignant edema, blackleg) and Arcanobacterium pyogenes.
Lymphangiosarcoma in the nictitating membrane of a horse.
J Vet Diagn Invest 20:108–110 (2008). Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells stained
positive for vimentin and partially positive for factor VIII–related antigen. Ultrastructural analysis revealed discontinuous endothelial lining vascular channels that partially lacked a basal membrane. Based on the histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural features lymphangiosarcoma was diagnosed.
Immunohistochemical characterization of a hepatic neuroendocrine carcinoma in a cat. J Vet Diagn Invest 20:110–114 (2008).
yellow-brown, firm, multilobulated tumor was identified in the liver. Microscopically, the mass consisted of neoplastic cells arranged in small, closely packed nests within a thin fibrovascular stroma. Immunohistochemically, most of the neoplastic cells were immunoreactive for chromogranin A, neuronspecific enolase (NSE), and cytokeratin AE1/AE3 and weakly labeled for synaptophysin. The tumor was negative for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), vimentin, and cytokeratins. These tumors initially described in the small intestine of human beings were first named carcinoid. The term neuroendocrine carcinoma is now used for all neuroendocrine tumors, acknowledging that all neuroendocrine tumors are potentially malignant.
Fatal pulmonary hemorrhage associated with RTX toxin– producing Actinobacillus equuli subspecies haemolyticus infection in an adult horse. J Vet Diagn Invest 20:118–121 (2008). severe
pulmonary hemorrhage with suppurative bronchopneumonia was found. Actinobacillus equuli subsp. haemolyticus was cultured from a transtracheal wash performed antemortem as well as from the lungs at necropsy. The presence of airwayassociated hemorrhage in conjunction with bacterial bronchopneumonia suggested endothelial damage caused by a locally elaborated bacterial toxin, possibly produced by the A. equuli strain isolated from the lungs. The objective of this report was to indirectly document the presence of hemolysin repeat in structural toxin (RTX).
Small intestine adenocarcinoma in conjunction with multiple adenomas causing acute colic in a horse. J Vet Diagn Invest 20:121–124
(2008). Exploratory laparotomy revealed a distal jejunum full-thickness wall induration
and multiple small adherent intraluminal masses. Histologic examination revealed an adenocarcinoma and multiple polypoid adenomas. Colic was considered secondary to partial jejunal lumen obstruction by the adenocarcinoma. Adenocarcinoma recurrence or transformation from remaining adenomas into an adenocarcinoma is still a major risk.
Association of canine obesity with reduced serum levels of Creactive protein. J Vet Diagn Invest 20:224–228 (2008). C-reactive protein (CRP)
is an important tool for the detection of inflammation and/or early tissue damage and is linked to obesity in humans. C-reactive protein was negatively correlated with insulin/glucose ratio and cholesterol. Based on these results, it can be postulated that CRP production is inhibited by obesity and insulin resistance in dogs.
Respiratory herpesvirus infection in two Indian Ringneck parakeets. J Vet Diagn Invest 20:235–238 (2008). Diffuse consolidation and red
discoloration of the lungs, as well as thickened, congested air sacs. multifocal, necrotizing bronchitis, parabronchitis, and interstitial pneumonia. large syncytial cells with up to 15 nuclei. The nuclei of these syncytial cells often contained large, eosinophilic inclusion bodies, consistent with herpesvirus. Recently, a novel Psittacid herpesvirus strain was isolated from the mucosal papillomas of neotropical parrots21 and from cloacal and cutaneous papillomas of African grey parrots.22 However, there have been reports of a different herpesvirus of parakeets that has tropism for the lower respiratory tract, with no hepatic or significant upper-respiratory-tract involvement. One was from the United States,9 in a Bourke’s parakeet, and the other was from Japan.26 This virus is referred to as ‘‘respiratory herpesvirus of parakeets’’ and represents an unusual manifestation of herpesvirus- induced disease in parakeets. In these 2 parakeets, the herpes-like inclusion bodies were identified within epithelial cells and syncytial cells of the trachea, bronchi, parabronchi, air capillaries, and air sacs. Herpesvirus subfamilies include alpha-herpesviruses, beta-herpesviruses, and gamma-herpesviruses. Alpha-herpesviruses are associated with rapid viral replication, host cell lysis, and the ability to establish latent infection.5 An example of avian alpha-herpesvirus is Gallid herpesvirus 1 (family Herpesviridae, subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, genus Iltovirus), commonly known as Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) of chickens, which causes upper-respiratorytract infection manifested as necrotizing pharyngitis, laryngitis, tracheitis, and, occasionally, mild pneumonia.23. In Psittaciformes, there are several recognized diseases associated with avian alpha-herpesviruses. Infection with Psittacid herpesvirus 1 (PsHV-1), formerly known as Pacheco’s disease (PD), is characterized by massive hepatic necrosis with formation of syncytial cells.18 Amazon tracheitis virus (ATV) is a cause of upper-
respiratory-tract lesions similar to ILTV in chickens.18 There are several other herpesviruses associated with more chronic, non–lifethreatening skin and/or mucosal lesions. It is speculated that the feather abnormalities referred to as ‘‘feather dusters’’ in European Budgerigars are caused by a herpesvirus. Hemolytic-uremic syndrome in a postpartum mare concurrent with encephalopathy in the neonatal foal. J Vet Diagn Invest 20:239–242 (2008). Thrombotic
microangiopathy (TMA) is characterized by thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolysis, and organ ischemia resulting from platelet thrombosis within the arterial microvasculature and capillaries.4,8,13 The kidneys and brain are most prominently affected, and acute renal failure and/or neurologic signs are the predominant clinical
manifestations. Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) are the renal and neurologic forms, respectively, of TMA described in the human literature. Hemolytic-uremic syndrome occurs most commonly in children as a postdiarrheal complication of enteritis caused by Escherichia coli 0157 and other Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). Thrombotic microangiopathy involving glomeruli was evident on microscopic examination of the mare’s kidneys. Microscopic evidence of brain edema was the principal postmortem finding in the foal. Escherichia coli 0103:H2 was isolated from the mare’s uterus and the gastrointestinal tracts of both animals. May
Diagnosis of Clostridium perfringens intestinal infections in sheep and goats. J Vet Diagn Invest 20:253–265 (2008).
The most accepted criterion in establishing a definitive diagnosis of enterotoxemia is detection of C. perfringens toxins in intestinal contents. Also, histopathological examination of brain is very useful for diagnosis of type D disease, as lesions produced by epsilon toxin in the brains of sheep and goats are pathognomonic for type D enterotoxemia.
Histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings in two white-tailed deer fawns persistently infected with Bovine viral diarrhea virus. J Vet Diagn Invest 20:289–296 (2008). The
twins died at 1 day of age from trauma unrelated to the infection, and tissues were collected for histologic and immunohistochemical examination. The most significant histologic abnormality was diffuse depletion of B-lymphocytes in both fawns. The BVDV antigen was distributed widely throughout many tissues and cell types, most notably epithelium and vascular endothelium, consistent with that reported in cattle. In contrast to cattle, lymphocytes exhibited only very rare positive staining.
Encephalitis in aborted bovine fetuses associated with Bovine herpesvirus 1 infection. J Vet Diagn Invest 20:297–303 (2008).
histologic lesions that consisted of glial nodules and variable degrees of mononuclear inflammation, microhemorrhage, neuronal necrosis, and cerebral cortical cavitation. There was positive staining of neurons, glial cells, and endothelial cells for BHV-1. BHV-1 was found by PCR. The neurologic
histopathology attributed to BHV-1 infection in these cases overlaps with the neurologic lesions produced by Neospora caninum, a common etiologic agent of bovine abortion.
Hepatic hemorrhage, hemocoelom, and sudden death due to Haemoproteus infection in passerine birds: eleven cases. J Vet Diagn Invest 20:304–313 (2008). A promiscuous genotype of
Haemoproteus capable of undergoing host switching on a familial level was identified. This protozoan caused severe disease with high mortality in 6 species of exotic passerine birds housed in California at the San Diego Zoo. Necropsy findings consisted of hemocoelom and irregularly scattered areas of hemorrhage and hepatocellular necrosis. Affected areas of liver contained solitary protozoal megaloschizonts in varied states of degeneration and peripheral nonsuppurative inflammation. No other parasite life stages were found in parenchymal organs or blood smears.
Neurological disease in cattle in southern Brazil associated with Bovine herpesvirus infection (BHV-1 and BHV-5). J Vet Diagn Invest 20:346–349 (2008).
Major clinical signs included excessive salivation, nasal and ocular discharge, circling, recumbency, depression, incoordination, grinding of teeth, and paddling movements. Necropsy findings in 10 of 22 cattle included hyperemia and softening of the rostral
portions of the telencephalic cortex, with flattening of gyri, and malacia. Cattle in 10 cases did not show any gross lesions. Histological examination in most cases revealed nonsuppurative and necrotizing meningoencephalitis with acute neuronal necrosis, edema, eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in astrocytes and neurons, and infiltration of gitter cells. Seven isolates were identified as Bovine herpesvirus 5, and 4 were identified as Bovine herpesvirus 1.
Fatal yersiniosis in farmed deer caused by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis serotype O:3 encoding a mannosyltransferase-like protein WbyK. J Vet
Diagn Invest 20:356–359 (2008). Histopathologically, the disease was characterized by
multifocal pulmonary hemorrhage and mild interstitial pneumonia, marked diffuse cholangiohepatitis, minimal myocarditis with mild myocardial degeneration, and mild multifocal suppurative cystic colitis. The isolates were PCR-positive for genes virF, inv, yopB, and yopH, which are essential for invasion and colonization of host intestine and lung. The isolates reacted with polyclonal antibodies against serotype O:3 antigen. The Ogenotyping patterns of the isolates were identical with each other, but different from those of the 21 O-genotypes (or serotypes) reported previously. In addition to the Oantigen genes possessed by classical serotype O:3, a gene (wbyK ) encoding a mannosyltransferase-like protein was detected in these isolates. The wbyK gene of the isolates showed 94% of DNA sequence homology with the wbyK gene harbored by Y. pseudotuberculosis O:1b.
Clinical and histopathological features of a thymolipoma in a dog.
J Vet Diagn Invest 20:360–364 (2008). thymolipoma, which is a rare, slow-growing, benign tumor
of the thymus composed of mature adipose tissue and thymic tissue. Microscopically, the mass was composed of adipose tissue with numerous cords and nests of thymic tissue without corticomedullary arrangement.
A case of two different tumors in the heart of a dog.
J Vet Diagn Invest 20:365–368 (2008). Histological examination revealed the coexistence of tubular
adenocarcinoma and an undifferentiated sarcoma in the myocardium. Immunohistochemical staining of the sarcoma cells was negative for cytokeratin, desmin, and smooth muscle myosin, thus excluding their epithelial or myoepithelial origin, as well as an origin from smooth muscles cells. These findings, together with the coexpression of vimentin and a–smooth muscle actin, suggested that the sarcoma was derived from myofibroblasts.
An outbreak of chronic pneumonia and polyarthritis syndrome caused by Mycoplasma bovis in feedlot bison (Bison bison). J Vet Diagn Invest 20:369–
371 (2008). caseonecrotic pneumonia; polyarthritis; and laryngitis. Same as in Cattle.
Malignant mediastinal extra-adrenal paraganglioma with spinal cord invasion in a dog. J Vet Diagn Invest 20:372–375 (2008). A locally invasive mass
involving the thoracic wall. Upon necropsy, an encapsulated, fluctuant mass was noted attached to the right dorsal body wall in the region of the fifth to seventh thoracic vertebra. Churukian-Schenk staining revealed positive granules within the neoplastic cell cytoplasm and immunohistochemistry was positive for expression for cytoplasmic neuron-specific enolase and synaptophysin. Chromogranin A and S100 expression were found to be negative. Immunohistochemistry and silver staining did not allow further differentiation of the tumor, and the diagnosis remains consistent with either a chromaffin paraganglioma or a nonchromaffin paraganglioma (chemodectoma) with some production of catecholamines.
Hepatic intranuclear glycogen inclusions in western barred bandicoots (Perameles bougainville). J Vet Diagn Invest 20:376–379 (2008). hepatocyte nuclei
characterized by margination of chromatin and concomitant central pallor. Periodic acid– Schiff reagent stained 131 of 142 (92%) of these abnormal hepatocyte nuclei. Positive staining was completely eliminated by diastase pretreatment. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that abnormal hepatocyte nuclei with marginated chromatin did not contain viral particles. Rather, glycogen b-particles and arosettes were identified. Intranuclear glycogen is not necessarily pathologic, but can be seen in cases of hypoxia, hepatitis, diabetes, prednisone treatment or glucose-6phosphate deficiency.
Fonsecaea pedrosoi skin infection in a dog.
J Vet Diagn Invest 20:379–381 (2008).
Chromoblastomycosis, phaeohyphomycosis, and eumycotic mycetoma are a group of systemic and cutaneous diseases caused by dematiaceous fungi.1 Dematiaceous fungi are characterized by a brown to black pigmentation of their hyphae and are ubiquitous in nature. Most common species encountered in disease conditions include Fonsecaea spp., Alternaria spp., Bipolaris spp., Cladophialophora spp., and Curvularia spp.3 This report describes a phaeohyphomycotic condition caused by Fonsecaea pedrosoi infection in a dog. July
Paramyxovirus infection in pigs with interstitial pneumonia and encephalitis in the United States. J Vet Diagn Invest 13:428–433 (2001). In the last few years, newly recognized paramyxoviruses
have been associated with severe disease in several animal species, including swine, as well as in human beings. Recently, a paramyxovirus was isolated from a swine herd in the northcentral United States that experienced an epizootic of respiratory and central nervous system disease. Affected pigs had interstitial pneumonia with necrotizing bronchiolitis and encephalitis characterized by lymphocytic perivasculitis and diffuse gliosis. Other pig respiratory viruses are PRRS, porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV), porcine circovirus (PCV) type 2, antigenically variant H1N1 strains of swine influenza virus (SIV), as well as H1N2 SIV in England and H3N2 SIV in the United States have been identified. Historically, only a few viruses had been associated with respiratory disease in swine, and, in field situations, only swine influenza virus (SIV) and pseudorabies virus (PRV) were detected with any frequency. Cytomegalovirus, adenovirus, and enterovirus also have been reported to cause pneumonia in swine but are rarely encountered.
Canine parvovirus 2c infection in central Portugal.
J Vet Diagn Invest 20:488– 491 (2008). Both, CPV-2b and CPV-2c were found in severe disease, and significant
differences were not found in the clinical outcome of dogs infected with CPV- 2b versus CPV-2c. Further, significant associations were not found between breed, age category (,12 weeks, .14 weeks), vaccination status, or clinical outcome. the original CPV-2 isolates were replaced by new antigenic types, termed CPV-2a, and a virus type displaying a single mutation that was termed CPV-2b. CPV-2c, co-circulates with CPV-2a and CPV-2b. Since its discovery, CPV-2c has also been detected in Vietnam, Europe, the United States and South America.
Pathology and toxicology findings for search-andrescue dogs deployed to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack sites: initial five-year surveillance. J Vet
Diagn Invest 20:477–484 (2008). significant numbers of both deployed and nondeployed
dogs have evidence of inhaled matter as demonstrated by the presence of anthracotic pigments or refractile particulate matter in pulmonary tissue. Although S&R activities in response to the 9/11 terrorist attacks exposed dogs to a wide variety of potentially toxic compounds, to date, these dogs do not appear to suffer from higher mortality or increased pulmonary disease compared with nondeployed dogs.
Interaction of ionophore and vitamin E in knockdown syndrome of turkeys. J Vet Diagn Invest 20:472–476 (2008). Turkeys with
knockdown syndrome had myopathy of skeletal muscles, but no lesions in the myocardium. Generally, concentration of monensin in serum was highest in turkeys diagnosed with knockdown syndrome given more than 90 mg/kg of monensin in the diet. Vitamin E concentrations in the livers were statistically higher in healthy turkeys fed a diet free of monensin than in the livers of birds from the 3 groups exposed to monensin. This suggests that the concentration of monensin in serum positively correlates to the severity of clinical signs and pathology and to the amount of monensin in the feed. The current study also suggests that monensin in the feed could induce lower concentrations of vitamin E in the liver of turkeys and can predispose the turkeys to knockdown syndrome.
Lymphangiosarcoma in the nictitating membrane of a horse.
J Vet Diagn Invest 20:108–110 (2008). Histologically, the mass consisted of dilated, thin-walled vascular
clefts and channels, lined by flattened to cuboidal endothelial cells with moderate cellular pleomorphism. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells stained positive for vimentin and partially positive for factor VIII–related antigen. Ultrastructural analysis revealed discontinuous endothelial lining vascular channels that partially lacked a basal membrane.
Pathologic findings in equine muscle (excluding polysaccharide storage): a necropsy study. J Vet Diagn Invest
20:572–579 (2008). Chronic myopathic change (excessive fiber size variation and internal
nuclei) was evaluated in horses without polysaccharide storage myopathy and was the most common finding (36 animals; 15.7%). Chronic myopathic change was more common in older animals. Generalized muscle atrophy was present in 30 animals (13.1%). Myonecrosis was attributed to endotoxic injury (11 animals; 4.8%), bone fracture (8 animals; 3.5%), bacterial infection (5 animals; 2.2%), muscle rupture (3 animals; 1.3%), selenium deficiency (2 animals; 0.9%), and exertional rhabdomyolysis (1 horse; 0.4%); cause was not determined in 9 animals (3.9%). Intramyofiber protozoa were detected in 19 horses and ponies (8.3%). Denervation atrophy was detected in 14 animals (6.1%). Neoplasia involving muscle occurred in 3 animals (1.3%), injection site reactions were detected in 4 animals (1.7%), and focal lymphocytic infiltrates were found in 6 animals (2.6%). Other findings were ring fibers (2 horses; 0.9%), fiber splitting (2 horses; 0.9%), and fat infiltration (1 horse; 0.4%).
Acute phase protein response in goats.
Hp and SAA could be considered as major APPs.
J Vet Diagn Invest 20:580–
Effects of T lymphocytes, interleukin-1, and interleukin6 on renal fibrosis in canine end-stage renal disease. J
Vet Diagn Invest 20:585–592 (2008). The present study shows that T lymphocytes and IL-6
play important roles in renal fibrosis. secreting IL-1 in the ESRD kidney. IL-6 is a
cytokine secreted by T cells, epithelial cells, and IL-1-activated fibroblasts. expression of IL-6 is increased in direct proportion to the rate of fibrous area. Moreover, IL-6 expression localizes in the regions of infiltrating lymphocytes and around the glomeruli in the present study (Fig. 4C). This pattern of expression indicates that T lymphocytes in the infiltrate regions and IL-1-activated fibroblasts around the glomeruli secrete IL-6 as an immune response in the ESRD kidney.
Diffuse intestinal T-cell lymphosarcoma in a yellow-naped Amazon parrot (Amazona ochrocephala auropalliata). J Vet Diagn Invest 20:656–660
(2008). Lymphosarcoma (LSA) is the most commonly reported lymphoid neoplasm in
Bronchopneumonia associated with extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli in a horse. J Vet Diagn Invest 20:661–664 (2008). (ExPEC) strains
carrying distinct virulence attributes are known to cause diseases in humans and animals and infect organs other than the gastrointestinal tract. The strain of E. coli belonged to O2:H21 and carried virulence genes cnf1, sfa, foc, fimA, and papG allele I that are known to be associated with ExPEC strains. The strain was resistant to several antimicrobials including clindamycin, erythromycin, oxacillin, penicillin, and rifampin.
Lipid-rich pleural mesothelioma in a dog.
J Vet Diagn Invest 20:665–667 (2008).
hard plaque-like masses that studded the epicardial, pericardial, mediastinal, and costal pleural surfaces. Within the right thorax, the lesions coalesced into a large mass that occupied most of the cavity. Histologically, the masses were composed of solid sheets and papillary aggregates of medium-sized polygonal cells that contained abundant vacuolated to clear cytoplasm. Some of the cytoplasmic vacuoles stained positive with oil red O. The stroma contained metaplastic trabeculae of woven and lamellar bone. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells expressed vimentin, pancytokeratin, and S-100 protein. Transmission electron microscopy corroborated the presence of intracytoplasmic vacuoles and demonstrated prominent intercellular junctional complexes and apically located microvilli..
Ulcerative enterocolitis in two goats associated with enterotoxin- and beta2 toxin–positive Clostridium perfringens type D. J Vet Diagn Invest
20:668–672 (2008). Enterotoxemia caused by Clostridium perfringens type D in sheep is
believed to result from the action of epsilon toxin (ETX). However, the sole role of ETX in the intestinal changes of the acute and chronic forms of enterotoxemia in goats remains controversial, and the synergistic action of other C. perfringens toxins has been suggested previously. Histologically, there were multifocal fibrinonecrotic and ulcerative ileitis and colitis, edema of the colonic serosa, and proteinaceous interstitial edema of the lungs. Clostridium perfringens type D carrying the genes for enterotoxin (CPE) and beta2 toxin (CPB2). These findings indicate that CPB2 may have contributed to the necrotic changes observed in the intestine, possibly assisting ETX transit across the intestinal mucosa.
Bilateral perirenal hemorrhage in two Stone’s sheep (Ovis dalli stonei ): a possible manifestation of malignant catarrhal fever. J Vet Diagn Invest
20:676–678 (2008). Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF)-like disease was diagnosed at
postmortem in 2 Stone’s sheep (Ovis dalli stonei). On gross examination, the predominant abnormality in both sheep was severe perirenal hemorrhage and multiple renal infarcts. Microscopically, there was severe, multisystemic lymphocytic arteritis. Both sheep were positive for Ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2).
A case of coccygeal chondroid chordoma in a cat: morphological and immunohistochemical features. J Vet Diagn Invest 20:679–681 (2008). mass on the
tip of the tail. Histological examination performed after apical caudectomy revealed a neoplasm affecting the distal part of the last coccygeal vertebra. The neoplasm consisted of lobules of physaliferous cells surrounding cartilaginous tissue and a central core of trabecular bone.
Fat embolism secondary to yellow fat disease in an Appaloosa horse.
Vet Diagn Invest 20:684–687 (2008). multinodular, hemorrhagic foci in fat tissues with
yellow-brown discoloration. The most affected areas were peritoneal fat and perirenal, epicardial, and subcutaneous adipose tissues. Other findings were hepatic lipidosis and multiple 1–1.5 cm hemorrhagic foci scattered in both lungs. Histopathological examination revealed severe degeneration and necrosis of adipose tissue with dystrophic calcification. The necrotic fat was infiltrated by abundant foamy macrophages and multinucleated giant cells. Based on these histopathological changes, yellow fat disease, also called nutritional panniculitis, was diagnosed. In addition, the microscopic examination of lung and kidney sections stained with osmium tetroxide and oil red O revealed numerous lipid droplets within glomerular and alveolar septal capillaries.
Isolation of Arcanobacterium hippocoleae from a case of placentitis and stillbirth in a mare. J Vet Diagn Invest 20:688–691 (2008). necrosuppurative
placentitis and stillbirth in an American Quarterhorse mare. Numerous colonies of irregular, Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria were observed by histological examination within fibrin lattice associated with placental lesions. Arcanobacterium hippocoleae was isolated.
Idiopathic arterial medial calcification of the thoracic arteries in an adult horse. J Vet Diagn Invest 20:692–697 (2008). Histologically, the tunica media of the
aorta, coronary arteries, and pulmonary arteries were expanded by foci of elastin fiber calcification and extracellular matrix with lacunae formation. The vascular lesions are comparative to what has been described as medial arterial calcification, seen in humans suffering from chronic renal failure or diabetes mellitus.
Hepatic encephalopathy in two goat kids with common paternity.
Diagn Invest 20:807–811 (2008). Microscopic examination, however, demonstrated
hepatocellular atrophy and anomalies in the hepatic microvasculature, including duplication of hepatic arteries, small-to-indistinct portal veins, and oval cell hyperplasia. In addition, spongiform change was microscopically identified throughout the parenchyma of the brain, most notably within the white matter and along the junction of gray and white matter. The diagnosis of congenital portal vein hypoperfusion (suggestive of a portosystemic shunt) with resultant hepatic encephalopathy was proposed in each case based on the characteristic microscopic lesions in conjunction with the signalment and history of the goats.
Equid herpesvirus 2–associated oral and esophageal ulceration in a foal. J Vet Diagn Invest 20:811–815 (2008). Oral mucosal pustules, and esophageal ulcers,
nuclear inclusions suggestive of herpesviruses. Immunohistochemical staining with antibodies specific for EHV-2 was positive for epithelial cells in the vicinity of the ulcer but not in more distant mucosa. Electron microscopic evaluation of the biopsy showed herpesviral particles in epithelial cells. This foal likely had lesions associated with EHV-2 and not EHV-1, -4, or -5.
Fibropapilloma of the glans penis in a horse.
(2008). multiple, smooth, glistening, grayish-pink,
J Vet Diagn Invest 20:816–819
variably sized, exophytic, nodular masses circumferentially surrounding the external urethral orifice. Microscopically, the masses consisted of abundant amounts of loosely arranged fibrovascular stroma with low numbers of spindloid to stellate fibrocytes. The overlying epithelium was mildly to moderately hyperplastic with short anastomosing rete ridges (pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia). The lesion was diagnosed as fibropapilloma because of features similar to bovine penile fibropapilloma including anatomical location, gross appearance, and histological
characteristics. A sarcoid was considered but negated as the lesion lacked the classical streaming and interlacing spindle cell population, ‘‘picket-fence’’ appearance at the epithelial interface, and long, thin, dissecting rete ridges typical of most equine sarcoids. Polymerase chain reaction for the Bovine papillomavirus-1 and Bovine papillomavirus-2 E5 gene and for Equine herpesvirus 1, 3, and 4 was negative on formalin-fixed tissue specimens.
Herpesvirus-associated neurological disease in a donkey.
J Vet Diagn Invest 20:820–823 (2008). asinine herpesvirus in DNA extracted from deep pharyngeal swabs.
This sequence had complete identity with short sequences of asinine herpesvirus previously identified in donkeys with interstitial pneumonia. Amino acid analysis of the entire sequence indicated high similarity with Equid herpesvirus 7 Zebra herpesvirus 1 (90%), and Equid herpesvirus 2. subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae.
Abortion in a horse following Neorickettsia risticii infection.
J Vet Diagn Invest 20:827–830 (2008). Potomac horse fever was diagnosed based on polymerase chain
reaction (PCR) analysis of whole blood and a high antibody titer to Neorickettsia risticii. The mare made a rapid clinical recovery following antibiotic therapy, but aborted 98 days later. Necropsy on the aborted fetus revealed lymphohistiocytic colitis, lymphadenitis, myocarditis, and hepatitis. The placenta was grossly and histologically normal.
Perforin expression in feline epitheliotropic cutaneous lymphoma.
J Vet Diagn Invest 20:831–835 (2008). Granular lymphocytes were consistently detected on blood
smears, and histologically, the tumor involved the skin and superficial subcutis. Tumor lymphocytes expressed cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3) and perforin molecules, suggestive of a cytotoxic phenotype. Location, histopathological features, and perforin expression were similar to a distinct entity in human medicine designated primary cutaneous, CD8-positive, epidermotropic, cytotoxic, T-cell lymphoma.
Immunohistochemical features of a feline spinal cord gemistocytic astrocytoma. J Vet Diagn Invest 20:836–838 (2008). On histologic exanimation, the
neoplastic cells were pleomorphic, with distinct cell borders and abundant cytoplasm that frequently extended into variably sized fibrillar processes. Neoplastic cells were strongly positive for GFAP and negative for EGFR. Eight percent (mean percentage) of neoplastic cells were p53 positive.
A nonhealing ulcerative skin lesion associated with Trichinella nativa infection in a cat. J Vet Diagn Invest 20:839–843 (2008). clinically apparent disease
seems to be a rare manifestation of this infection in cats. This manifested as a firm, poorly circumscribed subcutaneous mass adjacent to the eye, which demonstrated clinical features and histopathologic findings indicative of chronic inflammation associated with granulation tissue and fibrodysplasia. PCR speciated the organism as trichinella native.
Malignant catarrhal fever in a captive American bison (Bison bison) in Italy. J Vet Diagn Invest 20:843–846 (2008). Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fatal,
systemic disease of cattle and other domestic and wild ruminants that, in Europe, is caused by Ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2).
Mandibular and maxillary osteomyelitis and myositis in a captive herd of red kangaroos (Macropus rufus). J Vet Diagn Invest 20:846–849 (2008).
Pseudomonas spp. was consistently isolated from the sites of infection in all animals.
Hypertrophic osteopathy associated with mycotic pneumonia in two juvenile elk (Cervus elaphus). J Vet Diagn Invest 20:849–853 (2008). Radiographs of
the lower limbs showed periosteal thickening of the distal extremities, consistent with hypertrophic osteopathy. Thoracic radiographs indicated the presence of pulmonary nodules. Cytologic evaluations of tracheal washes on both elk were consistent with inflammation. Acid-fast stains on both samples were negative. Because of the poor prognosis, both elk were euthanized. At necropsy, the carpal, metacarpal, tarsal, and metatarsal bones, as well as the radius, ulna, and tibia had thickening of cortical bone. There were multiple encapsulated nodules throughout the lungs, lymph nodes, and kidney, and smaller nodules in the myocardium. On microscopic examination, these nodules contained myriads of hyphae, and immunohistochemistry for Aspergillus sp. was strongly positive. Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated from affected tissue in 1 elk.
An outbreak of acute aflatoxicosis on a chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) farm in Argentina. J Vet Diagn Invest 20:853–856 (2008). Chinchillas (Chinchilla
lanigera) are known to be very sensitive to aflatoxins- Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 were in the feed- but was positive for aflatoxin B1 in quantities that exceeded the recommended levels. Macroscopic inspection of livers revealed general enlargement, pale yellowish coloration, hypertrophy, rounded borders, and increased friability. Size and color were remarkably different from a healthy organ. Histopathologic analyses of hepatic parenchyma showed severe, diffuse cytoplasmic vacuolation of hepatocytes. Sudan III staining confirmed the presence of lipid within the vacuoles.
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