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J Vet Intern Med 2008;22:1203-1209
50% were bacteremic at admission. The most common isolate was Enterococcus spp. IgG concentration was not associated with blood culture status. Blood culture status was not associated with survival. Possiblity of compromised intestinal barrier increasing the risk for bacterial translocation and subsequent bacteremia. Acute Hemobilia and Hemocholecyst in 2 Dogs with Gallbladder Carcinoid
J Vet Intern Med 2008;22:1249-1252
Thrombosis of the Pulmonary Artery in a Yearling Thoroughbred Colt
J Vet Intern Med 2009;23:215-219
Etiological agent: Actinobacillus equuli
Large areas of consolidation and foci of necrosis.
pulmonary artery thrombus
Juvenile Pancreatic Atrophy in Greyhounds: 12 Cases (1995 -2000)
J Vet Intern Med 2009;23:67-71
Histopathology: Acinar cell apoptosis, zymogen granule loss, cytoplasmic clearing or vacuolar change, lobular atrophy, islet loss, and lymphocytic or lymphoplasmacytic pancreatitis. Antemortem test results on the 2 Greyhound puppies indicated concurrent exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM).
Juvenile pancreatic atrophy
Zymogen granule loss, apoptotic bodies (arrows), and acinar cell cytoplasmic
Previous reports of pancreatic acinar atrophy was reported to be due to chronic inflammation, this is the first report of juvenile onset with no apparent cause but mostly probably is auoimmune-mediated. Fibrin Deposits and Organ Failure in Newborn Foals with Severe Septicemia
J Vet Intern Med 2008;22: 1403-1410
Summary: Previous studies showed that following septicemia fibrin deposition takes place in multiple organs leading to organ failure in adult horses and new born humans. Here they evaluated if this is true with new born foals, because foals <1 yr old have poor homeostatic mechanism. Results showed that new born foals do develop similar condition as adult horses following septicemia causing multiorgan failure. Fibrin Stain: Phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin (PTAH) and IHC for fibrin were used to visualize fibrin deposits in multiple organs. Vitamin D-Dependent Hereditary Rickets Type I in a Cat
J Vet Intern Med 2009;23:196-199
Summary: CBC showed hypocalcemia and hyperphosphotemia. Radiographs showed decreased bone density. Increased parathyroid hormone secretion which is in response to low blood calcium levels. 25- Hydroxycholecalciferol was within the reference range but the active metabolite 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol was lower (no hydroxylation in kidney).
Two types of rickets: 1. Vitamin D-Dependent Hereditary Rickets Type I 2. Vitamin D receptor deficiency Type II Normal process: Vitamin D precursor in skin-Sun exposure-become Vit D3 or cholicalciferol-migrates to liver-25-hydoxycholicalciferol-further migrates to kidney becomes active vitamin D which is 1,25-hydroxycholicalciferol (1-alphahydroxylase). Due to mutation in the gene that encodes the enzyme, 1-alpha-hydroxylase. Mutation in exon 2 and single nucleotide deletion in exon 4 leading to frame shift and premature truncation of the protein that is nonfunctional. So in this study the decreased production of Vitamin D was due to the mutation in the enzyme 1-alpha-hydroxylase which is Type 1 rickets. Congenital Thyroid Hypoplasia and Seizures in 2 Littermate Kittens
J Vet Intern Med 2008;22:1427-1431
Gross findings: Disproportionally short legs, abducted elbows, rounded and flattened faces were severely obstipated. The facial structure and dentition resembled that 4-week-old kitten. There was a poor body weight gain, and had a large colon filled with firm feces. Radiographs showed widened bone growth plates inappropriate for their as well as shortened long bones and wide vertebral bodies. Several tarsal carpal bones were not visible due to delayed mineralization. Serum total T4 concentrations lower thanthe detectable levels. Gross, radiographs, and histological findings are suggestive of epiphyseal dysgenesis and typical of congenital hypothyroidism (CH).
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Concurrent Infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Mycoplasma haemolamae in a Young Alpaca
J Vet Intern Med 2009;23:379-382
History of partial anorexia, mild colic, ataxia progressing to recumbency, and suspected blindness of 1-day duration. To the authors’ knowledge, this case is the first report of concurrent M. haemolamae and A. phagocytophilum infection leading to neurological, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal signs in an alpaca.
Calcium Regulating Hormones and Serum Calcium and Magnesium Concentrations in Septic and Critically Ill Foals and their Association with Survival
J Vet Intern Med 2009;23:335-343
Septic foals had decreased Ca2, increased serum PTH, and phosphorus concentrations. No differences in serum Mg2, PTHrP, and CT concentrations were found. Nonsurviving septic foals had higher PTH concentrations than survivors. Cellular and Molecular Characterization of a Feline Insulinoma
J Vet Intern Med 2009;23:383-387
Immunohistochemistry examination indicated that the tumor cells expressed insulin, chromogranin A, and somatostatin but not glucagon or pancreatic polypeptide. The tumor expressed several genes characteristic of pancreatic beta cells including insulin, glucose transporter 2, and glucokinase. The tumor also expressed hexokinase 1, a glycolytic enzyme not normally expressed in b cells. GCK expression was higher in the insulinoma than in normal pancreas from the same cat. The GCK: HK1 ratio was 420-fold higher in insulinoma tissue than in normal pancreas. Protozoal Hepatitis Associated with Immunosuppressive Therapy in a Dog
J Vet Intern Med 2009;23:366-368
The most common forms of canine neosporosis are myositis-polyradiculoneuritis and encephalomyelitis. Lack of Detectable Equine Herpesviruses 1 and 2 in Paraffin-Embedded Specimens of Equine Sarcoidosis
J Vet Intern Med 2009;23:623-625
Equine sarcoidosis is a rare, multisystemic, noncaseating, granulomatous and lymphoplasmacytic disease of unknown etiology. A recent report described a horse with granulomatous skin disease displaying histologic, electron microscopic, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) findings consistent with equine herpesvirus 2 (EHV-2). Retrospective study in 8 horses with sarcoidosis. PCR assays of the tissues were performed to detect DNA associated with EHV-1 and EHV-2. The PCR analyses for both equine herpesviruses’ DNA were negative in all 8 horses. Ionized Hypercalcemia in Dogs: A Retrospective Study of 109 Cases (1998 –2003)
J Vet Intern Med 2009;23:514-519
Ionized calcium (iCa) comprises approximately 50% of serum total Ca, is the most biologically active form and directly affects parathyroid hormone (PTH) and vitamin D release to regulate body Ca concentrations. Neoplasia, specifically lymphosarcoma (releases PTHrP), followed by renal failure, hyperparathyroidism (increased PTH), hypoadrenocorticism (Ionic imbalance due to mineralocorticoid and corticosteroid defficiency) and Vit D toxicity (increased calcium absorption through GI tract) were the most common causes of increased ionized hypercalcemia.
Presumptive Albendazole Toxicosis in 12 Alpacas
J Vet Intern Med 2009;23:945–949
Signalment: 7 crias and 2 adults presented with severe watery diarrhea, lethargy, and fever. Clin Path: Moderate/marked hypoproteinemia, moderate/profound neutropenia Gross path: Crias: Erythema of the serosal and mucosal surfaces of the small and large intestines. The Adults: Erythema of the serosal and mucosal surfaces of the large intestines, with prominent spiral colon serosal hemorrhages and diffuse, severe, linear mucosal ulcerations. Histopathology: Crias: Small intestinal crypt epithelial necrosis. Crypts were dilated with lumina containing necrotic cell debris. The remaining crypt epithelium was regenerative. Some regions were noted to exhibit extensive mucosal necrosis with collapse of the lamina propria, fibrin deposition, and admixed neutrophilic cell debris. Large intestine was similarly affected. Adults: Similar lesions with additional areas of severe ulceration were noted in the colonic mucosa with intralesional bacterial colonies and fibrin thrombi. Bone marrow was markedly hypocellular, with extensive depletion of hematopoietic precursor cells.
Calcium Reuptake Related Genes as a Cardiac Biomarker in Dogs with Chronic Mitral Valvular Insufficiency
J Vet Intern Med 2009;23:832–839
The mRNA expression levels of PLN and HAX-1, but not SERCA2a were significantly reduced in dogs with moderate to severe Chronic Mitral Valvular Insufficiency. SERCA2a is a transmembrane protein expressed in the myocardium, that controls both the rate of cytosolic calcium removal and loading via the sarcoplasmic
reticulum. PLN modulates SERCA2a activity by down-regulating its activation. HAX-1 is a recently identified PLN-binding partner. Binding of HAX-1 to PLN increases cytosolic calcium concentrations in myocytes. Idiopathic Eosinophilic Masses of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Dogs
J Vet Intern Med 2009;23:818–823
Biopsies obtained from grossly normal areas were documented to be free of eosinophilic infiltrate in each dog. All masses contained a predominance of moderate to severe eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrate, ranging from mucosal to transmural. Associated fibrosis was described in masses from 5 dogs, with active fibroplasia also seen in 2 of these. Loss of colonic and gastric glands was described in 2 separate dogs, and flattening of the intestinal villi was described in 1 dog. Changes in Regulatory T Cells in Dogs with Cancer and Associations with Tumor Type
J Vet Intern Med 2009;23:875–881
The percentage of Tregs was significantly increased overall in dogs with cancer compared with control dogs. When tumor types were compared, Treg percentages were significantly increased in dogs with carcinoma. The Treg/CD8 T cell ratio was significantly higher in dogs with cancer compared with control dogs and was also significantly increased in 2 dogs with T-cell lymphoma. Multisystem Axonopathy and Neuronopathy in Golden Retriever Dogs
J Vet Intern Med 2009;23:935–939
Signalment: 3 Golden Retriever puppies from the same litter. Weakness and tremors progressing to tetraparesis with decreased reflexes. No ataxia noted. Gross path: Severe generalized muscle atrophy. Histopathology: Multiple serial sections of the spinal cord revealed diffuse axonal degeneration characterized by astrogliosis, axonal swelling, ballooned or absent myelin sheaths, and axons lacking normal myelin sheath (secondary demyelination). Ballooned myelin sheaths contained myelin sheath fragments and axonal debris, also with foamy, plump, finely granular macrophages inside. In the ventral gray column of the spinal cord, the CEV stain revealed extensive loss of neuronal cell bodies and occasionally a cell body in the process of degeneration at all spinal cord levels. The caudal medulla oblongata that had a continuum of the spinal cord astrogliotic lesions. The motor nuclei of the trigeminal nerve also had areas of vacuolation, with some neurons having multiple, large, clear empty cytoplasmic vacuoles. Scattered vacuolation of the myelin surrounding axons within most nerves was seen, with occasional pyknotic macrophages, axonal swelling, and axonal debris. The lesions were thought to represent Wallerian degeneration secondary to cell body loss.
Symmetrical lesion in the lateral and ventral funiculi (arrows) Luxol fast blue (LFB) stain showing loss of myelin that is and the sparing of the dorsal funiculi (arrowheads). Bielschowsky pronounced in the tracts in the dorsolateral funiculus of the stain. spinal cord (arrowheads).
Polymicrogyria in Standard Poodles
J Vet Intern Med 2009;23:871–874
Remission of Histiocytic Ulcerative Colitis in Boxer Dogs Correlates with Eradication of Invasive Intramucosal Escherichia coli
J Vet Intern Med 2009;23:964–969
Intramucosal E. coli was present in colonic biopsies of 7/7 Boxers with HUC. Clinical response was noted in all dogs within 2 weeks of enrofloxacin. Blinded evaluation of biopsies obtained before and after administration of enrofloxacin revealed a marked reduction in the severity of inflammation in 4 of the 5 dogs evaluated. Histologic remission lagged behind clinical remission in each of the responders.
Histologic evaluation of colonoscopic biopsies 2 weeks after diagnosis showed marked improvement of the initially severe, erosive HUC, but a mild infiltration of PAS 1 macrophages persisted. Colonoscopic biopsies collected from this dog on a 3rd occasion, 7 months after the initial diagnosis and were histologically within normal limits though rare macrophages and crypt distortion persisted.
In Vivo and In Vitro Evidence of the Involvement of CXCL1, a KeratinocyteDerived Chemokine, in Equine Laminitis
J Vet Intern Med 2009;23:1086–1096
Twenty adult horses using black walnut extract model of laminitis. 163-fold increase in laminar CXCL1 mRNA a 1.5 hours. 21-fold increase in laminar CXCL1 mRNA a 4 hours. CXCL1 gene expression was localized to laminar epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and emigrating leukocytes. CXCL1 plays an early and possibly initiating role in neutrophil accumulation, and that laminar keratinocytes are an important source of this chemokine. Gastric Neoplasia in Horses
J Vet Intern Med 2009;23:1097–1102
Twenty-four horses with gastric neoplasia. The most common presenting complaints were inappetance (17/24), weight loss (14/24), lethargy (7/24), hypersalivation (7/24), colic (5/24), and fever (5/24). Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common tumor identified (19/24), and was most often found as a single ulcerated, necrotic mass in the nonglandular portion of the stomach. leiomyoma (2), mesothelioma (1), adenocarcinoma (1), and lymphoma (1). Metastatic neoplasia was found in 18/23 horses. Colonic Impaction Due to Dysautonomia in an Alpaca
J Vet Intern Med 2009;23:1117–1122
HISTORY: 6 day history of anorexia, lethargy, weight loss, and obstipation. Dysphagia was observed in that the alpaca successfully prehended hay and attempted to drink, but water and masticated food either fell out of the alpaca’s mouth or were retained in the buccal pouch. There were generalized muscle fasciculations, and intermittent, focal, muscular twitches, most prominently affecting the face. GROSS: Colonic impaction involving the distal portion of the ascending colon.
HISTO: Neuronal density was diminished in both the cranial and caudal mesenteric ganglia of the affected alpaca, and associated with a relative increase in density and size of satellite (glial) cells. Cell bodies were moderately swollen, and had signs of degeneration characterized by pyknotic, eccentrically placed nuclei, hypereosinophilic cytoplasm, and diffuse loss of Nissl substance. Neurons were rare in the submucosal and myenteric plexuses and remaining cells were swollen with hypereosinophilic cytoplasm and pronounced nuclear eccentricity. IMMUNO: Cranial mesenteric ganglion, intestinal submucosa, and myenteric plexuses neurons expressed tyrosine hydroxylase with variably intense staining, whereas the control alpaca neurons stained uniformly and darkly. Tyrosine hydroxylase is an enzyme responsible for catalyzing the conversion of the amino acid L-tyrosine to DOPA. DOPA is a precursor for dopamine, and in turn is a precursor for norepinephrine and epinephrine.
Comparison of Histopathologic Findings in Biopsies from the Duodenum and Ileum of Dogs with Enteropathy
J Vet Intern Med 2010;24:80–83
30 cases 8/30 (27%) had the same histopathologic diagnosis in both the duodenum and the ileum.
3/30 (10%) if different disease severity was also considered as disagreement. Microscopic pathology would have been found in 60% if only duodenal and 80% if only ileal. Congenital Cardiac Defects in Neonatal Foals: 18 Cases (1992 –2007)
J Vet Intern Med 2010;24:206–212
Arabian foals represented 39% of cases. Ventricular septal defect (VSD) (14/18) Tetralogy of Fallot (5/18) Tricuspid valve atresia (4/18) Endoscopic, Biopsy, and Histopathologic Guidelines for the Evaluation of Gastrointestinal Inflammation in Companion Animals
J Vet Intern Med 2010;24:10–26
The World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) International Gastrointestinal (GI) Standardization Group was convened in 2004 for the purpose of developing standards for history taking, physical examination, laboratory diagnostic tests, imaging procedures and reports, endoscopic procedures and reports, biopsy procedures and reports, histopathologic interpretation, immunohistochemistry (IHC), treatment trials, and patient response and outcome in dogs and cats with gastrointestinal disease. Canine Sterile Nodular Panniculitis: A Retrospective Study of 14 Cases
J Vet Intern Med 2010;24:278–284
Skin lesions were ulcerated or draining nodules in 9 dogs and nonulcerative subcutaneous nodules in 5. Most dogs had systemic signs, such as fever, inappetence, lethargy, and multiple lesions. Common findings included neutrophilia with or without left shift and increased alkaline phosphatase activity. Concurrent diseases included pancreatic disease, SLE, rheumatoid arthritis, polyarthritis, lymphoplasmacytic colitis, and hepatic disease. Progressive Juvenile Glomerulonephropathy in 16 Related French Mastiff (Bordeaux) Dogs
J Vet Intern Med 2010;24:314–322
Clinical signs were typical of progressive glomerulopathy with resultant renal failure. Both males and females from healthy parents were affected. An autosomal recessive mode of transmission is suspected. Evaluation of Brain Tissue or Cerebrospinal Fluid with Broadly Reactive Polymerase Chain Reaction for Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, Spotted Fever Group Rickettsia, Bartonella, and Borrelia Species in Canine Neurological Diseases (109 Cases)
J Vet Intern Med 2010;24:372–378
Pathogen nucleic acids were detected in 1 of 109 cases evaluated. Specifically, Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii DNA was amplified from 1/6 dogs with histopathologically confirmed GME.
Uveal Inflammation in Septic Newborn Foals
J Vet Intern Med 2010;24:391–397
Anterior uveitis is highly prevalent in septic newborn foals, especially in those with a positive blood culture, and it should be considered as a survival prognostic factor. Acute Renal Failure and Anuria Associated with Vitamin D Intoxication in Two Alpaca (Vicugna pacos) Cria
J Vet Intern Med 2010;24:443–449
Both cria developed tissue mineralization and acute renal failure after administration of excessive doses of vitamin D.
Drug-Induced Minimal Change Nephropathy in a Dog
J Vet Intern Med 2010;24:431–435
7-year-old, spayed female Giant Schnauzer with severe proteinuria. The dog had a 5-year clinical history of recurring otitis externa and allergic dermatitis; the dog was enrolled into a multicenter, randomized, double-blinded clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of masitinib mesylatea for the treatment of atopy. Masitinib is a selective and potent inhibitor of c-KIT-dependent cell proliferation as well as PDGFR dependent cell proliferation in vitro. Furthermore, masitinib inhibits to a lesser extent FGFR3.1 Another potentially important target of masitinib is LYN, which is a key component of the transduction pathway leading to IgE-induced degranulation. A presumptive diagnosis of subacute glomerulopathy was made based on the persistent proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia. Histopathologic changes within the kidney biopsy were minimal. Glomeruli were of normal cellularity, and thickening of the glomerular capillary loops was not evident. Within many glomeruli, a few podocytes were enlarged with increased cytoplasmic volume and slightly enlarged nuclei; rare parietal epithelial cells lining Bowman’s capsule were similarly hypertrophied. A few renal corpuscles had mild thickening or splitting of the basement membrane of Bowman’s capsule. The proximal tubular epithelium was slightly swollen with eosinophilic and granular cytoplasm (hyaline droplet change) and hyaline casts were present in a small number of distal tubules, indicative of proteinuria. Ultrastructurally, changes were restricted to the glomerular visceral epithelial cells (podocytes) and consisted of markedly diffuse foot process effacement and villous transformation. The cytoplasm of the podocytes was swollen and occasional vacuoles containing debris were identified. The glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and endothelium were normal in appearance, and immune deposits were not observed. A diagnosis of MCN was made based on these ultrastructural findings.
* = Glomerular BM Arrowhead: Endothelial cell arrow: Microvillus
Big arrow: Podocyte