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British Standard vs Eurocode 3 – Steel Building Design

A comparison between BS 5950 and Eurocode 3.

BS 5950 Eurocode 3
Terminology
Force Action
Capacity Mc Resistance Mc,Rd
Design strength py Yield strength fy
Dead load Permanent load
Live load Variable load
Wind load Another variable load
Symbol
Elastic Modulus Z Wel
Plastic Modulus S Wpl
Radius of Gyration r i
Torsion constant J It
Warping constant H Iw
Changes in load factor
1.4Gk + 1.6Qk 1.35Gk + 1.5 Qk

275 0.5 235 0.5


Classification: ε = ( ) Classification: ε = ( )
py fy

Moment Resistance
Class 1 and 2: Mc = pyS f yW pl
Class 1 and 2: Mc,Rd =
γ M1

Tu Trung Nguyen – MSc. Structural Engineering


British Standard vs Eurocode 3 – Steel Building Design
Class 3 semi-compact: f yWel ,min
Mc = pyZ or Mc = pySeff Class 3: Mc,Rd =
γ M1
Class 4: slender f yWeff ,min
Mc = pyZeff Class 4: Mc,Rd =
γ M1
Low shear Low Shear
Fv < 60% Pv VEd < 50% Vpl,Rd
Shear Resistance
Pv = 0.6pyA fy
Av
VEd = 3
γ M1
Shear Area Shear Area
Av = tD Av = A – 2btf – (tw + 2r)tf ≈ 1.04tD = htw
Shear bucking Shear bucking
d/t > 70 ε hw/tw > 72 ε
Deflection - Serviceability LS
Imposed load only Permanent action, δ 1
Variable action, δ 2
Pre-camber, δ 0
Span/360 – brittle δ max < L/250
Span/200 - general δ 2 < L/350 – brittle
δ 3 < L/300 – general

Compression Members
Pc = Agpc from table 23, 24 BS 5950 χβ a Af y
pc is a function of λ Nb,Rd =
γ M1
χ : reduction factor depends on λ , non-
dimensional slenderness
1
λ= ≤1
Φ + Φ2 − λ
2
Φ = 0.5[1 + a(λ − 0.2) + λ ]
β a Af y λ E
λ= = ; λ =π
N cr λ1 1 fy
π EI eff
2

Ncr = ; Ieff = 0.5 ho2 A + 2 μI


L2 cr
μ from table 6.8

Tu Trung Nguyen – MSc. Structural Engineering


British Standard vs Eurocode 3 – Steel Building Design

LTB
Mx < Mb/mLT and Mx < Mcx 1.0 for UB, UC
Mb = pb x modulus same approach as for compression
pb from λLT from table 16 χ LT β aW pl , y f y
Mb,Rd =
λLT = uνλ β w (see below) γ M1
L 1
λ= E λLT = ≤1
Φ LT + Φ LT − λLT
2
ry
ry = the radius of gyration about the minor axis 2
Φ LT = 0.5[1 + aLT (λLT − 0.2) + λLT ]
Class 1 and 2: β w = 1.0, Mb = pbSx
Class 3 semi-compact:
W pl . y f y λ E
λ LT = = ; λ =π
Mc = pyZ => β w = Zx/Sx M cr λ1 1 fy
Mc = pySeff => β w = Sx,eff/Sx π 2 EI ZI w L2 GI t
Mcr = C1 +
Class 4 slender cross-sections: L2 I z π 2 EI z
β w = Zx,eff/Sx C1 results from bending diagram below
mLT from Table 18 aLT = 0.34 for rolled UC section
1 aLT = 0.49 for rolled UB section
Equal flange: ν =
[1 + 0.05(λ / x) 2 ]0.25
u = 0.9 , x = D/T equal flange, I and H Approx:
0.9 Ah 1 Lt f 2
• Mcr = 2
1+ ( )
⎛L⎞ 20 iz h
⎜⎜ ⎟⎟
⎝ iz ⎠
LE
Quick determine λLT , using λLT = uνλ β w where λ = , conservative: u = 0.9, v=1, β w =1
ry

Tu Trung Nguyen – MSc. Structural Engineering


British Standard vs Eurocode 3 – Steel Building Design

Eq. 5.14 EC3 cl.5.3.3(1,2,3)


NEd = MEd/h
Deflection:
a L 1
e0 = m ; am = 0.5(1 + )
500 m
m: number of members to be restrained

1. Load factor
yM0 = 1,00, yM1 = 1,00, yM2 = 1,25

2. Tension:
N Ed Af y 0.9 ANet f u
≤ 1 ; Nt,Rd = min ( ; ) EC3:2005 cl.6.2.3 (1,2)
N t , Rd yM 0 yM 2

Tu Trung Nguyen – MSc. Structural Engineering


British Standard vs Eurocode 3 – Steel Building Design
Where: fu = 1.5fy (cl.3.2.2 (1))
Anet = A – (number of bolts)x(Diameter of bolts) cl.6.2.2.2

3.Compression
N Ed Af y
≤1 where Nc,Rd = for class 1,2 and 3 cl.6.2.4
N c , Rd yM 0

4. Bending moment
M Ed
≤1 cl.6.2.5
M c , Rd

Class 1, 2 Class 3 Class 4


W pl f y Wel , min f y Wel ,eff f y
Mc,Rd = M pl , Rd = Mc,Rd = M el ,Rd = Mc,Rd =
yM 0 yM 0 yM 0

Shear cl.6.2.6

Av f y
VEd 3
≤1 where Vpl,Rd =
V pl , Rd yM 0

Tu Trung Nguyen – MSc. Structural Engineering


British Standard vs Eurocode 3 – Steel Building Design

5.Bending and Shear


Cl.6.2.8
2VEd
N = (1 − ρ ) f y where ρ = ( − 1) 2
V pl , Rd
ρAw 2
[W pl , y − ]fy
4t w
My,V,Rd = ≤ M c , Rd Where Aw =hwtw
yM 0

6.Bending and axial force


Class 1, and 2 cl.6.2.9.1

MEd < MN,Rd

+ For only rectangular section


N
MN,Rd = Mpl,Rd [1- ( Ed ) 2 ]
N pl , Rd
+ For doubly symmetrical I and H section or other flange section to resistance about y-y
NEd < 0.25Npl,Rd

Tu Trung Nguyen – MSc. Structural Engineering


British Standard vs Eurocode 3 – Steel Building Design
0.5hwt w f y
NEd <
yM 0

Tu Trung Nguyen – MSc. Structural Engineering


British Standard vs Eurocode 3 – Steel Building Design

7.Guide for design curved beam to Eurocode 3

Determine out of plane bending stress:


M N 3σ B 2
Direct stress σ 1 = + Out-of-plane bending stress: σ 2 = 1
Wel A RT
R: radius of the section, T: Thickness of flange. B is outstand of the flange
1
B = (b − t − 2r )
2
Reduce design strength
0.5
⎡ 2 σ ⎤ σ
fyd = ⎢ f y − 3( 2 ) 2 − 3τ 2 ⎥ + 2
⎣ 2 ⎦ 2
- Check axial force (Please see Section 3)
- Check Bending capacity (please see Section 4)
- Check section capacity under axial load and bending moment at Section 6 (more obviously)
Briefly with class 1 and 2: I and H section
MEd < MN,z,Rd

N Ed
n= a = (A-2btf)/A < 0.5
N pl , Rd
+n<a MN,Rd = Mpl,z,Rd
n−a 2 1− n
+n>a MN,z,Rd = Mpl,z,Rd [1+ ( ) ] = Mpl,z,Rd ( )
1− a 1 − 0.5a

- Check member buckling (cl.6.3.3)

Tu Trung Nguyen – MSc. Structural Engineering


British Standard vs Eurocode 3 – Steel Building Design

Reference:
- Eurocode 3:1993-1-1:2005: General rules for steel building design
- Bristish Standards 5950-1:2000: Code of practice for design rolled and welded sections
- Charles King and David Brown (2001) Design for curved beam, SCI

Tu Trung Nguyen – MSc. Structural Engineering