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What Is Photography ?
Photography Is an art to showcase the world the way you
see it !

Photography Requires ..

A Camera
An Eye
A Good Point of View !

Camera is an instrument which , with users control , captures light ,
processes it and stores in the form of analogue ( photo film ) or digital
( CMOS memory ) forms for further processing.

Three Main classification

- Point and Shoot
- Prosumer*
- Digital SLR

Point and Shoot digital Cameras (P&S):
- Commonly referred to as consumer digital cameras.

- Typically small, compact and lightweight

- Typically very User-Friendly
- Image Quality has improved drastically

- Not technically its own specification

- Advanced models of P&S

- Similar in shape and appearance to Digital SLR's
-Typically have extended zoom range
(8-12X Optical Equiv)
- Typically combine user friendly
-P&S features with more advanced
manual features.

Digital SLR
- SLR Stands for Single Lens Reflex
- Have larger sensors, resulting in greater image quality
- Tend to favor manual control,
- Much larger and heavier
- Ability to interchange system lenses

- Most controls by user

Misconception about MEGAPIXEL!
Quality does not depend merely on the Megapixel of your camera.
- Each digital image is made from millions of tiny squares, known as pixels.
- Essentially, an image is recorded by tiny microlenses (pixels) which make up the cameras
- All Pixels are not created equal!
- A digital sensor is essentially made up
of millions of tiny micro-lenses (pixels)
- Pixels are analog devices which record light and color data
- Larger Sensors contain larger pixels,
which are much better and collecting this data


Megapixels Determine the total SIZE (Dimensions) of the image recorded by

- More MP does not always mean a better picture

- Digital Image dimensions do not equal print dimensions

- For example a full quality image from an 8 megapixel camera
will produce a digital image measuring approximately 9X14 inches but printing
standards say that you should not print to Photo Quality any larger than 8X10

A correct or good exposure occurs when you maintain as much detail as
possible in both the very bright parts (highlights) as well as the very dark parts
(shadows) of an image. How much of a range in which you can capture detail from
light to dark is referred to as the Dynamic Range. As you are about to see, there
can be many correct or good exposures

There are three factors which influence the exposure of your image:
-Shutter Speed

Shutter Speed
Refers to how long the shutter is open, exposing the image sensor to light.

(how long the camera sees the picture)

Measured in Seconds, from 30 down to 1/8000
Fast Shutter Speeds (600 and up) are used to stop motion and will freeze the subject.

Slow Shutter Speeds (1/60 or slower) can be used to portray movement or speed
Very Slow Shutter Speeds (5 sec. or slower) can be used in very low light situations to obtain
correct exposure, or achieve dramatic effects.
As your shutter speed decreases, chances of getting a blurry image increase because you must hold the
camera steady for a longer period.

An aperture is defined as a hole or opening through which light is admitted.
Inside the camera lens is a system of blades which open and close to increase or decrease
the opening through which light passes into the camera
Often referred to as an f-stop, aperture is usually represented by: f/1.8, or f/5.6
A Smaller number means a wider opening and is referred to as a larger value (eg. A large
aperture of 2.0, a small aperture of 22)
The wider the lens is open(larger aperture value), the more light gets in (you can use faster
shutter speeds)
Aperture also controls depth of field (DOF), which refers to how much of your image is in

A wide aperture (small #) will give a shallow DOF and can be used to isolate a subject.

- Refers to the light sensitivity of the sensor
- HIGH ISO value means the sensor will be MORE sensitive to light, meaning it will
take LESS LIGHT to get the right exposure

- Similar to Film Speeds in 35mm format

- Noise is similar to film grain and causes loss of fine detail in images
- It is more visible in dark parts of an image and is generally more noticeable when
displayed on screen than in print

For better understanding of the concepts about Aperture , Shutter speed
Imagine Your eye as your Camera .

For better understanding of the concepts about Aperture , Shutter speed

Imagine Your eye as your Camera .

Light enters the eye through a small hole

called the pupil and is focused on the retina.

Eye also has a focusing lens, which focuses images

from different distances on the retina.

The colored ring of the eye, the iris, controls

the amount of light entering the eye.

It closes when light is bright and

opens when light is dim.

Ciliary muscles in ciliary body control

the focusing of lens automatically.

Image formed on the retina is transmitted

to brain by optic nerve

In similar way The aperture of camera is just like the IRIS which controls the
amount of light .
When object is brighter , the IRIS shrinks to allow lesser light to pass through and
when lighting conditions are darker , the IRIS expands to allow more light to pass
for better visibility.

Similarly Aperture is more when lighting conditions are darker and it is less when
the conditions are brighter .
aperture is defined by f numbers . More the f number lesser is the diameter of
the aperture and vice versa. So an aperture with f number 2 will be fully open
while that with f number 22 will be having a very small opening.
So in bright daylight conditions one has to set f number merely around f8 to f16
depending on light.
While in dark one can set f number as f2.4

Aperture is defined by f numbers . More the f number lesser is the diameter of
the aperture and vice versa. So an aperture with f number 2 will be fully open
while that with f number 22 will be having a very small opening.
So in bright daylight conditions one has to set f number merely around f8 to f16
depending on light. While in dark one can set f number as f2.8

Aperture also controls depth of field (DOF), which refers to how much of your
image is in focus.
A wide aperture (small #) will give a shallow DOF and can be used to isolate a

Shallow Depth of Field ( F2.8)

Wide Depth of Field (F32)

Shutter speed : ( exposure )
Consider your eyes are closed. If you are about to view a scene on a brighter sunny day / where lights are good , you open
you eye for a very short time and close it again.
In other case consider yourself standing to view something when the just sets down and there is low light around.
Comparing above two conditions you can view more details of the scene in the first case than you can observe in second
You would probably need to keep you eyes open for a longer time to see all the details of the scene.
Similar way the shutter speed controls the time for which the light falls on the sensor ultimately the amount of light
captured by the same.
Your eyelid acts as shutter for your eye .
Shutter speed / Exposure is the amount of time for which the shutter of your camera remains open to allow light to fall on
the sensor .
So one needs to keep shutter speed high ( short exposure ) when lighting conditions are brighter and has to keep low (
long exposure ) when lighting conditions are darker.
Shutter speeds are defined in terms of seconds of exposure
A shutter speed of ( 1/125 ) means that the shutter is open for 1/125 th of a second and 4 means that the shutter is
open for 4 Seconds .

Less the shutter speed , more is the amount of time the shutter is open and more is the light that is captured by sensor.

CAUTION: as you decrease shutter speed image may get blurred when camera is shaken . So a tripod is a must while you
take long exposure photography in dark. ( like night sky photography , night view photography etc. )

Here are some examples of shutter speed control for different types of


Less Shutter Speed ( 6 Exposure )


High Shutter Speed ( 1/400 Exposure)

A camera lens (also known as photographic lens or photographic objective) is an
optical lens or assembly of lenses used in conjunction with a camera body and
mechanism to make images of objects either on photographic film or on other
media capable of storing an image chemically or electronically.

Types of Lenses :
-Prime Lenses

-Zoom Lenses
-Macro Lenses

Prime Lenses:

-Standard non-zoom lenses are called

prime lenses or simply "primes".
-Their advantage, in addition to typically
giving a slightly better image quality, is that

they are smaller, lighter and

cheaper than a zoom lens of the same quality.

Zoom Lenses:
The focal length of a zoom lens is not fixed; instead it can be varied between a
specified minimum and maximum value. Zoom lenses are often described by the
ratio of their longest to shortest focal lengths.
For example, a zoom lens with focal lengths
ranging from 100 mm to 400 mm may be
described as a 4:1 or "4" zoom.
-Zooming is described in terms of focal length.
More the focal length , more is the zooming.
-Viewing an object through a lens of the
focal length of 55mm is probably same
as u see that object with your bare eyes.

-With 200 mm focal length you see the

object closer i.e. zoomed.

Macro lenses:
-Macro lenses are designed for extreme close-up work.
-Such lenses are popular for nature shooting such as small flowers, as well as for
many technical applications.

-As most of these lenses can also focus to infinity and tend to be quite sharp,
many are used as general-purpose optics.

Photography Styles :
Three Basic Types

Landscape Photography

Portrait Photography

Documentary Photography

Photography Styles
Landscape Photography :
Landscape is a photograph of the environment. It could be the forest,
mountains, oceans, or your backyard !
Here are few Examples of Landscape Photography

Photography Styles
Portrait Photography :
Portrait photography is a photo of a person or animals.

It is important to show an emotion.

Examples of Portrait Photography are ..

Photography Styles
Documentary Photography :
Documentary photography presents facts without changing anything.
Good documentary photographs make you wonder what the story is
behind the photograph.
Few Examples :

Basic In-Camera Settings

Exposure Modes
There are several modes available which offer a combination of automatic and
manual control over the three elements of exposure.
Auto, sometimes represented by an A, or simply a green square, is fully automatic
functioning. True point and shoot where the camera decides all the settings for

Basic In-Camera Settings

Fireworks - shutter speed and exposure are set for shooting fireworks;
pre-focusing & use of tripod recommended.

Landscape - take photos of wide scenes. Camera automatically focuses

on a distant object.

Macro - take close-up shots of small objects, flowers and insects. Lens
can be moved closer to the subject than in other modes. Hold the camera
steady or use a tripod.

Basic In-Camera Settings

Night Portrait - take photos of a subject against a night scene. The built-in
flash and red-eye reduction are enabled; shutter-speeds are low. Use of tripod

Night Scene - photograph nightscapes. Preprogrammed to use slow shutter

speeds. Use of tripod recommended.

Basic In-Camera Settings

Portrait - Main subject is clearly focused and the background is out of focus
(has less depth of field). Best when taking shots outside during the day. Shoot
using a mid to long telephoto lens, stand close to your subject within the
recommended camera range and, when possible, select an uncomplicated
background that is far from the subject.

Basic In-Camera Settings

The metering system within a camera measures the amount of light in a
frame and determines the best exposure. Many cameras have more than
one metering mode and each evaluates a scene in a different way.
Essentially, by changing the metering mode you are telling the camera to
evaluate the scene in a different way.

Basic In-Camera Settings

Metering Modes :
Center-weighted metering
Currently the most common digital camera metering system. Center-weighted is
the metering system of choice on digi-cams that do not offer other metering
modes. Object is focused mostly at center and gets blurred as radius increases.

Basic In-Camera Settings

Matrix (evaluative) metering
A complex metering system whereby a scene is split up into a series of
zones. Overall exposure is based on evaluating each zone individually and
taking an average of the total light readings.

Basic In-Camera Settings

Spot metering
Spot metering covers just under 4 percent of the viewfinder area. It takes a precise
exposure reading only at the very center of the frame and disregards the rest. A
spot meter is used when a subject is backlit or has bright light upon it and the
background is dark -- for example, when there are extremes in brightness in a

Basic In-Camera Settings

Partial metering
Partial metering is similar to spot metering but covers a larger area of the
viewfinder, about 13.5 percent. It is useful for taking portrait photos when the
subject is back lit Underexposure is minimized by metering on the face.
Both spot and partial metering are considered advanced settings. They give the
skilled photographer more control over exposure than do matrix and centerweighted metering.

Composition: The Rule of Thirds

Imagine the frame divided into three equal sections both horizontally and vertically

Divided into thirds

The Concept is: Placing your subject or elements along any of these lines, and
especially on or near the intersecting points, makes a photo more naturally
attractive to the viewer.

Frame is divided in 3 parts and subject ( Sailor Man / Gate way of India ) are located in one of the side parts of division.

Composition: The Rule of Thirds

The concept is simple: Place subjects along the lines, or near intersecting points
-For portraits, the eyes are often positioned along one of the horizontal lines
preferably near one of the power points to make the photograph more pleasing to
look at, and naturally draw attention to the eyes.
-For landscapes the horizon is aligned to any of the horizontal lines depending on
how much land/water/sky you want to show.

Point of View
Try selecting and unusual point of view.