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Review of Related Studies

A literature review is a survey and discussion of the literature in a given area of study. It is a
certain overview of what has been studied, argued and established about a topic and it is usually
organized chronologically or thematically.
The present study is an attempt to Compare the Computational Error Patterns of Dyscalculia
Students and Normal Students at Primary level. The investigator has gone through a number of
related studies of the problem and those are presented in this chapter.
Kamalakumary (1964) conducted a study on difficulties of standard VII in fundamental
operations with decimals and of pupils construction of a diagnostic test for the same purpose.
The study found that many of the common errors are due to the lack of masters of concept and
insufficient practice in operations with decimals.
In a study on difficulties of pupils of standard VII in addition In and subtraction in algebra,
Jacob(1965) found that many pupils had difficulty with terms having powers in addition and
also they could not distinguish between addition and multiplication with variables.
Elias (1966) studied the common errors committed by the of standard VI in fractions. The major
findings are:
1) Most of the pupils have no clear idea about addition and subtraction of fractions,
2) Pupils have not clearly understand the real meaning of multiplication
3) Division with decimals is the hardest of the four operations.

Das (1969) described the effect of remedial teaching in arithmetic. Result of the study revealed
that remedial teaching significantly improved the achievement in arithmetic.
Iype (1969) constructed a diagnostic test on the topic 'square root'. The findings are:
1) Few pupils have gone wrong in fundamental operations
2) A number of pupils con not distinguish the specific number of significant digit and decimal
3) The concept of pairing the digit in a given number is not clear to pupils.

Bryan (1974) in her pioneer study provided evidence that youngsters with learning disabilities
(when compared with their mainstream contemporaries) were less well accepted and often
socially rejected.
SIE Gujarat (1975) constructed a study on the basic skills in arithmetic computation -addition,
subtraction, multiplication and division. The major findings of the study are that the pupils do
not progress well in computation because of lack of skill in basic computation arid arithmetic
they do not know the entire process of basic skills.
In a study on the development of a battery of diagnostic test in arithmetic for the pupils studying
in standard V, VI and VII, Patel (1976) identified the pupils who are deficient in arithmetic and
their area of difficulty. He gave remedial teaching based on the analysis of errors committed.
Sarala (1976) examined a study on the difficulties of pupils in learning the concept introduced in
sets in modem mathematics for standard VII. In a study she diagnosed the difficulties, analyzed
the common errors and suggested remedial measures in learning the concept of set. The major
findings are:
1) Pupils have knowledge of almost all the concepts when compared to understanding and
2) Pupils are not given sufficient practice in reading, understanding and analyzing the problem

Fadden (1981) conducted a comparative study on the performance of learning disabled and non
-learning disabled children. The study showed that learning disabled and non -learning disabled
children are different to a statistically significant degree on the overall grade level score of the
key Mathematics test and on several subjects as well.
Ghoasg (1982) studied the scholastic backwardness in the basic in arithmetic diagnosis and
prevention with a sample of 250 students in class II of six primary schools. The study revealed
that the experimental group taught the piagetian method, achieved more than the control group
taught conventionally and that they achieved better than the control group in the past test.
Rastroy (1983) diagnosed the weakness in arithmetic skills and their remedial measures. He
found that one of the important causes of backwardness in mathematics was the poor command
over basic arithmetic skills,

Krislinakumari (1983) conducted a study titled "The Procedures Adopted and the Arithmetic
Difficulties Experienced by Pupils of Standard in Solving Verbal Problems in Arithmetic". She
found that a high percentage of pupils restated the problem in their own words and drew
diagrams if it was necessary to understand the problem. It was also found the more difficulty was
experienced by pupils in solving verbal problems then to understand the problem and meaning of
Shah (1985) studied a study on dyscalculia among first grade pupils. He used arithmetic
evaluation test to find the dyscalculia. Test was administered on 897 children and was completed
within 21 days. The study revealed that the school had no special program for finding out
academically backward children and none of the schools had a schedule of remedial teaching. It
was also found that some of the children were quite well in subject other that arithmetic and
some teachers were not qualified to teach arithmetic and had not undergone any special training
in teaching arithmetic.
Schachter et al 39 (1991) examined the prevalence of emotional problems among children with
learning disabilities. These children displayed a broad spectrum of behavioral problems.
Jayalekshmi (1994) conducted a diagnostic study on the difficulties in computation of pupils in
standard IV. She constructed a diagnostic test to find out the difficulties and identified the areas
of difficulty in computation. The findings are:
1) There is no significant difference in Mathematics learning between pupils in the sub samples
2) Attainment of pupils who get help at home for learn Mathematics is significantly better than
those who do not get at home.

Jasmine (1994) constructed a diagnostic test to find the difficulties in computation and identified
the areas of difficulty. She found that there is no significant difference between the sub samples
in learning computation. Also found that Mathematics attainment of pupils who get help at home
is better than those of who do not get any help at home.
Martina (1997) noted the importance of learning disabilities and accommodation of text books
on audio tape for college students. The result of the study showed that a better understanding of
the basic knowledge of, how accommodation of taped text book facilitated for learning.

Johnson (1997) conducted a study on social anxiety and self- esteem of learning disabled
children. In this study he used a canonical correlation procedure and found significant
relationship between self- esteem and social anxiety for children with and without learning
Stone (1998) revealed in his study that strategy instruction improved the performance of students
with learning disability in segregated settings and strategy instruction was more effective than
the controlled group.
Jyolsna (1999) studied learning difficulties committed by Xth students in certain selected topics
of Mathematics. Her study was conducted on a representative sample 500 students drawn from
Palakkad district. The major findings of the study are:

Pupils find difficulty in finding the image of a function

Pupils find difficulty in factorizing a polynomial
Pupils find difficulty in understanding the question
Pupils find difficulty in remembering the formula and applying it in relevant studies
Pupils find difficulty in doing complex calculations
Pupils find difficulty using appropriate formulas in correct places
Pupils did not consider the II in calculating answers
Pupils find difficulty in attempting the questions due to their misunderstanding
Pupils find difficulty in understanding, the meaning of the question
Pupils used the formulas incorrectly

Geetha (2001) found the effect of learning disabilities on achievements in Mathematics. This
study revealed that disability in learning. Mathematics is across all ages in all socio economic
classes and of mental retardation. Also learning disabilities can occur along with other
handicapping conditions.
Selvakumar (2004) conducted a study on the difficulty in subtraction among second standard
children. The major findings of study are:

if we provide suitable materials and activities , the level of achievement of will be

Activities based on life situation of children will improve the span of attention of children

Jacob (2004) described the effect of deficits in scientific skills on achievement in science of the
learning disabled at primary school level. The study found that there is significant difference
between learning disabled children and non -learning disabled children with respect to their

achievement in Malayalam, Mathematics, Science process skills, intelligence and achievement in

science which shows the superiority of non-disabled children.
Deepalekshmi (2006) conducted a study on diagnosis and remediation of dyscalculia among
standard V pupils. In this study diagnose the mathematical difficulties and hence remedy the
leaning difficulties in fundamental operations of Mathematics. From the disability score type of
difficulties and nature of difficulties were found out .The following are the difficulties identified

Many pupil fail to use appropriate symbols of Mathematics

Most of the pupil cannot understand the concept of the fundamental operations
Many students have difficulty in finding the place value
Majority of the students have difficulty in doing step problems especially in the case of

multiplication of numbers with more than 2 digits

5. The students find difficulty in proper arrangements of numbers while doing problems in
6. The pupils have zero difficulty
7. The pupils find difficulty in adding numbers involving 'carried over. Pupils find
difficulty in subtracting a greater number from a smaller number.
8. The pupils commit errors while subtracting numbers involving borrowing. Many
students do not know the basic rules of multiplication
9. Many pupils are not through in multiplication table.
Lekshi (2009) conducted a study on a comparative study on social competence and self-esteem
among learning disabled and normal students. In this study she found that learning disabled
children differ from normal in their level of self-esteem and learning disabled children do not
differ from normal in terms of the degree of social competence. There is no correlation between
a) age and self-esteem b) age and social competence and c) self-esteem and social competence.
Veni (2009) examined a study on differences in parenting style among learning disabled and
normal children. In her study she conducted that there will have definite differences in parenting
style among the children with and without learning disability.

Lekshmi (2009) studied on locus o control and values. : A comparative study among learning
disabled and normal children. In this study she found that learning disabled students tends to
have an external locus of control when compared to normal children. They believe that teachers
award grades based on personal feelings or that grades result from bad or good luck.

Ganga Kilas (2010) described perceived parental attitude parental acceptance and behavior
problems among children with learning disability. The result obtained in this study support that
some factors of perceived parental attitude have some influences on the problem behaviour of
children with learning disability. It is also interesting to know that maternal acceptance is
positively correlated with socio economic factors of parental attitude are negatively correlated
with socio economic status.
Deepthi (2011) found errors committed in algebra by students of standard IX. The major
findings of the study are:
i. Errors committed by students in the addition of a negative number and a positive number
revealed that many students committed errors in the rules of sign and errors in omitting sign
ii. Errors committed by students in the subtraction of a positive number and a negative number
revealed that many of the students committed errors in subtracting the given numbers and
omitting sign.
iii. Errors committed by students in the multiplication of two negative numbers and
multiplication of negative and positive numbers revealed that many students committed errors in
multiplication of given numbers committed errors in rules of sign and errors in omitting sign.

Naik Nagendra (2012) conducted a study on awareness of dyscalculia among primary school
teachers. In this study he aimed at investigating the awareness of dyscalculia among primary
school teachers and he concludes that gender, experience and specialization do not significantly
influence the awareness of dyscalculia among primary school teachers.
The study of the related work made clear that there are many learning disabilities and learning
difficulties in Mathematics. The review highlighted the need for special research in mathematical
disability,dyscalculia. Hence the investigator also made an attempt on the same.