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Abnormal Psych Review session

1) whats abnormal or nah?


- Abnormal Behavior: psychological dysfunction associated with
distress or impairment in functioning and a response that is not typical
or impairment in functioning and an atypical response
3 concepts:
-Psychological dysfunction: behaviors/ feelings that prevent
person from functioning in daily life (eg constant fear of nothing,
emotions are not properly functioning)
-Discomfort/ Distress/ impairment: cause individual of someone
else to be is upset (remember by itself does not define abnormal
beh), may not be entirely dissatisfied (eg if in elated but manic
state), being impaired by phobia
-Defiance(deviate from average): greater the deviation, more
abnormal. Violation of social norms (depends on different
cultures)
-deviation from normal (Lady Gaga) but still accepted and
considered an artist) more productive in society = more
eccentric societies accept
no universally accepted definition and hard to define normal
and abnormal
-most widely accepted definition DSM-5: behavioral,
psychological, or biological dysfunctions that are abnormal based
on culture and associated with distress/ impaired functioning or
increased risk of suffering, death, pain, or impairment
profiling based on a prototype, see how apperent disease/
disorder matched a typical prifle (depression or schizo) using
both DSM-IV and DSM-5 (difference=5 includes severity like
frequency or intensity)
2) Compare the Freudian psychodynamic perspective and the
cognitive/behavioral perspective in terms of how basic drives, motives,
and life experiences contribute to the development of
psychopathology. Discuss their basic differences. Describe how these
different perspectives rationalize the different treatment approaches
each advocates.
Freudian Psychodynamic: on devlopementt and structure of personality
- Structure of the mind: Id, Superego, Ego
-Id: basic drives, aggression, animalistic, pleasure drvine
-Ego: mediator, reality principle, rationale

- Superego: morality conscience, morality picked up though


socialization
- psychosexual stages: oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital (to
gratify basic needs/ drives
-Defense mechanism: protects so that keeps ego checked, battle
between Id and superego (eg. displacement ego decides to use
id anger at professor not good so it is expressed at sister
Denial:
Displacement: put feelings somewhere else
Projection: think someone else has your feelings
Rationalization: try to justify
Reaction Formation: turn feelings into opposite
Repression: repress the feelings
Sublimation: direct feelings to socially productive activity
-Therapy: resolve conflicts btw basic drives
Talk therapy: unearth real conflicts (free association:
patients are instructed to say whatever comes to mind,
dream analysis: analyze dream
-idea of transference, counter transference
-Believes reduction of symptoms is useless unless conflicts are
resolves
-Major criticisms? Therapy is longgggg, efficacy is limited
Behavioral Perspective: diff principles of learning, focus on
environment, focus on actions, how behavior is shaped by interactions
with environement
-Classical Conditioning (pavlov)- learning with paired
neutral(unconditioned stimulus) and response(unconditioned
response) stimulus
-Operant Conditioning (skinner): reinforcement until behavior
. rewards, reinforcements, classical and operant conditioning
-principle of learning-how beh is shaped by interactions with
environemtn
-more empirical support,
Goal of therapy: change perspective, behavior therapy
-Systematic desensitization: slowly introduced to the object of
fear (imagine or real life)
-operant conditioning
Criticisms? Time limited, here and now focused, have wide
spread empirical support

Cognitive Model: emphasis on own thoughts, cognitive


processes, beh thoughts and emotions is result of cognitions
Self-Actualization: realize own abilities and reach highest
potential (humanistic
Goal of therapy: client learn to identify thought processes

3) What purposes do defense mechanisms serve? Identify 4 different


defense mechanisms postulated by Freud. Describe 3 situations in
which you or someone you know used specific defense mechanisms in
the past month. Include the name of the defense mechanism you are
describing. What are some ways in which suppression of an emotion,
or unconscious feelings, might lead to a greater risk of developing a
psychological disorder? Provide oneeg. repression, suppression, intellectualization, denial
-does this solve the issue???
4. Choose two approaches to abnormal psychology (psychodynamic,
behavioral, cognitive, biological, sociocultural). Compare and contrast
their approaches to clinical assessment. What types of assessment
tools (e.g., projective tests, self-monitoring diaries, observation) reflect
each of the following paradigms: psychodynamic, cognitive, biological,
and behavioral?
Psychodynamic vs Biological approach
Psychodynamic: look at mind structured by id, ego, superego,
Therapy: try to reveal the unconscious mental processes and
conflict through catharsis and insight
-Free Association: patients instructed to say what ever they
have on their mind, intended to reveal emotionally charged
material that may be repressed too painful to bring out of
consciousness (psychodynamic Psychotherapy)
-Dream analysis: therapist analyze dream (reflects primary
process think of the Id, and relate dream to symbolic
aspects of unconscious conflicts (Psychodynamic
Psychotherapy)
Therapy: not personality reconstruction but relief of suffering
association

-Biological: malfunction of biochemistry or anatomical


deficiencies, diagnosis and treatment is focused on
biological causes of a disorder
Behavioral Approach: cognitive behavioral model/ social learning
model, more scientific approach to psychology, BUT model is
incomplete, relative tohow information is processed consciously and
subconsciously
-Classical Conditioning/ Operant
Classical Conditioning (pavlov)- learning with paired
neutral(unconditioned stimulus) and response(unconditioned
response) stimulus
-Operant Conditioning (skinner): reinforcement until behavior,
based on observable events and relationship, voluntary behavior
controlled by consequesnce
. rewards, reinforcements, classical and operant conditioning
-principle of learning-how beh is shaped by interactions with
environemtn
-more empirical support,
eg. Little albert being conditioned to be scared of a little white
rat (watson
Goal of therapy: change perspective, behavior therapy
-Systematic desensitization: slowly introduced to the object of
fear (imagine or real life) Joseph Wope
-operant conditioning (Shaping)-process of reinforcing successive
approximations o a final behacior or set of behaviors
2nd pt of question
-make list of assessment tools that fit witht 4 paradigms
listed?

5) Diathesis- stress model VS reciprical gene-environment model


As we approach a multideminsional integrative approach to
pschopathology in order to understand a disorder or a disease in
alternate perspectives including the behavioral, biological, social, and
cognitive approaches getting into a more scientific approach to
psychology. Using this approach scientists created a method od
interaction between the genes and evironment

Diathesis: preconceived vulnerability to certain stressors(eg biological)


and stressor more susceptible to a disorder (PG 35)
Eg study: Caspi investigate group of individuals from age 3,
noted ifthe participant had felt suicidal, depressed , and had their
genetic makeup found that a gene produced a chemical
transporter that affects the transmission of serotonin in the
brain. This shows the person has a smaller ability to cope better
if they had 2 long alleles of that gene versus short
Reciprocal: genes increase probability that you will experience a
stressful event (eg genetically vulnerable for fear blood but is accident
prone due to impulsiveness genes lead you to go to more incidents
in seeing blood, or seek out damaging relationships)
Eg.likelyhood of getting a divorce. If you and spouse have
identical twin both getting divorced chance of divorce = 77.5%,
due to inherited traits such as short temper
-more likelihood get divorced if identical twin gets divorces vs
fraternal
6) Characterize the symptoms associated with: 1) illness anxiety
disorder, 2) illness phobia, and 3) somatic symptom disorder. What role
does anxiety play in the development and maintenance of each of
these disorders? If different, how are the underlying anxiety issues
addressed in the treatment of these disorders?
1. Somatic symptoms: disorder involving extreme and long
lasting focus on multiple physical symptoms for which no
medical cause is evident, obsessive response to physical
symptoms
- severe pain which psychological factors play a major role in
maintain making the pain worst not that there isnt pain, but
psychological/ beh factors (esp anxiety and distress)
-symptoms: do experience symptoms but dr. cant find
biological cause (extreme)
DSM5: life distress, excessive thoughts, feelings, behaviors
related to somatic symptoms/ health concerns
-intervention: discover what was underlying the original
anxiety
2. Illness Anxiety: severe anxiety focus on the possibility that
symptoms may signal the development/ having of serious
disease or being sick, fear bodly sensations

-intervention: more appropriate interpretation of body


sensations
-symptoms: none or mild, but severe anxiety
both characterized by anxiety/fear that one has a serious disease.
Individual is preoccupied with bodily symptoms, disease conviction
-Essential problem is anxiety BUT they different expressions

3. illness phobia- someone getting worred they get sick (eg germ
phobia) hyperfocused on situations of objects that might get you
sick. Specific
fear and anxiety= out of proportions, go through extreme lengths
to avoid
= specific phobia, cause by stress/ fear not necessarily a
traumatic experience
Treatment: require structured and consisten exposure-based
exercise (under therapeutic supervision. Want to rewire the
brain so that a more rational appraisals replace the inhibited
emotional appraisal of danger

7) Discuss the evidence for a biological basis of anxiety disorders (Be


sure to provide at least 3 separate pieces ofevidence). Does
Generalized Anxiety Disorder differ from any of the other anxiety
disorders in terms of its biological features, if so in what ways?
Anxiety disorder: gerneralized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and
agoraphobia, specified, negative mood state with physical tension,
apprehension about future
-seems to be a generalized biological vulnerability
-muscle tension people with GAD, chronically tense,
brain based system, physical manifestation, genetic
component
According to the multdimentional model of abnormal behavior
there are many intertwined concepts that result to a disorder or a
disease. From a biological perspective, there is increasing
evidence that we inherit the tendency to be uptight, tense, and
anxious. It is the collection of genes in several areas of the

chromosone. Diathesis Stress model, not only need


predisposition, need stressor to turn on these genes.
Neuroscience perspective, anxiety is associated with specific
brain curcuits and neurotransmitter. Example=
neurotransmitters(GABA), reduced levels are said to be
assoaciate with excessive anxiety. Also the corticotropin
releasing factor(CRF) central to expressing anxiety and genes
that increase chance this system turns on. This system also
influences the emtotional aspect of anxiety disorders (the limbic
systerm) with is connected to the behavioral inhibition system
(BIS) which is a brain circuit in the limbic system that once
activated by the signals from the brains from unexpected events,
the fight or flight of the sympathetic nervous system of the PNS
is activated. The fight flight sympathetic nervous system is
primarily responsible for mobilizing the body during times of
stress or danger by rapidly activating the organs and glands
under its control relating to the physical component again to the
biological approach.
GAD vs Anxiety
Anxiety = future oriented mood focused on potential threat
GAD: characterized by generalized, persistent feeling fo anxiety, no
specific thing that causes it, focus on minor everyday events
-stimulus: eg spider snake vs fear of the world
time orientation: at least 6 months
-biological differences: people inherit a generalized biological
vulnerability to be tense and a sense that things in life are
uncontrollable and potentially dangerous, significant stressintense
worry = physiological changes GAD
people with GAD dont respond as strong to stressor that other
anxiety because panic is more prominent in the other disorders ,
GAD show less responsiveness on most physiological measures
than other anxiety disorders, chronically tense.
8) Describe how the triple vulnerability theories for Specific Phobias,
Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Social Phobia, Panic and Major
Depressive Disorders are similar to one another. Describe how the
Triple Vulnerability Model also differs across these disorders. Be sure to
provide clear examples of the vulnerabilities included in your
response .
triple vulnerability= theory of the development of anxiety

-3 components
1. Generalized Biological vulnerability (diathesis)
-vulnerability not enough to produce disorder, anxiety, panic
(pg 133)
-eg. (imagined potential danger, not actually happened,
havent experienced it)
panic disorder-tendency to be uptight might be inhereited
depression- genetic vulnerability, might be inherited (twin
study maybe?)
2. Generalized psychological: perspective how you see worlduncontrollable, unpredicatable (eg helicopter parents, child
inability to cope situations, how people interpret situations)
-if strong enough have generalized psychological vulnerability
to anxiety
-has to do with confidence/ self esteem inability to copelead to belief that the world is dangerous
eg: depression: grow belief youre not good enough
3. Specific psychological vulnerability: indv experience, and
how they are interpreted, belief that physical sensations are
dangerous
-early learning creates association that cerain situations/
objects are dangerous
-phobias
-eg. parent experience fear of dog child assoc dog with
danger child fears dog
GAD: has generalized biological vulnerability to be tense, and
develop sense world is uncontrollable (generalized
psychological vulnerability)stressintense worry +
physiological (muscle tension) changes lead to development
of GAD
Panic Disorder: generalized vulnerability to stress, situation become
assoc with cues of panic attack (eg increase heart rate= panic attack?
Psychological vulnerability if anxiety develops over future panic attacks
(interpreting normal physical sensation in the worst ways). People with
panic disorder are often associated with agoraphobia which is the fear
of a situation and wanting to escape. This applies to panic disorders
because people with panic disorders fear of having another panic
attack so they want to be in a safe place. Particular situations quickly
become associated in an individuals mind with external and internal
cues that were present during the panic attack (Bouton et al., 2001).

The next time the persons heart rate increases during exercise, she
might assume she is having a panic attack (conditioning). So
exercising would be the conditioned stimulus for future panic attacks
specific phobia: generalized biological vulnerability (tendency
to assoc fear with situation and low threshold for specific
defensive reactions, specific psychological vulnerability (view
object as dangerous), generalized psychological vulnerability
(become anxious focused on future contact with phobic object)
specific phobia
Social Phobia (fear/anxiety about social situations expose
person to possible scrutiny)- 1)general biological vulnerability to
develop anxiety/ socially inhibited, general psych vulnerability
believing the world is uncontrollable . 2) stress panic attack
conditioned to panic in those situations 3) experience real social
trauma --- anxiety conditioned to those social situations
PTSD: surrounds a traumatic event- generalize bio/psycho
vulnerabilities, higher the vulnerability high chance get PTSD.
Eg twin study if one has PTSD mono more likely have than
dizygotic
9) Describe the similarities and differences between the somatic
symptom and related disorders. Is it possible to distinguish conversion
disorder from malingering? Provide an example of how this might be
accomplished. On what basis would you classify fictitious disorder
imposed on another (Munchausen Syndrome by proxy) as child abuse
rather than as a factitious symptom disorder? Defend your response.
Somatoform disorders: person is preoccupied by bodily symptoms/
health worries, to extreme degree that causes clinical distress/
impairment
- Somatic symptoms: disorder involving extreme and long lasting focus
on multiple physical symptoms for which no medical cause is evident,
obsessive response to physical symptoms.
-Severe pain which psychological factors play a major role in
maintain making the pain worst not that there isnt pain, but
psychological/ beh factors (esp anxiety and distress)
-symptoms: do experience symptoms but dr. cant find biological
cause (extreme)

DSM5: life distress, excessive thoughts, feelings, behaviors


related to somatic symptoms/ health concerns
-intervention: discover what was underlying the original anxiety
- Illness Anxiety: severe anxiety focus on the possibility that symptoms
may signal the development/ having of serious disease or being sick,
fear bodly sensations
-symptoms: none or mild, but severe anxiety
-intervention: more appropriate interpretation of body sensations
Both characterized by anxiety/fear that one has a serious
disease. Individual is preoccupied with bodily symptoms, disease
conviction. Essential problem is anxiety BUT they different
expressions
-Psychological factors affecting medical condition: the presence of a
diagnosed medical condition (eg asthma) is poorly affected by
psychological/ behavioral factors
-ex anxiety bad enough to worsen asthma, or diabetes avoiding
treatment/ denial clear neglect (behavioral /psychological factor)
-Conversion Disorder: has to do with physical malfunctioning (eg
paralysis, blindness) without any physical or organic pathology to
account for the malfunction, suggest that there is a neurological
disease affected the sensory motor system
Conversion VS Malingering (faking)
injury.

Conversion symptoms more stressfulstress leads to physical


even though difficult to find cause since cause is their
personal stress related. In conversion unaware of ability to
function normally
Can be linked to brain activity being the cause but it is not
clear
difficult to tell whether malingering or conversion however
once you tell they are faking, their motivation is clear

-Facticious Disorder: falls between conversion and malingering,


symptoms are under voluntary control (like malingering) but the
difference is that no obvious reason maybe to assume the sick role or
even. Emotional mental aspect, not clear theyre faking more calm

eg mostly mothers purposely make daughter sick Munchausen


syndrome by proxy
IS IT ABUSE! YES despite being an atypical form of abuse and may not
always have a direct psychological process of harming the child, parent
resorting to extremes so that the parent has personal gains, faking
caring after the childs well being is obviously only for personal gains.
Like in malingering where there is an obvious lack of illness and
purpose, munchausen sydrome by proxy presents a more sneaky
version of faking to reap some benefits. A typical child abuse consists
of the child being the direct object of frustration however in this case,
the child is vessel in which the mother can gain attention she desires
(frustration and anger not the direct cause)

10) It is said that almost all individuals with mood disorders are also
anxious, but not all those with anxiety disorders show depressed
symptoms. What features do the Mood Disorders share with Anxiety
Disorders? Describe the characteristics that distinguish these two
classes of disorders. How do these two groups differ in their etiology?
Their treatment?
-Mood disorder: characterized by gross deviations in mood
-Anxiety: future oriented mood focused on potential threat
Similarities: similar heritability traits, there is a close relationship
among depression, anxiety, and panic eg family study show that more
signs of anxiety and depression, greater rate in relatives. Eg general
biological vulnerability tendency to develop not actually have. Both can
be described as an overactive neurobiological response to stress.
Difference: state of mind is different. Anxiety is excessive fears,
worries, and nervousness. mood gross deviations of moods. mood
disorder has a general negative perception vs threat perception of
anxiety disorders HOWEVER they both have this general sense of being
unable to cope with events. Mood disorder
Anxiety has GAD, Phobias, and Panic Attacks. Mood disorders are
depression and bipolar disorders. GAD suffer from chronic non-specific
fear and worry over daily activities. Phobias in comparison are rooted
in a trigger and panic attacks is in someway similar to phobia in that
there is a specific trigger that is conditioned to a specific physiological
and psychological fear, people Particular situations quickly become
associated in an individuals mind with external and internal cues that
were present during the panic attack. This physical cues becomes a

conditioned stimulus for future panic attacks. Mood disorders consists


of MDD (1+ major depressive episodes)
Treatment:
GAD-drugs and psychological. Drugs most common benzodiazepine but
has negative side effects, only short term relief, and reliance.
Psychology = cognitive behavioral treatment have the patients have a
better coping mechanism by patient processing the threat and control
the worry process. Panic-drugs and psychology-benzodiazepines,
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) Prozac, and serotoninnorepinephrine reuptake inhibiors (SNRIs). SSRIs most common for
panic disorders but benzodaizapine works but addictive psychologically
and physically. Psychological-reduce agoraphobic avoidance, exposure
based treatment and anxiety reducing coping. Exposure based
excercises also apply to phobias. Shows that there is not much to fear,
fear and anxiety misproportioned and exaggerated disprove danger.
Mood disorders: antidepressants such as SSRI similar to panic
disorders, lithium carbonate which can be a mood regulator . Serotonin
regulator since low serotonin levels cause neurotrasmitters to have a
wider range which leads to mood irregularities. Therapy includes
cognitive behavioral therapy which helps with analyzing your own
thoughts and being able to distinguish irregular depressive thought
processes (same as in anxiety, to reduce fear, reanalyze situation)
-deifferencs in features: general negative perception cs threat
perception, anxiety is fenerally arousing (depression is low arousal)

11) Identify 3 dissociative disorders. Describe the characteristics


associated with the dissociative identity disorder (DID). What objective
biological evidence is there supportive of the existence of DID? Why
has the existence of DID been disputed by some clinicians?
Dissociative disorders: state of detachemt from self/surroundings,
depersonalization (perception altered where you lose sense of your
own reality/ like being an observer of body) and derealization (where
your sense of reality of the external world is lost
1. Depersonalization dissociative disorder: persistent experiences
of depersonalization and/or derealization, distressing. Show some
cognitive defit of attention, info processing, short term memory, and
spatial reasoning. Tunnel vision. Show greatly reduced emotional
responding compared with other groups

2. Dissociative Amnesia: unable to remember anything, including


who they are, what they said (generalized amnesia). More common =
selective amnesia which is the failure to recall specific events, usually
traumatic events.
Subtype= dissociative fugue (memory loss revolves around
a specific incident-unexpected trip-finding yourself in a random place-)
because they left an intolerable situation
3. Dissociative Indentity Disorder: adopt as many as 100 new
identities( avg 15 identities. Eg can have 3 different identities/alters.
Can includes amnesia (dissociative amnesia)
-faking is possible! But people with DID are highly suggestive,
can alter in response to questions from therapist. EG. study by Spanos,
Weeks and Bertrand experiment where college students simulate an
alter if suggested that faking was possible (all told they were accused
murderers wanting innocence) more than 80% show alternate
personality to avoid conviction. Those not given suggestions less likely
to use this defense. In DID, people with it are highly suggestible so
that is a therapist is not careful, can create false memories. But
possibility of faking because ability to memorize is the same with
different personalities despite deemed memory loss. There is also the
study that show that people with fragmeneted identies are not
consciously and voluntarily simulating (eg 3 faces of Eve) showing that
1 personality shows difference in joined lateral eye movement that
wasnt present in other personalities . This was confirmed by S.D miller
(these physiological changes would be difficult to fake).
Bianche (murderer): learned from friends/ family no
alternate personalities before, different personalities often
score differently on personality tests, found psych books in
room, and faked hypnosis

12) Identify the major components of the central nervous system (CNS)
and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Describe the major
structures and functions that these components serve. Name 3 of the
major neurotransmitters found in the CNS and/or the ANS. What
neurotransmitters and hormones have been thought to be involved in
the development of anxiety disorders, the mood disorders? How do the
pharmacological therapies work to treat these disorders?
CNS: brain, spinal chord- processes information received from sense
organs and creates a proper reaction
Spinal chord: facilitate sending messages to and from the brain

-these messages are transported using through neurons using


neurotransmitters
Brain: brain stem and forebrain.
Brain stem: Hind brain regulates many autonomic activities
such as breathing , heart rate and digestion as well as motor
coordidination, midbrain which coordinates movement with
sensory input. There is also the thalamus and hypothalamus
which are involved with regulating behavior and emotion.
The forebrain which consists of the limbic sysem which helps
regulate emotional experiences and expressions. Then there is
the largest part which is the cerebral cortex which provides us
with human qualities allowing us to look into the future plan
create and reason. Then there is the frontal lobe (a pretty
prominent part in psychopsychology, it has to do with decision
making, thinking, reason, future planning, and long term
memory this section enables us to behave like social animals
PNS: corrdinates the brain stem to make sure the body is working
properly somatic autonomic sympathetic, Autonomic
Somatic: controls voluntary muscles
Autonomic: control involuntary heart rate, digestion, and
endocrine system( pituitary, adrenal, thyroid, and gonadal
glands). Endocrine system communicates with the body used
hormones and the bloodstream. The pituitary is the master gland
that produces a variety of regulatory homrones, adrenal gland
produces epinephrine(adrenaline) in response to stress, the
thyroid gland produces thyroxine which helps energy metabolism
and growth.
sympathetic and parasympathetic
-sympathetic: fight or flight emergency stress emotional
situations (heart raite increase, decrease digestion, increase
breathing. The endocrine systerm works in harmony with the
sympathetic system in that when there are situation that alert
the body during stress and danger, heart beat fast, increase
blood flow and activation of the adrenal gland releasing
epinephrine mobilized the person in action
-parasympathetic: rest and relax (nonstressful), balance
sympathetic, if it has been active for a while
Neurotransmitters: Norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, GABA, and
glutamate. Shows that excesses or insufficiencies in some

neurotransmitters are associated with different froups of psychological


disorders (eg, reduced levels of GABA though to be associate with
excessive anxiety)
GABA and Glutamatethey work together to balance functioning in
the brain considered chemical brother.
-Glutamate: turns on many different neurons, but too much in action
can cause you to burn out, example

-GABA (gamma aminicutyric acid)- regulating neurotransmitter that


inhibits the transmission of information and action potential. Best
known to reduce anxiety. Reduces levels of anger, hostility,
aggression. Therefore this plays a large role in anxiety and mood
disorders. Benzodiazipine is an example of a drug that would allow
GABA molecules to be able to attach itself to neuron receptors so that
more GABA is accepted calmer and tempers our emotional
responses.
-Seratonin: has a widespread influence and believe to influence a great
of our behavior such as moods and thought processes. Low levels
associated with instability and impulsivity, not a direct cause but
makes you more vulnerable
-Norepinephrine: part of the endocrine system, this system regulate
certain behavioral tendencies, and may have some relation to states of
panic
-litheum: bi polare
benzode
depression SSRI
Depression: seratonin, dopamine
13) Models perspectives
14) negative reinforcement: make something morelikely to occur by
removing a stimulus (eg drug abuse, take drugs to remove bad
feelings, feel pressure in bladder, pee to remove feeling)
-anxiety relation (ex person with crazy spider phobia, running =
temporary escape to rid of anxiety
-biological prepardeness (eg seeing snake) things are dangerous

15) Depressive Cognitive triad : negative cognitions avout the self, the
world, and the futurepersons vulnerability
-eg talk about individau with high risk depression, how they think
about themselves, the world, and their future (arbitrary inferency,
overgeneralization, all or nothing thinking, disqualifying the positive
16) Bipolar:
Major depressive disorder:
Persistent depressive disorder:
17) 3 examples of a disorder that appear to be more exaggerated
forms of usual behavior
-anxiety: adaptive fear (help people do better for test)
-bipolar1: normative mood cycles
- wide variety of options
18) culture factors- 3 examples present culturally specific symptoms
China- suffer from premature ejaculation etc
19) anxiety and mood disorder
-think about differences btw disorder, what evidence can you find
differentiating between anxiety and mood disorder
-how people with different disorders function socially
similar to #10
20) brief intergrative explanation brief integrative explanation that
involves genetic, biological, psychological and social processes (at
least two) that best explains the greater prevalence of anxiety and
mood disorders among women relative to men.
Greater anxiety among women compared to men
-first define gender differes ( woemen greater risk experiencing
depression
-cite evidence
women and rumination(overthinkng thoughts a lot)
-go in indec of textbook look at gender

21. The Somatic Symptom & Related Disorders are believed to share
some common characteristics with the Dissociative Disorders. What
biological and/or psychological mechanisms might be operating in both
these classes of disorders that lead clinicians & researchers to believe
these disorders may be related. (Hint: What characteristics do SSDs &
DDs share? Recall hypnosis video shown in class.)
22)
- write a list of the symptoms