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TITLE: Vaccination program in a resource-limited setting: A case study in the

AUTHOR: Anne Ceria, Nina Isabelle Tolentino
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: Implementing national-level vaccination programs
involves long-term investment, which can be a significant financial burden, particularly
in resource-limited settings. Although many studies have assessed the economic impacts
of providing vaccinations, evidence on the positive and negative implications of human
resources for health (HRH) is still lacking. Therefore, this study aims to estimate the
HRH impact of introducing pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) using a model-based
economic evaluation.
SAMPLE POPULATION: The target population for universal coverage of the PCV
vaccination was set at 2,200,000 eligible infants below the age of one year based on 2013
data obtained from the Philippine Statistics Authority.
METHODOLOGY: This study adapted a Markov model from a prior study that was
conducted in the Philippines for assessing the cost-effectiveness of 10-valent and 13valent PCV compared to no vaccination. The Markov model was used for estimating the
number of cases of pneumococcal-related diseases, categorized by policy options. HRHrelated parameters were obtained from document reviews and interviews using the
quantity, task, and productivity model (QTP model).
RESULTS: The number of full-time equivalent (FTE) of general practitioners, nurses,
and midwives increases significantly if the universal vaccine coverage policy is
implemented. A universal coverage of PCV13 - which is considered to be the best value
for money compared to other vaccination strategies - requires an additional 380 FTEs for
general practitioners, 602 FTEs for nurses, and 205 FTEs for midwives; it can reduce the
number of FTEs for medical social workers, paediatricians, infectious disease specialists,
neurologists, anaesthesiologists, radiologists, ultrasonologists, medical technologists,
radiologic technologists, and pharmacists
NURSING IMPLICATIONS: This study examines an approach for estimating HRH
impact alongside economic evaluation studies on PCV vaccination policy in the
Philippines. It illustrates the importance of HRH impact estimations to inform policy
decisions in resource-limited settings; this is to ensure that comprehensive evidence was
used to formulate policy choice for decision makers. The study informs the reduction of
specialized healthcare professionals for treatment of pneumococcal-related diseases vis-avis the increase of HRH requirement among GPs, nurses, and midwives as a result of

implementing a PCV vaccination program. The authors conclude that the HRH impact
should be estimated to inform priority setting for a vaccination program.
PERSONAL REACTIONS: Vaccination program must be implemented in the
Philippines because most of the countries had implemented their own vaccination
program. However for a third world country like the Philippines, our government is not
ready for it. They have to consider the finances, relevance, impact and implementation of
such health policy. The government should pursue the vaccination program despite the
financial burden as it is worth investing.


TITLE: Dengue Knowledge and Preventive Practices among Rural Residents in Samar
Province, Philippines
AUTHOR: Begonia C. Yboa, Leodoro J. Labrague
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: The present study aimed to evaluate the knowledge
and practices regarding dengue infections among rural residents in Samar Province,
SAMPLE POPULATION: Data were collected over a period of three (3) months from
September to February, 2012. A convenience sample of six hundred forty six (646)
residents aged 18 years or above who were visiting the rural health units in different
municipalities of Samar, Philippines were all provided the opportunity to be respondents
in the investigation.
METHODOLOGY: To gather data, the investigators utilized the questionnaires
developed by Shuaib et al with modifications. Questions were based on causes, signs and
symptoms of dengue, transmission modes, attitude towards dengue; and dengue
preventive practices covering 25 items, with possible responses of yes and no. Yes is
given a value of 1 point, and no with 0 points; the maximum possible score is 10. The
higher the score, the greater the assumed knowledge about dengue and dengue prevention
the respondent has. Result of test was interpreted as follows; 21 25 as Excellent
Knowledge, 16 20 as Good Knowledge, 11 15 as Moderate Knowledge, 6 10
as Fair Knowledge, and 0 5 as Poor Knowledge.
Part II of the questionnaire was used to evaluate the dengue prevention practices. There
are 12 indicators with a scale of 04 points: 0 = never, 1 = seldom, 2 = sometimes, 3 =
usually, and 4 = always, giving a score range of 048. In determining the extent of
practice, the following scaling was used; for Very Great Extent = 4.51-5.00, Great Extent
= 3.51-4.50, Moderately Extent = 2.51-3.50, Limited Extent = 1.51-2.50, and Not at all =
1.00-1.50. The higher the mean score, the better that person carries out the dengue
prevention practices.
The questionnaire was validated for its reliability resulting in statistical value of 0.90
(Cronbachs alpha). The questionnaire was drafted in a structured format and was pilot
tested before distributed to the respondents enrolled in this investigation. Refinement and
modifications were done on the basis of pretest results. Furthermore, questionnaires were
validated through expert validation by five experts in the field of infectious diseases. The
questionnaires were handed out by the investigators at the site personally, and collected
on the spot once they have been completed individually and anonymously by the

RESULTS: A total of six hundred forty six (646) respondents were recruited to
participate in the investigation consisting of 319 (49.38%) male and 327 (50.62%)
female. Majority of the respondents belongd to the age group of 18 to 23 years old (n =
394, 60.99%) and not married (n = 458, 70.89%). As to education, about half of the
respondents were college undergraduate (n = 331, 51.24%) and have a family monthly
income of less than $ 125/month (n = 447, 69.19%).
NURSING IMPLICATIONS: Extensive community educational campaigns that
emphasize reducing vector breeding sites as an effective way of dengue prevention. This
recommendation is supported by various researches showing that community education
can be more effective in reducing dengue vector breeding sites than chemicals alone.
PERSONAL REACTIONS: My personal reaction about this journal is that, we as
health care provider must give attention on how we can help our community to develop
and give them knowledge about their surroundings to maintain cleanliness and ideas
about dengue. This shows that not all people are well educated on how to manage the
situation. We must teach them to prevent the continuous spreading of the problem in their


TITLE: Is My Drinking a Problem? A Community-based Alcohol Intervention
Programme post-Haiyan in Tacloban City
AUTHOR: Adam Edward Czaicki, Gloria Fabrigas, Allison Gocotanoa and Julie Lyn
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: To determine whether there were alcohol-related
problems among the disaster survivors and to strengthen the appropriate local health
service support in Tacloban City.
SAMPLE POPULATION: Respondents were from 39 of the 138 villages in Tacloban
City. 239 respondents are from three urban sites located near the city centre: the Mayor
Alfred Social Action Health Service Unit (MASA), Sagkahan Health Center and
Tacloban City Hall.
METHODOLOGY: Two tools for the assessment: (1) the CAGE questionnaire, which is
a screening tool with four yes/no questions; 16 and (2) the Alcohol Use Disorders
Identification Test (AUDIT), a more sensitive tool for measuring alcohol dependence and
harmful drinking patterns which comprises 10 questions and was recommended in
mhGAP.17 A score of 7 and above on the AUDIT tool was considered indicative of
harmful alcohol use requiring some intervention.
RESULTS: The CAGE assessment of 239 people resulted in 31%, 56% and 13% of
respondents being rated as having a low, medium or high risk of alcohol problems,
respectively From the AUDIT, 22% (26 of 117) of respondents, six females and 20 males
(8% and 47%, respectively), had a high risk and required some alcohol intervention
(Table 1). Respondents were from 39 of the 138 villages in Tacloban City and were more
likely to be members of the urban poor with little or no access to alcohol intervention
services within their practical means.
The assessment of the knowledge and skills of local health staff regarding alcohol
and safe and effective treatment options showed that they did not know how to approach
a patient with suspicion of alcohol problems, and had no knowledge on the use of
screening tools or on the relationship of alcohol to mental health. Overall, there was poor
baseline knowledge by health staff on effective and safe treatment methods, which they
attributed to the fact that such services were not provided.
NURSING IMPLICATIONS: Chronic Alcoholism may lead to different diseases
related to liver and may also cause resistance with anaesthesia with this higher doses of
anesthesia is needed. The mentioned situations are just some of the complications that
may develop with chronic alcoholism. This intervention will really help health care
providers on how they were be able to do a discharge teaching regarding alcohol intake.

Though at about 30ml of alcohol will help in our cardiac system for good perfusion but a
higher intake may cause complications therefore front line health care providers such as
nurses needs to be properly educated with alcoholism and at the same time nurses must
also possess skills on how they will give support system to people who suffers chronic
alcoholism due to depression and use alcohol as coping mechanism.
PERSONAL REACTIONS: Chronic Alcoholism may lead to different diseases related
to liver and may also cause resistance with anesthesia with this higher doses of anesthesia
is needed. The mentioned situations are just some of the complications that may develop
with chronic alcoholism. This intervention will really help health care providers on how
they were be able to do a discharge teaching regarding alcohol intake. Though at about
30ml of alcohol will help in our cardiac system for good perfusion but a higher intake
may cause complications therefore front line health care providers such as nurses needs
to be properly educated with alcoholism and at the same time nurses must also possess
skills on how they will give support system to people who suffers chronic alcoholism due
to depression and use alcohol as coping mechanism.


TITLE: Incidence & Risk Factor of Childhood Pneumonia-Like Episodic in Biliran
Island, Philippines- A Community-Based Study
AUTHOR: Hisato Kosai,Raita Tamaki,Mayuko Saito,Kentaro Tohma,Portia Parian
Alday,Alvin Gue Tan,Marianette Tawat Inobaya,Akira Suzuki,Taro Kamigaki,Soccoro
Lupisan,Veronica Tallo,Hitoshi Oshitani
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: This study was designed to estimate the incidence
rate and mortality of childhood pneumonia-like episodes and to evaluate the association
between pneumonia-like episodes incidence and risk factors such as the socioeconomic
status (SES) and travel time from the household to the healthcare facilities.
SAMPLE POPULATION: Caregivers were interviewed using a semi-structured
questionnaire to check if children had symptoms suggesting pneumonia-like episodes
from June 2011 to May 2012. Of 3,327 households visited in total, 3,302 (99.2%) agreed
to participate, and 5,249 children less than 5 years of age were included in the study.
METHODOLOGY: A retrospective survey was conducted in Biliran Province in the
Eastern Visayas region of the Philippines. The seven municipalities included Naval
(number of barangays: 26), Caibiran (17), Biliran (11), Cabucgayan (13), Kawayan (20),
Culaba (17), and Almeria (13). The target population was children less than 6 years of
age. The population was estimated to be about 22,600 assuming that 14% of the total
population of Biliran Island (161,760) belonged to this age category. Cluster sampling
was applied to select households. A semi-structured questionnaire regarding demographic
background, SES, and past medical history including recalled pneumonia-like episodes of
under five children during June 2011 to May 2012 was used for the household survey.
The questionnaire was translated into the local languages Cebuano and Waray-waray.
Trained local interviewers who were native speakers of these languages
conducted the interview. If a child experienced a pneumonia-like episode from June 1,
2011 to May 31, 2012, further questions regarding the episode were asked. Cost distance
analysis was performed to estimate the travel time from each house to RHU or BPH by
calculating the least accumulative cost-path across the smallest units of the map (raster)
with data of the estimated base cost. The incidences of pneumonia-like, severe
pneumonia-like and pneumonia-like-associated mortality were calculated per 1,000
RESULTS: The number of children who did not experience any pneumonia-like episode
during the survey period was 4,843 (92.3%), and 406 (7.7%) children experienced
pneumonia-like episodes once or more. Among 406 children, 474 pneumonia-like
episodes had occurred, and 274 (57.8%) of pneumonia-like episodes were severe. The

incidence rate of pneumonia-like episodes was 105 per 1,000 person-years and that of
severe pneumonia-like episodes was 61 per 1,000 person-years. The estimated annual
number of pneumonia-like episodes in the entire Biliran Island was 1,976. Among seven
municipalities, Caibiran had the highest incidence rate of pneumonia-like episodes (140
per 1,000 person-years) and Culaba had the lowest (69 per 1,000 person-years). Among
406 children who experienced pneumonia-like episodes, 355 (87.4%) experienced one
pneumonia-like episode, 45 (11.1%) experienced two episodes, and 6 (1.5%) experienced
more than two episodes. Difficulty in breathing, cough and the inability to drink, and
chest indrawing were observed in 461, 144, and 207 children, respectively. Incidence
rates by age groups varied between municipalities. More than half the pneumonia-like
episodes (53.8%, 255/474) occurred in children aged <2 years. The risk factors are a
preterm birth, a history of asthma diagnosis, drinking natural water or water from the
well, and a longer travel time to the closest medical facility yielded significant
associations with the occurrence of pneumonia-like episodes. Children of an older age
having a household member with salaried employment, and having a washing machine
were less likely to have experienced pneumonia-like episodes. With regard to severe
pneumonia-like episodes, lower SES, a history of asthma, and drinking natural water or
water from the well were significant risk factors. In multivariate analysis, children with
an older age and who had a water-sealed toilet had a significantly reduced risk of
experiencing severe pneumonia-like episodes. Factors, including parental smoking, the
number of siblings, and the type of cooking fuel, were not significantly associated with
the occurrence pneumonia-like episodes.
NURSING IMPLICATIONS: Pneumonia is a leading cause of deaths in infants and
young children in developing countries, including the Philippines. A preterm birth, a
history of asthma diagnosis, drinking natural water or water from the well, and travel
time was identified as a strong indicator for health-seeking behavior. Improved access to
healthcare facilities is important for early and effective management.
PERSONAL REACTIONS: Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of mortality
in our country and it affects younger children. As a student nurse, I understand
that some individual doesnt have any knowledge about this disease. We should
inform them about the risk factors that can affect any individual to prevent
morbidity and mortality.


TITLE: Condom Negotiations among Female Sex Workers in the Philippines:
Environmental Influences
AUTHOR: Lianne A. Urada,* Donald E. Morisky, Nymia Pimentel-Simbulan, Jay G.
Silverman,4 andSteffanie A. Strathdee
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: This study assesses environmental and individual
factors associated with condom negotiation among FSWs at high risk for acquiring HIV
in a large urban setting of Metro Manila, Philippines.

aged 18 and over, from 54 randomly
sampled venues were interviewed in this cross-sectional study. The study identified
venues in the community with workers registered at the two largest Social Hygiene
Clinics in the city site within Metro Manila. From a list of venues at each clinic, we
categorized them according to three types (bar/night club/disco, karaoke bar, and
spa/sauna), and proportionally sampled them according to size (number of workers) to
obtain a closely matched sample between clinics. From 498 entertainers, 173 reported
trading sex in the previous six months, and 155 had complete data on the condom
negotiation outcome variable (those with not applicable, don't know, or no answers
were dropped). In the final regression model, 142 had complete data and were included in
the analysis.
METHODOLOGY: Female bar/spa workers (N=498),

aged 18 and over, underwent
interview-led surveys examining their sexual health practices in the context of their risk
environments. Data were collected from April 2009-January 2010 from 54 venues.
Multiple logistic regressions were conducted to assess socio-behavioral factors (e.g., age,
education, length of time employed as an entertainer, and alcohol/drug use) and sociostructural factors (e.g., venue-level peer/manager support, condom rule/availability, and
sex trafficking) associated with condom negotiation, adjusting for individuals nested
within venues.
RESULTS: Of 142 FSWs who traded sex in the previous 6 months (included in the
analysis), 24% did not typically negotiate condom use with venue patrons. Factors in the
physical environment - trafficked/coerced into work (AOR=12.92,

95% CI=3.3449.90),

economic environment - sex without a condom to make more money (AOR=1.52,

CI 1.012.30), policy environment - sex without a condom because none was available

95% CI=1.494.48),

and individual risk - substance use (AOR=2.36,


were independently associated with FSWs' lack of condom negotiation
with venue patrons.

NURSING IMPLICATIONS: As the global sex industry expands, condom non-use

among female sex workers (FSWs) remains an important target for HIV/STI prevention.
Many studies focus only on individual-level constructs, which assumes the FSW has
control over her environment and is the main person responsible for behavior change. As
a student nurses, it gives us information that we might use and give or share to those
women that lack of information of using condom when having sex to prevent or avoid
such as HIV, gonorrhea, AIDs, etc. This article is made not only for us nurses but also to
all the health care providers.
PERSONAL REACTIONS: As a student nurse, using condom is not a 99.9% sure to
use to prevent particular diseases but using condom is a one way I know to prevent those
diseases. Having such knowledge about this helps us to gain more information that we
health care providers might use in our daily life. We can use this by telling the patients
the risk factors that they might acquire in order to prevent mortality.


SOURCE OF THE ARTICLE: Agriculture 2016, 6, 18;
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: The objective of this study is to examine the
knowledge, attitudes, and practices concerning leptospirosis among agricultural and nonagricultural workers in the lakeshore communities of Calamba and Los Banos, Laguna,
SAMPLE POPULATION: The sample population selected involved the random
selection of 10 lakeshore barangays (the smallest administrative division in the
Philippines, and is the Filipino term for village or ward) along the Laguna bay. The
selected barangays consisted of 15,052 households located near the lake and classified as
agricultural and fisheries zones. The effective sample size involved 152 agricultural
workers and 115 non-agricultural workers in the lakeshore communities of Calamba and
Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines.
METHODOLOGY: A questionnaire was developed based on previous KAP studies





The first part of the questionnaire focused on the socio-demographic characteristics of the
respondents. The second part measured the respondents prevailing knowledge of the
causative organism and transmission, signs and symptoms, and prevention. It consisted of
10 questions designed to solicit True/ False/ Unknown responses. A score of 1 was given
for each correct answer, while incorrect answers and I dont know responses were
scored 0. The third part of the questionnaire evaluated respondents attitudes toward
leptospirosis while the final part assessed respondents leptospirosis prevention practices.
RESULTS: The total mean attitude score (80.89%) of all respondents was higher than
their total mean knowledge (68.50%) and practice (61.28%) scores. The results imply that
a highly positive attitude toward ones ability to control the disease is not sufficient alone
to transform behavioral practices. Positive attitude should be complemented with
knowledge to enhance the ability of individuals to integrate prevention measures into
NURSING IMPLICATIONS: The study found significant difference on the
leptospirosis practice score between agricultural and non-agricultural workers.
Agricultural workers scored lower than non-agricultural workers on items related to the
use of protective and safety measures, as well as rat control measures.

This study suggests that public health officials may be able to take advantage of the
highly positive attitude among respondents as a good indication of a welcoming
disposition towards health intervention initiatives. It was also found that respondents
scored low on questions related to signs and symptoms of leptospirosis.
PERSONAL REACTIONS: This article give me the knowledge about how important
we should address this gap, considering that poor knowledge of the signs and symptoms
of the disease has serious implications for an individuals help-seeking behaviors, thereby
delaying early detection and treatment of the disease. By this article, it told me about the
importance of health teaching because the understanding of individual knowledge of the
disease and health behavior plays an important role in leptospirosis disease prevention,
and improving occupational health and safety. As a student nurse, this article challenge
me to help the other people who do not have a formal education or people who had
primary education only.


TITLE: Evaluating active roles of community health workers in accelerating universal
access to health services for malaria in Palawan, the Philippines
AUTHOR: Emilie Louise Akiko Matsumoto-Takahashi and Shigeyuki Kano
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: This study was conducted to measure or evaluate the
performance of Community health workers and their healthcare services for Malaria in
Palawan, Philippines. This may also serve as a basis to enhance the roles of CHWs in
other settings. In order to accelerate the interventions to prevent or reduce malaria in
Palawan, this community-based malaria control program must be standardized.
SAMPLE POPULATION: Palawan is the most malaria-endemic province in the
Philippines.18 of the 23 legislated municipalities and the capital city of Puerto Princesa
are considered to be malarious. The island is mostly covered by tropical rainforests,
which limit the residents access to affordable healthcare facilities. In 2010, the
population of Palawan was 1,025,800. The residents lived in 367 villages in 23
municipalities. In general, they mainly collected data and trends about malaria from the
whole province of Palawan.
METHODOLOGY: The method they used in this article is mainly through Data
Collection and reviewing related literary studies. Available epidemiological data of

malaria morbidity and mortality in Palawan were collected in the Provincial

Health Office of Palawan and KLM main office in Puerto Princesa City,
Palawan, Philippines. Aside from that, they gathered and reviewed related articles
in PubMed which had been published since the earliest date up to December 2015.
RESULTS: From the data gathered, they figured out ways to eliminate Malaria in
Palawan such as teaching the people in recognizing signs and symptoms of malaria but
this alone might not be sufficient enough to combat the disease. The present study
proposed a new strategy to enhance activities by microscopists to raise malaria awareness
in their respective communities. These activities are expected to strengthen the preventive
measures implemented by the residents and to drive more people to seek appropriate
treatment. Consequently, this new strategy could accelerate the efforts to eliminate
malaria in the province of Palawan, the Philippines.
NURSING IMPLICATIONS: As student nurses this study will be helpful for us in case
we are bound to face such community struggles in the future. If ever malaria became
widespread to other geographical area we could follow the measures conducted in this
study. We could take note on how to prevent or eliminate this particular type of disease.
This is also useful not only to us nurses but also to other healthcare providers such as
doctors in order for us to provide holistic care for our patients.

PERSONAL REACTIONS: I enjoyed studying and reading this journal and I think it
provided enough information about the topic. I learned a lot about malaria and how
endemic it is in Palawan. Though when it comes to the interventions mentioned, they
should provide more details about it because i think its not that specific and therapeutic.
Overall I think they did a great job in accomplishing the study.


TITLE: Implementing Electronic Health Information Systems in Local Community
Settings: Examining Individual and Organisational change experiences in the Philippines
AUTHOR: Shainur Premji, Ann Casebeer and Richard E Scott University of Calgary,
AB, Canada
SOURCE OF THE ARTICLE: Implementing Electronic Health Information Systems in
Local Community Settings: Examining Individual and Organisational change experiences
in the Philippines. (n.d.). Retrieved August 23, 2016, from
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: In this research paper, the researchers would like
examine the implementation of an electronic health information system called the
Community Health Information Tracking System (CHITS) in health centers in the
SAMPLE POPULATION: Focus group sessions were held at two CHITS and one nonCHITS health center, the latter selected to be socially, culturally and economically
METHODOLOGY: Two models - Prochaska and Velicers Transtheoretical Model for
Health Behaviour Change and Greenwood and Hinings Organisational Change
Management Model - were the methods researchers used to examine the transition from a
paper to electronic environment and to assess processes and outcomes at the individual
and organisational levels.
RESULTS: The research result shows that both models sufficiently described the change
management processes that occurred for health center workers and health centers during
implementation. However, neither model was established to focus well on system and
government level action and inaction. The researchers use of these frameworks was
therefore unable to fully encapsulate the multiple organisational and political layers of
change required in a highly decentralized environment; the health center as an
organizational entity was, and remains, highly dependent on decisions made by local
governmental units decision and policy-makers at this level must undergo their own
change management processes in order for the adoption of CHITS to proceed.
NURSING IMPLICATIONS: The Electronic Health Information Systems is a
documentation tool that yields data useful in enhancing patient safety, evaluating care
quality, maximizing efficiency, and measuring staffing needs. On the other hand, Poor
EHIS system design and improper use can cause EHIS-related errors that jeopardize the
integrity of the information in the EHR, leading to errors that endanger patient safety or
decrease the quality of care. This is a major advancement of technology in the hospital
care setting that could improve the delivery of proper care or could unlawfully harm a
patient. Nurses are the biggest users of the EHIS and are responsible for a large portion of
the documentation that addresses quality measures, safety measures and the overall

clinical picture of the patient. Nurses are the ones that have frequent contact with the
patient. And by this advancement in technology, nurses should be up-to-date and should
be trained on how to use the EHIS. Proper training of the nurses could lead to the
patients safety and satisfaction. We now live in the world that being able to monitor
patients from a distance, either just down the hall in a healthcare institution or across the
country in their home, will become more and more important as the population ages.
PERSONAL REACTIONS: As a student nurse, I felt happy about the journal. By this
means, we nurses in the future should be competent enough and ready to take on the
changes of the world. This advancement in the technology can not only help the patients,
but it can help the nurses also. Firstly because it could lessen the workload, it saves time
of the nurse in documenting and gives more time in rendering bedside care to the
patients. Second, it reduces the chance of redundancy of the data. And with proper
knowledge and training, it could minimize the errors that could be made. That is why; I
am more motivated to improve myself as a student nurse to become a great registered
nurse someday and to be able to provide the nursing care that the patient deserves.


TITLE: Level of Acceptability of Roles and Performance of Barangay Health Workers in
the Delivery of Basic Health Services.
AUTHOR: Rosario B. Quitevis
OJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: The study is conducted to determine the level of
acceptability of the Barangay Health Workers in their roles and performances in the
delivery of basic health services.
SAMPLE POPULATION: The 46, 005 residents from 39 barangay of Vigan City,
Ilocos Sur comprised the population of the study.

The number of the community

residents- respondents per barangay was taken by using Slovins formula. The sample
size was 1087. All the 245 BHW of Vigan City is included in the study.
METHODOLOGY: The researcher used a structured questionnaire check-list based
from the Population Center Foundation brochure on Health Researcher Distribution
Program Standards and Program Implementation (1990) as the instrument in gathering
the data. The content of the questionnaire were validated by the knowledgeable health
The data gathering tool is consist of two sets for both BHW and
community respondents. For BHW, the Part 1 is for Socio-demographic Profile (age, sex,
civil status, educational attainment, occupation, monthly family income, family size,
years in service, training programs attended, awards and incentives received. The Part 2
is the level of acceptability of their roles. For community respondents, the part 1 is
collecting the demographic data (age, sex, civil status, educational attainment,
occupation, monthly family income and family size). The part 2 is gathering the data
about the performance of BHW as perceived b the respondents.
The BHWs level of role acceptability and Community respondents
perceived performance of the BHW are measured by Likert scale.
RESULTS: The Overall acceptability of the BHWs roles in the delivery of basic health
services as perceived by them was high. The BHWs level acceptability of their role
leader, as teacher and service provider in the delivery of basic health services were
assessed as High by them.
The community respondents assessed the level of the BHWs performance in the
delivery of basic health services as High. The BHWs performance along promotive
and preventive care, case finding activities and curative services were assessed as High.
They performed so well along promotive and preventive care.

NURSING IMPLICATION: The implication of this study in the nursing field is for us
to understand that we as health care provider must accept what are our roles in the health
care system because we collaborate with other health care provider. Our role acceptance
reflects on how we do our performance in the area. If we dont know or accept our roles
we might harm the patients that we handle.
PERSONAL REACTION: As for me, it is really important to determine the level of
acceptability in ones role. Because an individual who cant accept their role or who dont
know what their role is cant function well in the area. Being a Barangay Health worker is
a very tough job because they are not just handling 1 or 2 patients, they are handling the
whole community. From being a leader to being a service provider it has a lot of works to
do. And if they are not functional n the area, the whole community that they are handling
may be at risk of inquiring some community acquired illness.