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All building needs water supply system and al water supply system
contains information on the design, installation and maintenance of
individual home sewage treatment system. It is meant to be homeowner
references document. An individual sewage system both treats and
disposes of household wastewater. If a homeowner understands how the
various components of a home sewage system work, then a property
designed and installed system will function for many years with a
minimum of maintenance and upkeep.
Home wastewater enter the septic tank, which separates solids from
liquids. Solids are held in the septic tank and liquid are conveyed to the
final soil treatment site. The septic tank is a bioreactor where
microorganisms break down organic matter in the wastewater to liquids,
gases and solids. Gases are vented off through the houses vent stack.
Solids are composed of both scum and sludge. Scum is lighter than
water and sink to the bottom of the tank. Bacteria feed on the wastes
and the fraction that cant be decomposed is sludge. Sludge
accumulates in the bottom of the septic tank and must be removed
The five parts of a sewage disposal system are the house plumbing,
the sewer line from house to septic tank, the septic tank outlet sewer
pipe and the final soil treatment unit. In some countries, a permit is
required before constructing a new home sewage treatment system or
when repairing an existing system.


Pumping out the septic tank is required to remove the sludge and
scum that accumulates. How often its pumped is determined by the tank
size and how many people live in the home.
Septic tank have been used for on site waste water treatment. A
septic tank can have single or multiple compartments. Single and two
compartment septic tank generally are used with individual home
sewage treatment systems. Household wastewater enters the septic
tank through the house discharge sewer pipe.
After passing through the inlet baffle, the solids separate from the
liquid as the sewage flows slowly through the septic tank. Some solids
settle to the bottom of the tank and others float in the scum layer at the
top. Bacterial action partially decompose the solids.
All household wastewater must go to the septic tank. Household
wastewater sometimes is referred to as black water or grey water,
depending on which appliance or fixture it came from. No matter the
source, do not let water and other similar wastes bypass the septic tank.


Access to septic tank is required for inspection and periodic cleaning.

One manhole at least 15 inches in diameter must be on the top of the
tank. The manhole should have a concrete cover with an earth covering
of at least 6 inches, but not more than 12 inches.
If the top of the tank is more than 12 inches below ground level,
extensions must be attached to the top of the top of the tank to bring the
cover within 12 inches of the ground surface. In high water table areas,
the extensions and cover must be water tight. If the manhole access is
at ground level, it should have locking bracket or be chained shut with


There are several advantages of combined system which is first is

protecting the water table. The water table has to be maintained, and a
damaged septic tank is a quick way to contaminate it. Secondly, it is
economical. This pipe is easier to install because there are not many
parts to install. Furthermore, fitting supply with water from the cistern.
This prevented from causing pollution of the drinking water by back
siphon age. Next, the advantages of this system is low demand on the
water main. It because this system have its own restore of water. This
pipe always have a temporary back up of stored water in the event of a
mains failure. Finally, large capacity cistern are provides. The capacity of
water will be reserve during interruption of supply.

There are several disadvantages of combined system which is first

is maintenance. The maintenance is high so that the problem that occurs
on pipe will effect the whole pipe. Besides, greater chance of the
growing harmful bacteria. Indirect water system have its own storage
and doesnt 100% clean. If the water being preserved for the long time,
the bacteria can growth and causes the water. Furthermore, an increase
risk of frost damage. This is due to the more expensive to install due to
the bigger installation of pipe work. Next, the disadvantages of this
system is cant deal with large demand of water. The pipe cant deal with
too much load of water or the system will break and cause lot of
problems. Finally, high demand on the water main. It because this
system doesnt not have own restore of water.