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Through Problems

R.J. Garde

Pro Vice-chancellor

Indira Gandhi National Open University

New Delhi, India

(Formerly, Professor of Hydraulic Engineering

University of Roorkee

Roorkee, India)

New York

Chichester

Brisbane

Toronto

Singapore

Contents

Preface

I.

v

Properties of Fluids

1.1

Introduction /

1.2

Mass Density, Specific Weight, Specific Volume,

Relative Density, Pressure 2

1.3

Viscosity 2

1.4

Bulk Modulus of Elasticity 4

1.5

Gas Laws 4

1.6

Surface Tension and Capillarity 5

1.7

Flow Regimes 6

Illustrative Examples 7

Problems 75

Descriptive Questions 18

2.1

Velocity 21

2.2

Types of Flow 22

2.3

Stream Lines, Path Lines, Streak Lines 22

2.4

Continuity Equation 22

2.5

Acceleration 23

2.6

Rotation, Vorticity, Circulation 24

2.7

Velocity Potential and Stream Function 26

2.8

Flow-Net 27

2.9

Relaxation Method for Drawing Flow-net 28

Illustrative Examples 29

Problems 46

Descriptive Questions 53

III. Equations of Motion and Energy Theorem

3.1

Equations of Motion 57

21

57

viii Contents

3.2

Stream Line 58

3.3

Physical Meaning of Terms in Eq. (3.4. a) and

Applications 59

3.4

Energy Equation with Heat Transfer 60

Illustrative Examples 60

Problems 78

Descriptive Questions 82

IV. Fluid Statics

4.1

Fluid Pressure 85

4.2

Pressure Variation in Static Compressible Fluid 85

4.3

Manometers 86

4.4

Forces on Immersed Plane Surfaces 87

4.5

Total Force on Immersed Curved Surfaces 88

4.6

Floating Bodies 89

4.7

Stability of Floating and Submerged Bodies 89

4.8

Fluid Mass Subjected to Uniform Acceleration 91

4.9

Stresses in Pipes Due to Internal Pressure 92

Illustrative Examples 92

Problems 118

Descriptive Questions 129

85

5.1

Introduction 131

5.2

Pressure Distribution in Irrotational Flow 131

5.3

Hydraulic Grade Line and Total Energy Line 132

5.4

Cavitation 132

5.5

Flow Through Small and Large Orifices 132

5.6

Flow Through Mouthpieces 134

5.7

Two and Three Dimensional Orifices and Flow

Measuring Devices in Pipes 755

5.8

Weirs 137

5.9

Flow Under a Sluice Gate 141

Illustrative Examples 142

Problems 161

Descriptive Questions 167

131

6.1

Linear Momentum Equation 169

6.2

Momentum Correction Factor 170

6.3

Applications 171

6.4

Angular Momentum 171

6.5

Applications of Energy and Momentum

Equations 172

169

Contents ix

Illustrative Examples 172

Problems 200

Descriptive Questions 210

VII. Dimensional Analysis and Similitude

7.1

Dimensional Analysis 212

7.2

Buckingham's Theorem 212

7.3

Variables in Fluid Mechanics 212

7.4

Procedures of Dimensional Analysis 214

7.5

Similitude 214

7.6

Important Dimensionless Parameters 215

7.7

Model Scales 216

Illustrative Examples 217

Problems 239

Descriptive Questions 245

VIII. Laminar Flow

8.1

Introduction 249

8.2

Navier-Stokes' Equations 249

8.3

Hagen-Poiseuille's Equation for Laminar Flow in

Pipes 251

8.4

Stokes' Law for Fall Velocity 252

8.5

Darcy'sLaw 254

8.6

Fluidization 254

8.7

Viscometers 255

8.8

Lubrication Mechanics 255

8.9

Transition from Laminar to Turbulent Flow 255

Illustrative Examples 256

Problems 282

Descriptive Questions 288

212

249

291

9.1

Introduction 291

9.2

Boundary Layer Definitions and Characteristics 292

9.3

Laminar Boundary Layer 293

9.4

Turbulent Boundary Layer 294

9.5

Hydrodynamically Smooth and Rough Surfaces 296

9.6

Application of Momentum Equation 296

9.7

Establishment of Flow in Pipes 297

9.8

Separation and Its Control 298

Illustrative Examples 299

Problems 318

Descriptive Questions 321

X. Turbulent Flow

10.1 Characteristics of Turbulent Flow 324

324

Contents

10.2

10.3

10.4

Velocity Distribution in Turbulent Flow 327

Friction Factor Variation in Smooth and Rough

Pipes 328

10.5

Friction Factors for Commercial Pipes 330

10.6

Noncircular Conduits 332

10.7 Aging of Pipes 332

Illustrative Examples 332

Problems 350

Descriptive Questions 353

11.1

Introduction 355

11.2

Sudden Expansions and Diffusers 355

11.3 Contractions and Contracting Transitions

11.4

Flow in Pipe Bends 358

11.5

Loss Coefficients for Pipe Fittings 360

11.6

Equivalent Length of Pipe 361

11.7

Siphons 361

11.8 Pipe Flow Problems 362

11.9 Parallel Pipes 363

11.10 Branching Pipes 364

11.11 Pipe Net-Works 366

Illustrative Examples 367

Problems 394

Descriptive Questions 403

XII. Forces

12.1

12.2

12.3

12.4

355

357

on Immersed Bodies

Introduction 407

Deformation Drag, Friction Drag, Form Drag

Variation of CD with Re 409

Effects of Free Surface and Compressibility on

Drag 415

12.5

Lift 417

Illustrative Examples 420

Problems 439

Descriptive Questions 444

407

408

13.1

Some Definitions 447

13.2

Steady Uniform Flow 447

13.3 Most Efficient Channel Section 450

13.4

Specific Energy and Specific Force 450

13.5 Brink Depth, Broad Crested Weirs, Contracting

Transitions 451

447

Contents xi

13.6 Hydraulic Jump 455

13.7 Flow in a Bend 456

13.8 Gradually Varied Flow 457

13.9 Surges and Gravity Waves 459

Illustrative Examples 461

Problems 507

Descriptive Questions 5i7

XIV. Compressible Flow

520

14.1 Effects of Compressibility 520

14.2 Perfect Gas Relationships 520

14.3 Internal Energy, Entropy and Enthalpy 521

14.4 Propagation of Elastic Wave and Flow Classification 522

14.5 Equations of Motion for One Dimensional Steady

Compressible Flows 523

14.6 Normal Shock Waves 524

14.7 Stagnation Pressure in Compressible Fluids 525

14.8 Flow through Nozzles, Orifices, Venturimeters 525

Illustrative Examples 527

Problems 541

Descriptive Questions 544

XV. Pumps

15.1 Introduction 547

15.2 Pump Classification 547

15.3 Reciprocating Pumps 548

15.4 Air Vessels 550

15.5 Rotodynamic Pumps 551

15.6 Velocity Diagram 554

15.7 Specified Speed 555

15.8 Pump Intakes and Sumps 556

15-9 Miscellaneous 556

Illustr-attve-Examples 557

Problems 575

Descriptive Questions 579

XVI. Turbines

16.1 Introduction 581

16.2 Impulse Turbines: Pelton Wheel 581

16.3 Reaction Turbines 584

16.4 Francis Turbine 586

16.5 Kaplan Turbine 588

16.6 Selection of Turbines 590

Illustrative Examples 590

Problems 606

Descriptive Questions 610

547

581

xii Contents

XVII. Unsteady Flows

612

17.1 Types of Unsteady Flows 612

17.2 Equation of Motion 612

17.2 Propagation of Pressure Wave, Water Hammer 613

17.4 Surges in Open Channels 616

17.5 Oscillations in U-Tube and Surge Tanks 676

17.6 Non-Periodic Flows 618

Illustrative Examples 619

Problems 635

Descriptive Questions 638

APPENDIX

A. Properties of Some Common Fluids at 20C and

Atmospheric Pressure 640

APPBNDIX B. Properties of Water at Different Temperatures 641

APPENDIX C. Properties of Air at Different Temperatures and at

Atmospheric Pressure 643

APPENDIX D. Properties of Common Gases at 273.16 K. and at

Atmospheric Pressure 644

APPENDIX E. Properties of Standard Atmosphere 645

APPENDIX F. Properties of Areas 646

Notations 649

Greek Notations 654

APPENDIX

Index

655

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