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# Fluid Mechanics

Through Problems

R.J. Garde
Pro Vice-chancellor
Indira Gandhi National Open University
New Delhi, India
(Formerly, Professor of Hydraulic Engineering
University of Roorkee
Roorkee, India)

## JOHN WILEY & SONS

New York

Chichester

Brisbane

Toronto

Singapore

Contents
Preface
I.

v
Properties of Fluids
1.1
Introduction /
1.2
Mass Density, Specific Weight, Specific Volume,
Relative Density, Pressure 2
1.3
Viscosity 2
1.4
Bulk Modulus of Elasticity 4
1.5
Gas Laws 4
1.6
Surface Tension and Capillarity 5
1.7
Flow Regimes 6
Illustrative Examples 7
Problems 75
Descriptive Questions 18

## II. Kinematics of Fluid Flow

2.1
Velocity 21
2.2
Types of Flow 22
2.3
Stream Lines, Path Lines, Streak Lines 22
2.4
Continuity Equation 22
2.5
Acceleration 23
2.6
Rotation, Vorticity, Circulation 24
2.7
Velocity Potential and Stream Function 26
2.8
Flow-Net 27
2.9
Relaxation Method for Drawing Flow-net 28
Illustrative Examples 29
Problems 46
Descriptive Questions 53
III. Equations of Motion and Energy Theorem
3.1
Equations of Motion 57

21

57

viii Contents
3.2

## Integration of Euler's Equation of Motion Along a

Stream Line 58
3.3
Physical Meaning of Terms in Eq. (3.4. a) and
Applications 59
3.4
Energy Equation with Heat Transfer 60
Illustrative Examples 60
Problems 78
Descriptive Questions 82
IV. Fluid Statics
4.1
Fluid Pressure 85
4.2
Pressure Variation in Static Compressible Fluid 85
4.3
Manometers 86
4.4
Forces on Immersed Plane Surfaces 87
4.5
Total Force on Immersed Curved Surfaces 88
4.6
Floating Bodies 89
4.7
Stability of Floating and Submerged Bodies 89
4.8
Fluid Mass Subjected to Uniform Acceleration 91
4.9
Stresses in Pipes Due to Internal Pressure 92
Illustrative Examples 92
Problems 118
Descriptive Questions 129

85

## V. Applications of Bernoulli's Equation

5.1
Introduction 131
5.2
Pressure Distribution in Irrotational Flow 131
5.3
Hydraulic Grade Line and Total Energy Line 132
5.4
Cavitation 132
5.5
Flow Through Small and Large Orifices 132
5.6
Flow Through Mouthpieces 134
5.7
Two and Three Dimensional Orifices and Flow
Measuring Devices in Pipes 755
5.8
Weirs 137
5.9
Flow Under a Sluice Gate 141
Illustrative Examples 142
Problems 161
Descriptive Questions 167

131

## VI. Momentum Equation and Its Applications

6.1
Linear Momentum Equation 169
6.2
Momentum Correction Factor 170
6.3
Applications 171
6.4
Angular Momentum 171
6.5
Applications of Energy and Momentum
Equations 172

169

Contents ix
Illustrative Examples 172
Problems 200
Descriptive Questions 210
VII. Dimensional Analysis and Similitude
7.1
Dimensional Analysis 212
7.2
Buckingham's Theorem 212
7.3
Variables in Fluid Mechanics 212
7.4
Procedures of Dimensional Analysis 214
7.5
Similitude 214
7.6
Important Dimensionless Parameters 215
7.7
Model Scales 216
Illustrative Examples 217
Problems 239
Descriptive Questions 245
VIII. Laminar Flow
8.1
Introduction 249
8.2
Navier-Stokes' Equations 249
8.3
Hagen-Poiseuille's Equation for Laminar Flow in
Pipes 251
8.4
Stokes' Law for Fall Velocity 252
8.5
Darcy'sLaw 254
8.6
Fluidization 254
8.7
Viscometers 255
8.8
Lubrication Mechanics 255
8.9
Transition from Laminar to Turbulent Flow 255
Illustrative Examples 256
Problems 282
Descriptive Questions 288

212

249

## IX. Boundary Layer Theory

291
9.1
Introduction 291
9.2
Boundary Layer Definitions and Characteristics 292
9.3
Laminar Boundary Layer 293
9.4
Turbulent Boundary Layer 294
9.5
Hydrodynamically Smooth and Rough Surfaces 296
9.6
Application of Momentum Equation 296
9.7
Establishment of Flow in Pipes 297
9.8
Separation and Its Control 298
Illustrative Examples 299
Problems 318
Descriptive Questions 321
X. Turbulent Flow
10.1 Characteristics of Turbulent Flow 324

324

Contents
10.2
10.3
10.4

## Turbulent Shear 326

Velocity Distribution in Turbulent Flow 327
Friction Factor Variation in Smooth and Rough
Pipes 328
10.5
Friction Factors for Commercial Pipes 330
10.6
Noncircular Conduits 332
10.7 Aging of Pipes 332
Illustrative Examples 332
Problems 350
Descriptive Questions 353

## XI. Problems in Pipe Flow

11.1
Introduction 355
11.2
Sudden Expansions and Diffusers 355
11.3 Contractions and Contracting Transitions
11.4
Flow in Pipe Bends 358
11.5
Loss Coefficients for Pipe Fittings 360
11.6
Equivalent Length of Pipe 361
11.7
Siphons 361
11.8 Pipe Flow Problems 362
11.9 Parallel Pipes 363
11.10 Branching Pipes 364
11.11 Pipe Net-Works 366
Illustrative Examples 367
Problems 394
Descriptive Questions 403
XII. Forces
12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4

355

357

on Immersed Bodies
Introduction 407
Deformation Drag, Friction Drag, Form Drag
Variation of CD with Re 409
Effects of Free Surface and Compressibility on
Drag 415
12.5
Lift 417
Illustrative Examples 420
Problems 439
Descriptive Questions 444

407
408

## XIII. Open Channel Flow

13.1
Some Definitions 447
13.2
13.3 Most Efficient Channel Section 450
13.4
Specific Energy and Specific Force 450
13.5 Brink Depth, Broad Crested Weirs, Contracting
Transitions 451

447

Contents xi
13.6 Hydraulic Jump 455
13.7 Flow in a Bend 456
13.9 Surges and Gravity Waves 459
Illustrative Examples 461
Problems 507
Descriptive Questions 5i7
XIV. Compressible Flow
520
14.1 Effects of Compressibility 520
14.2 Perfect Gas Relationships 520
14.3 Internal Energy, Entropy and Enthalpy 521
14.4 Propagation of Elastic Wave and Flow Classification 522
14.5 Equations of Motion for One Dimensional Steady
Compressible Flows 523
14.6 Normal Shock Waves 524
14.7 Stagnation Pressure in Compressible Fluids 525
14.8 Flow through Nozzles, Orifices, Venturimeters 525
Illustrative Examples 527
Problems 541
Descriptive Questions 544
XV. Pumps
15.1 Introduction 547
15.2 Pump Classification 547
15.3 Reciprocating Pumps 548
15.4 Air Vessels 550
15.5 Rotodynamic Pumps 551
15.6 Velocity Diagram 554
15.7 Specified Speed 555
15.8 Pump Intakes and Sumps 556
15-9 Miscellaneous 556
Illustr-attve-Examples 557
Problems 575
Descriptive Questions 579
XVI. Turbines
16.1 Introduction 581
16.2 Impulse Turbines: Pelton Wheel 581
16.3 Reaction Turbines 584
16.4 Francis Turbine 586
16.5 Kaplan Turbine 588
16.6 Selection of Turbines 590
Illustrative Examples 590
Problems 606
Descriptive Questions 610

547

581

xii Contents
612
17.1 Types of Unsteady Flows 612
17.2 Equation of Motion 612
17.2 Propagation of Pressure Wave, Water Hammer 613
17.4 Surges in Open Channels 616
17.5 Oscillations in U-Tube and Surge Tanks 676
17.6 Non-Periodic Flows 618
Illustrative Examples 619
Problems 635
Descriptive Questions 638
APPENDIX
A. Properties of Some Common Fluids at 20C and
Atmospheric Pressure 640
APPBNDIX B. Properties of Water at Different Temperatures 641
APPENDIX C. Properties of Air at Different Temperatures and at
Atmospheric Pressure 643
APPENDIX D. Properties of Common Gases at 273.16 K. and at
Atmospheric Pressure 644
APPENDIX E. Properties of Standard Atmosphere 645
APPENDIX F. Properties of Areas 646
Notations 649
Greek Notations 654
APPENDIX

Index

655